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Duchy of Modena and Reggio

The Duchy of Modena and Reggio was a small northwestern Italian state that existed from 1452 to 1859, with a break during the Napoleonic Wars when Emperor Napoleon I reorganized the states and republics of renaissance-era Italy under the domination of his French Empire. It was ruled from 1814 by the noble House of Austria-Este. In 1452 Emperor Frederick III offered the duchy to Borso d'Este, whose family had ruled the city of Modena and nearby Reggio Emilia for centuries. Borso in 1450 had succeeded his brother as margrave in the adjacent Papal Duchy of Ferrara, where he received the ducal title in 1471; the Este lands on the southern border of the Holy Roman Empire with the Papal States formed a stabilizing buffer state in the interest of both. The first Este dukes ruled well and the city achieved an economic and cultural peak: Borso's successor Duke Ercole I had the city of Modena rebuilt according to plans designed by Biagio Rossetti, his successors were patrons of artists like Titian and Ludovico Ariosto.

In the War of the League of Cambrai from 1508, troops from Modena fought in Papal service against the Republic of Venice. Upon the death of Duke Alfonso II in 1597, the ducal line became extinct; the Este lands were bequested to Alfonso's cousin Cesare d'Este. Cesare could retain Reggio as Imperial fiefs. In the 1628 War of the Mantuan Succession, the dukes of Modena sided with Habsburg Spain and in turn received the town of Correggio from the hands of Emperor Ferdinand II. During the War of the Spanish Succession, Duke Rinaldo was ousted by French troops under Louis Joseph de Bourbon, he could not return until 1707. In 1711 the small Duchy of Mirandola was absorbed by the Este, his successor Francesco III backed France in the 1740 War of the Austrian Succession, was expelled by Habsburg forces, but his duchy was restored by the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1796 Modena was again occupied by a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte, who deposed Duke Ercole III and created the Cispadane Republic out of his territory.

By the 1801 Treaty of Lunéville, the last Este Duke was compensated with the Breisgau region of the former Further Austrian territories in southwestern Germany, died in 1803. Following his death, the ducal title was inherited by his son-in-law, the Habsburg-Lorraine archduke Ferdinand of Austria, an uncle of Emperor Francis II. With the dissolution of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1814, following the final fall of Emperor Napoleon I after the Battle of Waterloo, Ferdinand's son, Francis IV, again assumed the rule as Duke of Modena under the domination of the Austrian Empire. Soon after, he inherited the territories of Carrara from his mother. In the course of the Italian unification period in the 1830s-60s, the "Austria-Este" dukes were ousted in the revolutions of 1831 and 1848, but soon returned. During the Second Italian War of Independence following the Battle of Magenta, the last Duke Francis V was again forced to flee, this time permanently. In December, Modena joined with the Tuscany and the Parma to form the "United Provinces of Central Italy", which were annexed to the growing Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont in March 1860, which led the Italian unification movement, which further led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Modena Reggio Guastalla Frignano Garfagnana Lunigiana Massa and Carrara The Duke of Modena was: Duke of Modena and Reggio Duke of Ferrara Duke of La Mirandola and Guastalla Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince of Carpi, San Martino in Rio and of Carrara and Lunigiana, Marquis of Montecchio, of Scandiano and La Concordia Count palatine of Novellara and Bagnolo, Count of Jeno ed Avad Lord of Sassuolo, San Martino in Spino, Castellarano, Rodeglia and San Cassiano The Duke of Modena, since Francis V, was Grand Master of the: Order of the Eagle of Este Order of Seniority of Service State Flags List of Dukes of Ferrara and of Modena Historical states of Italy

Shanghai Men’s Volleyball Club

Shanghai Men’s Volleyball Club, now called as Shanghai Golden Age, is a Chinese men’s volleyball club based in Shanghai. The Shanghai men's volleyball team plays in the Chinese Men's League and the AVC Club Volleyball Championship; the team won fifteenth China League champion titles. The team with the name and different extensions have been present as, Shanghai Tang Dynasty and Fudan University Shanghai and now Shanghai Golden Age. Shanghai Volleyball Club have been a dominant force in the Chinese League since its inauguration in 1997, having won 15 titles in 23 editions to date – including the recent five consecutive editions; the team participated in FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship for the first time in 2017. Chinese Volleyball LeagueChampions: 1999/00, 2003/042011/12, 2014/152018/19 Runners-up: 2002/03, 2013/14AVC Club Volleyball ChampionshipRunners-up: 2012 Third place: 2001, 2005, 2011 Shen Qiong Fang Yingchao Ren Qi David Lee Bojan Janić Cristian Savani Nikola Kovačević Scott Touzinsky Giulio Sabbi György Grozer Facundo Conte Julien Lyneel Krisztián Pádár only for the finals of Season 17/18 Klemen Čebulj Tine Urnaut Note: The following list may not be complete.

Shen Fulin Ju Genyin Wang Jian Lyu Ningxin Shen Qiong Shanghai women's volleyball team Chinese Volleyball Super League Beijing Baic Motor Men's Volleyball Team http://www.portshanghai.com.cn/en/

Kurds in Syria

The Kurdish population of Syria is that country's largest ethnic minority, comprising between 7% and 10% of the country's population according to most sources. The northeastern Kurdish inhabited region covers the greater part of Hasakah Governorate; the main cities in this region are Al-Hasakah. Another region with significant Kurdish population is Kobanî in the northern part of Syria near the town of Jarabulus and the city of Afrin and its surroundings along the Turkish border. Human rights organizations have accused the Syrian government of discriminating and harassing the Syrian Kurds. Many Kurds seek political autonomy for the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria, similar to Iraqi Kurdistan in Iraq, or outright independence as part of Kurdistan. In the context of the Syrian Civil War, Kurds have established a self-governing region, in northeastern Syria. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria, make up between 7 and 10 percent of the Syrian population as of 2011—between 1.6 and 2.5 million people.

The Kurdish population in Syria is small in comparison to the Kurdish populations in nearby countries, such as Turkey and Iraq. The majority of Syrian Kurds speak Kurmanji, a Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey and northeastern Iraq and Iran, it is estimated that at the beginning of the 20th century around 12,000 Kurds lived in Damascus. In the 1920s after the failed Kurdish rebellions in Kemalist Turkey, there was a large influx of Kurds to Syria's Jazira province, it is estimated. According to Stefan Sperl, these Kurdish newcomers constituted no more than 10% of the Kurdish population of Jazira at the time and all were granted citizenship by the French mandate authorities who recognized their agricultural skills. However, the French official reports show the existence of at most 45 Kurdish villages in Jazira prior to 1927. A new wave of refugees arrived in 1929; the mandatory authorities continued to encourage Kurdish immigration into Syria, by 1939, the villages numbered between 700 and 800. Sperl's estimation contradicts the estimates of the French geographers Fevret and Gibert, who estimated that in 1953 out of the total 146,000 inhabitants of Jazira, agriculturalist Kurds made up 60,000, nomad Arabs 50,000, a quarter of the population were Christians.

Though Kurds have a long history in Syria, the government has used the fact that many Kurds fled to Syria during the 1920s to claim that Kurds are not indigenous to the country and to justify the government's discriminatory policies against them. Kurds live in a geocultural region in Northern Syria; this region covers the governorate of Al Hasakah, a region inhabited by many Arabs, Assyrians and Chechens. The main cities in this region are Al-Hasakah, it covers most of the northern part of Aleppo governornate. There is a big Kurdish population in the Kurd Dagh area, located in the northwestern part of Aleppo governorate; this region extends both ethnically and culturally to the Turkish regions of Kilis and Kirikhan. The region of Kobanê, located in the eastern part of the Aleppo governorate has a significant Kurdish population best known for resisting the long siege by ISIS; the northern countryside of Aleppo governorate, alternatively known as Şehba has a significant Kurdish population. Kurds live in the rural countryside.

The main towns are Manbij, Al-Bab and Azaz, while containing important smaller towns such as Qabasin, Al-Ra'i and Jarabulus. Sometimes the Kurdish inhabited areas of Northern Syria are called "Kurdistana Binxetê" in Kurdish, which means Kurdistan below the border. Referring to the Syrian-Turkish border. Many Kurds live in the large cities and metropolitan areas of the country, for example, in the neighborhood of Rukn al-Din in Damascus, known as Hayy al Akrad, the Aleppo neighbourhood Sheikh Maqsood. Kurdish settlement in Syria goes back to before the Crusades of the 11th century. A number of Kurdish military and feudal settlements from before this period have been found in Syria; such settlements have been found in the Alawite and north Lebanese mountains and around Hama and its surroundings. The Crusade fortress of Krak des Chevaliers, known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad, was a Kurdish military settlement before it was enlarged by the French Crusaders; the Kurd-Dagh has been inhabited by Kurds for more than a millennium.

In the 12th century and other Muslim regiments accompanied Saladin, a Kurd from Tikrit, on his conquest of the Middle East and establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty, administered from Damascus. The Kurdish regiments that accompanied Salidin established self-ruled areas around Damascus; these settlements evolved into the Kurdish sections of Damascus of Hayy al-Akrad and the Salhiyya districts located in the north-east of Damasacus on Mount Qasioun. The Kurdish community's role in the military continued under the Ottomans. Kurdish soldiers and policeman from city were tasked with both maintaining order and protecting the pilgrims’ route toward Mecca. Many Kurds from Syria's rural hinterland joined the local Janissary corp in Damascus. Kurdish migrants from diverse areas, such as Diyarbakir and Kirkuk joined these military units which caused an expansion of the Kurdish community in