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Whittlesea, Victoria

Whittlesea is a town in Victoria, Australia, 40 kilometres north-east from Melbourne's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Whittlesea. At the 2016 census, Whittlesea had a population of 5,611; the Post Office opened on 1 September 1853 as Plenty and was renamed Whittlesea in 1864. The town may have been named in England. A school opened in a single stone building in 1878 and is to this day the home to Whittlesea Primary School; the railway to Whittlesea was opened on 23 December 1889 as an extension to what is now the Mernda line, closed in December 1959. When the original railway was in operation Whittlesea had a large logging trade, taking the timber from Kinglake, Whittlesea region toward greater Melbourne for milling. There were two saw mills in operation. At its timber producing peak Whittlesea had several pubs to help house the temporary timber workers. On 7 February 2009 and subsequent days thereafter, Whittlesea acted as a focal point of for firefighting and relief efforts during the Black Saturday bushfires.

In a firefighting context Whittlesea Fire Station and its members play an important role in managing firefighting operations around the Mount Disappointment and Kinglake areas. The township acted as a focal point for relief efforts, attracting support from the larger Victorian and Australian communities. Although located only a few kilometres from the outer fringes of metropolitan Melbourne, Whittlesea lies outside the Urban Growth Boundaries of the Melbourne 2030 metropolitan development plan, it is therefore expected to maintain its status as a separate town until 2030 and beyond. City of Whittlesea planning policy for Whittlesea township envisages minimal growth over the next decade so that the township will retain its rural character; the town has a local volunteer fire brigade as well as a limited hours Police station. On 22 January 2009 Health Minister Daniel Andrews opened an ambulance station in Whittlesea; this station operates between the hours of 10 pm daily. This was a 2006 state election promise made by the Bracks Labor Government.

Local attractions include the Funfields Theme Park, Torourrong Reservoir, Yan Yean Reservoir, Bear's Castle and the old Courthouse. The Town Crier magazine is distributed within the township of Whittlesea, it was established in 1986Whittlesea Agricultural Show began in 1859 and is managed by the Whittlesea Agricultural Society. Whittlesea Library, managed by Yarra Plenty Regional Library is part of the Whittlesea Community Activity Centre. Whittlesea LionsWhittlesea Masonic Lodge was established in November 1919 and has 100 years of continuous service. Whittlesea RotaryWhittlesea U3A Whittlesea Kindergarten Whittlesea Secondary College Whittlesea Primary School St. Mary's Catholic Parish Primary School Whittlesea Community Garden In 1866, it was gazetted that a ground will be used for the game of cricket. Whittlesea Cricket Club was formed, is the longest serving community sports club in the township. In the 2016/17 season, the Club celebrated its 150th Anniversary, it plays in the Diamond Valley Cricket Association, with representation from seniors and veterans.

Whittlesea Football Club, an Australian Rules football team, competes in the Northern Football League. Golfers play at the course of the Whittlesea Country Club on Humevale Road in neighbouring Humevale. Whittlesea Tennis Club on Laurel Street competes in Diamond Valley Leagues. A tennis club was set up early on by local Residents. A pivotal person helping to establish and develop this was a Mr Jack Wailes who helped establish the Whittlesea Golf Course as a run entity. Laural street was the original site of the famous Rural Whittlesea Agricultural show. There are the following sporting/ social clubs: Australian Rules Football Club, Bowls Club, Masons, Golf Club, Pony Club, Motorbike Club c/o K&J Thomas. A team represents Whittlesea in Darts, it participates in the Northern Darts Association at the Royal Mail Hotel. The team is participating in C Grade of the N. D. A. Whittlesea Fire Brigade is the local branch of the Country Fire Authority or CFA, serves the township as well as surrounding communities.

It was established on the 17 December 1926. On 16 October 2008 the brigade celebrated 60 years since the formation of the Whittlesea Urban Fire Brigade. Earlier in that year the brigade celebrated winning the C aggregate and the Victorian State Urban Championships held on the long weekend in March. Jones, Michael Nature's Plenty: a history of the City of Whittlesea, Sydney, N. S. W. Allen & Unwin, 1992 ISBN 1863730761 City of Whittlesea Web Site Town Crier Whittlesea Visitor Guide - Whittlesea.com.au City of Whittlesea Development Bulletin, 2006 History of Whittlesea Whittlesea Fire Brigade Whittlesea Community Garden Whittlesesa Agricultural Show

Shinden-zukuri

Shinden-zukuri refers to the style of domestic architecture developed for palatial or aristocratic mansions built in Heian-kyō in the Heian period in 10th century Japan. Shinden-zukuri developed into sukiya-zukuri. During the Kamakura period, it developed into buke-zukuri; the main characteristics of the shinden-zukuri are a special symmetry of the group of buildings and undeveloped space between them. A mansion was set on a one chō square; the main building, the shinden, is on the central north–south axis and faces south on an open courtyard. Two subsidiary buildings, the tai-no-ya, are built to the right and left of the shinden, both running east–west; the tai-no-ya and the shinden are connected by two corridors called sukiwatadono and watadono. A chūmon-rō at the half-way points of the two corridors lead to a south courtyard, where many ceremonies were celebrated. From the watadono, narrow corridors extend south and end in tsuridono, small pavilions that travel in a U-shape around the courtyard.

Wealthier aristocrats built more buildings behind the tai-no-ya. The room at the core of the shinden is surrounded by a roofed aisle called hisashi; the moya is one big space partitioned by portable screens. Guests and residents of the house are seated on mats, laid out separately on a polished wooden floor; as the style developed, the moya became a formal, public space, the hisashi was divided into private spaces. Since the shinden-zukuri-style house flourished during the Heian period, houses tended to be furnished and adorned with characteristic art of the era. In front of the moya across the courtyard is a garden with a pond. Water runs from a stream into a large pond to the south of the courtyard; the pond had islets and bridges combined with mountain shapes and rocks aimed at creating the feeling of being in the land of the Amida Buddha. Officers and guards lived by the east gates; the buke-zukuri was the style of houses built for military families. It was similar in structure to the regular shinden-zukuri with a few room changes to accommodate the differences between the aristocratic family and the military family.

During the time when military families rose in power over the aristocrats, living quarters changed. Each lord had to build extra space in order to keep his soldiers around him at all times with their weapons within reach on the grounds in case of a sudden attack. To help guard against these attacks, a yagura or tower was built and torches were scattered around the gardens so they could be lit as as possible. With the increase of people living under the same roof, extra rooms called hiro-bisashi were built grouped around the shinden; the zensho was built bigger in order to accommodate the required people needed to cook all the food for the soldiers and members of the household. Unlike the shinden-zukuri, buke-zukuri homes were simple and practical, keeping away from the submersion into art and beauty that led to the downfall of the Heian court. Rooms characteristic of a buke-zukuri home are as follows: Dei Saikusho Tsubone Kuruma-yadori Jibutsu-dō Gakumon-jō Daidokoro Takibi-no-ma Baba-den Umaya The buke-zukuri style changed throughout the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, over times the rooms in a buke-zukuri style house decreased as daimyōs started to use castles.

There are no remaining original examples of Shinden-zukuri-style homes, however some current structures follow the same styles and designs: Heian Palace Byōdō-in's Phoenix Hall Hōjō-ji "The Rise and Decline of Bukezukuri" P. D. Perkins, Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 2, No. 2. Pp. 596–608. "The Phoenix Hall at Uji and the Symmetries of Replication Mimi Hall" Yiengpruksawan, The Art Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 4. Pp. 647–672. "Shinden-zukuri no kokyu" Dr. Shoin Maeda, Nippon Kenchiku Zasshi Very extensive article with pictures AISF | Shindenzukuri