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Duce

Duce is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux "leader", a cognate of duke. National Fascist Party leader Benito Mussolini was identified by Fascists as Il Duce of the movement since the birth of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in 1919. In 1925 it became a reference to the dictatorial position of Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce del Fascismo e Fondatore dell'Impero. Mussolini held this title together with that of President of the Council of Ministers: this was the constitutional position which entitled him to rule Italy on behalf of the King of Italy. Founder of the Empire was added for the exclusive use by Mussolini in recognition of his founding of an official legal entity of the Italian Empire on behalf of the King in 1936 following Italy's victory in the Second Italo-Ethiopian War; the position was held by Mussolini until 1943, when he was removed from office by the King and the position of "Duce" was dismantled, while Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba was appointed Presidente del Consiglio.

This position was the model which other fascist leaders adopted, such as the position of Führer by Adolf Hitler and Caudillo by Francisco Franco. In September 1943, Mussolini styled himself as the "Duce of the Italian Social Republic", held the position until the collapse of the Italian Social Republic and his death in April 1945; the title was used outside its traditional noble sense in some of the publications praising Garibaldi during the Italian unification in 1860, though not taken up by Garibaldi himself.'Duce Supremo' was more formally used by Victor Emmanuel III in 1915, during World War I, referring to his role as the commander in chief of the armed forces. The term was used by Gabriele d'Annunzio as dictator of the self-proclaimed Italian Regency of Carnaro in 1920, most by the Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini. Mussolini's socialist supporters began to call him Duce during the 1910s, when he was the prominent editor-in-chief of Avanti!. Because the title'Il Duce' has become associated with Fascism, it is no longer in common use other than in reference to him.

Because of modern anti-fascist sentiment, Italian speakers in general now use other words for leader including the English loanword. However, the term duce survives as an antonomasia for Benito Mussolini. Mussolini intended that the Grand Council of Fascism would choose a successor from a list of three men chosen by him, submit the name for approval by the king; as of 1940 he may have been preparing his son-in-law Galeazzo Ciano for the role. Mussolini became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and merged the two titles in 1925 as Capo del Governo, Duce del Fascismo. During this period, Mussolini was head of the Italian Social Republic Caudillo Conducător Doge Führer Poglavnik Roman dictator Tenno Strongman Supreme Leader The dictionary definition of duce at Wiktionary

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville

Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville was a geographer and cartographer who improved the standards of map-making. His maps of ancient geography, characterized by careful, accurate work and based on original research, are valuable, he noted doubtful information as such. His passion for geographical research displayed itself from early years: at age of twelve he was amusing himself by drawing maps for Latin authors, his friendship with the antiquarian, Abbé Longuerue aided his studies. His first serious map, that of Ancient Greece, was published. At the age of twenty-two, he was appointed one the king's geographers, began to attract the attention of first authorities. D'Anville's studies embraced everything of geographical nature in the world's literature, as far as he could muster it: for this purpose, he not only searched ancient and modern historians and narrators of every description, but poets and philosophers. One of his cherished subjects was to reform geography by putting an end to the blind copying of older maps, by testing the accepted positions of places through a rigorous examination of all the descriptive authority, by excluding from cartography every name inadequately supported.

Vast spaces, which had before been bordered with countries and cities, were thus reduced to a blank. D'Anville was at first employed in the humbler task of illustrating by maps the works of different travellers, such as Marchais, Labat and du Halde. For the history of China by the last-named writer he was employed to make an atlas, published separately at the Hague in 1737. Information for the maps of China came from land surveys made by the Chinese empire in 1708, his China maps have been called the "standard Western source for the geography of China and adjacent regions," throughout the 19th century. In 1735 and 1736 brought out two treatises on the figure of the earth. D'Anville's historical method was more successful in his 1743 map of Italy, which first indicated numerous errors in the mapping of that country and was accompanied by a valuable mémoir, showing in full the sources of the design. A trigonometrical survey which Benedict XIV soon after had made in the papal states strikingly confirmed the French geographer's results.

In his years d'Anville did yeoman service for ancient and medieval geography, accomplishing something like a revolution in the former. His last employment consisted in arranging his collection of maps and geographical materials, it was the most extensive in Europe, had been purchased by the king, however, left him the use of it during his life. This task performed, he sank into a total imbecility both of mind and body, which continued for two years, till his death in January 1782. In 1754, at the age of fifty-seven, he became a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, whose transactions he enriched with many papers. In 1775 he received the only place in the Académie des Sciences, allotted to geography; the crater Anville on the Moon is named after him, as was the community of Vermont. D'Anville's published memoirs and dissertations amounted to 78, his maps to 211. A complete edition of his works was announced in 1806 by de Manne in 6 vols. quarto, but only two had appeared when the editor died in 1832.

See Bon-Joseph Dacier, Éloge de d'Anville. Besides the separate works noticed above, d'Anville's maps executed for Rollin's Histoire ancienne and Histoire romaine, his Traité des mesures anciennes et modernes, deserve special notice. Pere J. B. du Halde with maps by d'Anville, "Description geographique de la Chine", 1735. "Nouvel Atlas de la Chine", 1737. "Atlas General", circa 1740. "Geographie Ancienne et Abregee", 1769. Taton, Juliette. "Anville, Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon D'". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 175–176. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 157–158. University of Virginia biography

List of parks in Yerevan

This is a list of the principal parks of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. Tumanyan Park Buenos Aires Park Vahagn Davtyan Park Nor Arabkir Park Yerevan Botanical Garden Avan Park Family Park Davtashen Park Lyon Park Liberators' Park Victory Park David Anhaght Park Paruyr Sevak Garden English Park Children's Park Yerevan Children's railway Tsitsernakaberd Park Circular Park Khachatur Abovyan Park Lovers' Park Martiros Saryan Garden Komitas Garden Moscow Garden Shahumyan Garden Missak Manouchian Garden Cafesjian Sculpture Garden Patriotic War Memorial Park Youth Park Vahan Zatikyan Park Malatia Garden Maternity Park Love and Faith Park Yuri Bakhshyan Park Italian Park Chinar Garden Yerablur Park and Pantheon Nork Gardens Yerevan Zoo Fridtjof Nansen Park Tatul Krpeyan Park Vaspurakan Park Tigranes the Great Park Suren Nazaryan Garden Nubarashen Central Park Nubar Nubarian Park Komitas Park Artur Karapetyan Park Movses Gorgisyan Park Shoghakat Park