A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two; the ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch. The term was coined by German jurist Johann Stephan Pütter, introducing it into Elementa iuris publici germanici of 1760. Personal unions can arise for several reasons, they can be codified or non-codified, in which case they can be broken. The Commonwealth realms are independent states; because presidents of republics are ordinarily chosen from within the citizens of the state in question, the concept of personal union has never crossed over from monarchies into republics, with the rare exception of the President of France being a co-prince of Andorra.
In 1860 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius was elected as the president of Transvaal and Orange Free State and he tried to unify the two countries but his mission failed and led to the Transvaal Civil War. Though France is now a republic with a president and not a monarchy, it has been in personal union with the neighboring nominal monarchy of Andorra since 1278. Personal union with Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Personal union with Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. Personal union with Austrian Netherlands. Personal union with Spanish Empire. Personal union with Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia, Kingdom of Sicily, Duchy of Parma and Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia Personal union with Kingdom of Slavonia, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Duchy of Bukovina, New Galicia, Kingdom of Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Personal union with Poland 1003–1004 Personal union with Poland 1300–1306 and Hungary 1301–1305 Personal union with Luxembourg 1313–1378 and 1383–1388 Personal union with Hungary 1419–1439 and 1490–1526 Personal union with Austria and Hungary 1526–1918 Personal union with the Principality of Ansbach from 1415–1440 and 1470–1486.
Personal union with the Duchy of Prussia from 1618, when Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, died without male heirs and his son-in-law John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, became ruler of both countries. Brandenburg and Prussia maintained separate governments and seats of power in Berlin and Königsberg until 1701, when Frederick I consolidated them into one government. Personal union with Portugal, under Maria I of Portugal and John VI of Portugal, from 16 December 1815 to 7 September 1822. Maria was the Queen of Portugal and the Algarves from 1777 to 1815, when Brazil, a Portuguese colony, was ranked Kingdom inside the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, she was succeeded by her older son and Regent in her name since 1792, who become King John VI. He reigned over Brazil until the dissolution of the United Kingdom with the Independence of Brazil. Personal union with Portugal, under Pedro I of Brazil, from 10 March to 28 May 1826. Pedro was the Prince Royal of Portugal and the Algarves when he declared the independence of Brazil in 1822, becoming its first emperor.
When his father died, Pedro became King of Portugal, but abdicated the Portuguese throne 79 days in favour of his older child Princess Maria da Glória. Personal union with Belgium from 1885 to 1908, when the Congo Free State became a Belgian colony; the only sovereign during this period was Leopold II, who continued as king of Belgium until his death a year in 1909. Personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary 1102–1918 In 1102, after a period of succession crisis following the death of King Demetrius Zvonimir, the Kingdom of Croatia entered a union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102; the crown passed into the hands of the Árpád dynasty with the crowning of King Coloman of Hungary with the Croatian crown as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd. Institutions of separate Croatian statehood were maintained through the ban. In addition, the Croatian nobles retained their titles; some of the terms of Coloman's coronation are summarized in Pacta Conventa by which the Croatian nobles agreed to recognise Coloman as king.
Although it is not an authentic document from 1102 and is a forgery from the 14th century, the contents of the Pacta Conventa correspond to the political situation of that time in Croatia. The precise terms of the union between the two realms became a matter of dispute in the 19th century; the nature of the relat
The Prussian estates were representative bodies of Prussia, first created by the Monastic state of Teutonic Prussia in the 14th century but becoming a devolved legislature for Royal Prussia within the Kingdom of Poland. They were at first composed of officials of six big cities of the region. Representatives of other towns as well as nobility were included; the estates met on average four times per year, discussed issues such as commerce and foreign relations. The Teutonic Order created the Estate to appease the local citizens, but over time the relations between the Order and the Estates grew strained, as the Order of knights treated the local population with contempt. Different Prussian holders of the privilege of coinage committed to issue a Prussian currency of standardised quality, had debased the coins and expanded their circulation in order to finance the wars between Poland and Teutonic Prussia. However, this expansion disturbed the equilibrium of coins circulated to the volume of contractual obligations, only coming down to a harsh depreciation of all existing nominally fixed contractual obligations by inflating all other non-fixed prices measured by these coins, ending only once the purchasing power of every extra issued coin equalled its material and production costs."Obligations would be retroactively changed if new coins, too plentifully issued, would be counted as equal to the old ones."
Thus a law was "passed by the Diet of Teutonic Prussia in 1418, smartly regulating the fulfilment of old debts fixed in old currency by adding an agio when repaid by new coins." Thus creditors and recipients of nominally fixed revenues were not to lose by debasement-induced inflation. As Prussia became tied economically and politically with Poland, the wars became more and more devastating to the borderlands, as the policies and attitude of the King of Poland were more liberal towards the Prussian burghers and nobility than that of the Order, the rift between the Teutonic Knights and their subjects widened; the Estates drifted towards the Kingdom of Poland in their political alignment. Norman Housley noted that "The alienation of the Prussian Estates represented a massive political failure on the part of the Order". At first, the estates opposed the Order passively, by denying requests for additional taxes and support in Order wars with Poland; the estates became governed by the Kingdom of Poland.
First the western part of Prussia, which became known as Royal Prussia after the Second Peace of Thorn ended the Thirteen Years' War in 1466, the eastern lands, known as Ducal Prussia, after the Prussian Homage in 1525, became part of the kingdom. On 10 December 1525 at their session in Königsberg the Prussian estates established the Lutheran Church in Ducal Prussia by deciding the Church Order. Nicolaus Copernicus canon of the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, addressed the Prussian estates with three memoranda, in fact little essays, on currency reform. Debasements continued to ruin Prussian finances, the groat had been debased by 1/5 to 1/6 of its prior bullion content. In 1517, 1519 and again in 1526 he suggested to return to the law passed in 1418; however the cities refused that. They had raised most of the funds for the warfares, now lightened their debt burden by debasing their coins, thus passing on part of the burden to receivers of nominally fixed revenues, such as civic and ecclesiastical creditors and civic and ecclesiastical collectors of nominally fixed monetarised dues.
So Copernicus' effort failed. At least the estates refused to peg the Prussian currency to the Polish, which suffered a worse debasement than the Prussian. Under Polish sovereignty, Prussians those from Royal Prussia, saw their liberties confirmed and expanded. Royal Prussia, as a direct part of the Kingdom of Poland had more influence on Polish politics and more privileges than Ducal Prussia, which remained a fief. Royal Prussia had its own parliament, the Prussian Landesrat, although it was incorporated into the Commonwealth Sejm after the Union of Lublin, it retained distinct features of Royal Prussia. With the power of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth waning from the mid-17th century onwards, the Prussian Estates drifted under the influence of the Hohenzollern Electors of Brandenburg, who ruled Ducal Prussia in personal union with Brandenburg from 1618. Under the Hohenzollerns' absolutist rule the power of the Estates diminished; the West and East Prussian Estates, separately (the latter gathering after 1772 representatives of newly formed East Prussia, comprising the former Duchy of Prussia and the parts of former Royal Prussia west of the
The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic church – and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholics and the nascent Lutheran branch until the 1521 Edict of Worms; the edict condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today. Movements had been made towards a Reformation prior to Luther, so some Protestants in the tradition of the Radical Reformation prefer to credit the start of the Reformation to reformers such as Arnold of Brescia, Peter Waldo, Jan Hus, Tomáš Štítný ze Štítného, John Wycliffe, Girolamo Savonarola.
Due to the reform efforts of Huss and others in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Utraquist Hussitism was acknowledged by both the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, although other movements were still subject to persecution, as were the including Lollards in England and Waldensians in Italy and France. Luther began by criticising the sale of indulgences, insisting that the Pope had no authority over purgatory and that the Treasury of Merit had no foundation in the Bible; the Reformation developed further to include a distinction between Law and Gospel, a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper doctrine and the belief that faith in Jesus is the only way to receive God's pardon for sin rather than good works. Although this is considered a Protestant belief, a similar formulation was taught by Molinist and Jansenist Catholics; the priesthood of all believers downplayed the need for saints or priests to serve as mediators, mandatory clerical celibacy was ended. Simul justus et peccator implied that although people could improve, no one could become good enough to earn forgiveness from God.
Sacramental theology was simplified and attempts at imposing Aristotelian epistemology were resisted. Luther and his followers did not see these theological developments as changes; the 1530 Augsburg Confession concluded that "in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic", after the Council of Trent, Martin Chemnitz published the 1565–73 Examination of the Council of Trent in order to prove that Trent innovated on doctrine while the Lutherans were following in the footsteps of the Church Fathers and Apostles. The initial movement in Germany diversified, other reformers arose independently of Luther such as Zwingli in Zürich and Calvin in Geneva. Depending on the country, the Reformation had varying causes and different backgrounds, unfolded differently than in Germany; the spread of Gutenberg's printing press provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions.
Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside state sanction, sometimes employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the tenets of the councils of Nicaea and Chalcedon with the Unitarians of Transylvania. Anabaptist movements were persecuted following the German Peasants' War. Leaders within the Roman Catholic Church responded with the Counter-Reformation, initiated by the Confutatio Augustana in 1530, the Council of Trent in 1545, the Jesuits in 1540, the Defensio Tridentinæ fidei in 1578, a series of wars and expulsions of Protestants that continued until the 19th century. Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, came under the influence of Protestantism. Southern Europe remained predominantly Catholic apart from the much-persecuted Waldensians. Central Europe was the site of much of the Thirty Years' War and there were continued expulsions of Protestants in central Europe up to the 19th century. Following World War II, the removal of ethnic Germans to either East Germany or Siberia reduced Protestantism in the Warsaw Pact countries, although some remain today.
Absence of Protestants however, does not imply a failure of the Reformation. Although Protestants were excommunicated and ended up worshipping in communions separate from Catholics contrary to the original intention of the Reformers, they were suppressed and persecuted in most of Europe at one point; as a result, some of them lived as crypto-Protestants called Nicodemites, contrary to the urging of John Calvin who wanted them to live their faith openly. Some crypto-Protestants have been identified as late as the 19th century after immigrating to Latin America; as a result Reformation impulses continued to affect the Latin Church well past the end of what is considered the Reformation era. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, date their origins to Jan Hus in the early 15th century; as it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "Magisterial Reformation" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "Radical Reformation", which the state did not support.
Common factors that played a role during the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation included the rise of nationalism, the
Treaty of Bromberg
The Treaty of Bromberg or Treaty of Bydgoszcz was a treaty between John II Casimir of Poland and Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia, ratified at Bromberg on 6 November 1657. The treaty consisted of several agreements, including the Treaty of Wehlau signed on 19 September 1657 by the Brandenburg-Prussian and Polish-Lithuanian envoys in Wehlau. Thus, the treaty of Bromberg is sometimes referred to as treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg or Treaty of Wehlau and Bromberg. In exchange for military aid in the Second Northern War and the return of Ermland to Poland, the Polish king granted the Hohenzollern dynasty of Brandenburg hereditary sovereignty in the Duchy of Prussia, pawned Draheim and Elbing to Brandenburg, handed over Lauenburg and Bütow Land to the Hohenzollerns as a hereditary fief; the treaty was confirmed and internationally recognized in the Peace of Oliva in 1660. While Elbing was kept by Poland, Lauenburg and Bütow Land and Draheim were subsequently integrated into Brandenburg-Prussia.
The sovereignty in Prussia constituted the basis for the coronation of the Hohenzollern as Prussian kings. Wehlau-Bromberg remained in effect until it was superseded by the Treaty of Warsaw following the First Partition of Poland; the treaty is regarded as one of the biggest mistakes in Polish foreign policy towards Prussia and its consequences were fatal to Poland. The Duchy of Prussia was established as a Polish fief under duke Albrecht in the Treaty of Cracow of 8 April 1525; the fief was hereditary, in case Albrecht or his brothers' house became extinct in the male line, the treaty provided for it to pass on to the Polish king, who would be obliged to appoint a German-speaking Prussian-born governor. On 4 June 1563, this provision was changed by Polish king Sigismund II Augustus in a privilege issued at Petrikau, which in addition to Albrecht's branch of the House of Hohenzollern allowed the Brandenburg branch of the Hohenzollern as possible successors; this privilege provided for the succession of the Brandenburgian electors as Prussian dukes upon the extinction of the House of Hohenzollern-Ansbach in 1618.
In 1656, during the early Second Northern War, the Brandenburgian Hohenzollern first took the Prussian duchy and Ermland as Swedish fiefs in the Treaty of Königsberg, before the Swedish king released them from the vassalage and made them absolute sovereigns in these provinces. After fighting alongside with the Swedish army in 1656, most prominently in the Battle of Warsaw, Hohenzollern Frederick William I was willing to abandon his ally when the war had turned against them, signalled his willingness to change sides if Polish king John II Casimir Vasa would grant him similar privileges as the Swedish king Charles X Gustav - these conditions were negotiated in Wehlau and Bromberg; the Polish interest in an alliance with Brandenburg-Prussia was born out of the need to end the war with Sweden as soon as possible. On 3 November 1656, the Truce of Vilna had promised Alexis of Russia's election as successor on the Polish throne at the next diet in turn for halting his offensive in Poland-Lithuania and fight Sweden instead.
While in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania there was support for this treaty among the nobles, who hoped for more privileged positions, this was not true for the Kingdom of Poland, where the elites looked for ways to circumvent Alexis' succession. To end the war with Sweden and thus be able to avoid the implementation of the Truce of Vilna, the anti-Swedish alliance had to be extended; the new-won Russian ally was reluctant to support Poland against Sweden as long as no diet had confirmed the Truce. A second ally, the Austrian Habsburgs were won in the first and second Vienna treaties, yet as the Habsburg forces were to be maintained by Poland, this alliance's prize was bound to rise the longer the war lasted. A third ally was Denmark-Norway, which joined the anti-Swedish coalition in June 1657 triggered by the second treaty of Vienna. Yet, Denmark was not fighting on Polish soil, although its involvement bound Charles X Gustav's forces and a formal alliance with Poland-Lithuania was concluded in July, the Danish war aim was to recover Scandinavian territories lost in the Second Treaty of Brömsebro.
The Habsburgs' interest in the treaty was to build up good relations to Frederick William I, who as a prince-elector was a valuable ally if he was to support their policy in the Holy Roman Empire. Thus, the Habsburgs were interested in Frederick William I changing from the Swedish to their camp, sent diplomat Franz Paul Freiherr von Lisola to mediate a respective settlement. Bromberg and Wehlau are regarded as "twin treaties", "supplementary treaties" or one treaty, sometimes referred to as "Treaty of Wehlau and Bromberg" or "Treaty of Wehlau-Bromberg." The preliminary treaty of Wehlau had been signed on 19 September 1657 by Frederick William I's envoys von Schwerin and von Somnitz, as well as by Warmian prince-bishop Wacław Leszczyński and Wincenty Korwin Gosiewski for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Habsburg delegate and mediator Freiherr Franz von Lisola. The amended and final version of the treaty was ratified on 6 November by Frederick William I and John II Casimir in Bromberg. Both the Brandenburgian elector and the Polish king attended the ceremony with their wives, Luise Henriette of Nassau and Marie Louise Gonzaga, respectively.
Danzig mayor Adrian von der Linde was present. The treaties of Wehlau and Bromberg were confirmed by the parties and internationally recognized in the Peace of Oliva, which en
Lithuania the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. Lithuania is considered to be one of the Baltic states, it is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, Kaliningrad Oblast to the southwest. Lithuania has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2019, its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Other major cities are Klaipėda. Lithuanians are Baltic people; the official language, along with Latvian, is one of only two living languages in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, the King of Lithuania, the first unified Lithuanian state, the Kingdom of Lithuania, was created on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state personal union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I neared its end, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the founding of the modern Republic of Lithuania. In the midst of the Second World War, Lithuania was first occupied by the Soviet Union and by Nazi Germany; as World War II neared its end and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Baltic state to declare itself independent, resulting in the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania. Lithuania is a developed country, it is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It is a member of the Nordic Investment Bank, part of Nordic-Baltic cooperation of Northern European countries; the United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "very high human development" country.
The first known record of the name of Lithuania is in a 9 March 1009 story of Saint Bruno in the Quedlinburg Chronicle. The Chronicle recorded a Latinized form of the name Lietuva: Litua. Due to the lack of reliable evidence, the true meaning of the name is unknown. Nowadays, scholars still debate the meaning of the word and there are a few plausible versions. Since Lietuva has a suffix, the original word should have no suffix. A candidate is Lietā; because many Baltic ethnonyms originated from hydronyms, linguists have searched for its origin among local hydronyms. Such names evolved through the following process: hydronym → toponym → ethnonym. Lietava, a small river not far from Kernavė, the core area of the early Lithuanian state and a possible first capital of the eventual Grand Duchy of Lithuania, is credited as the source of the name. However, the river is small and some find it improbable that such a small and local object could have lent its name to an entire nation. On the other hand, such a naming is not unprecedented in world history.
Artūras Dubonis proposed another hypothesis. From the middle of the 13th century, leičiai were a distinct warrior social group of the Lithuanian society subordinate to the Lithuanian ruler or the state itself; the word leičiai is used in the 14–16th-century historical sources as an ethnonym for Lithuanians and is still used poetically or in historical contexts, in the Latvian language, related to Lithuanian. The first people settled in the territory of Lithuania after the last glacial period in the 10th millennium BC: Kunda and Narva cultures, they did not form stable settlements. In the 8th millennium BC, the climate became much warmer, forests developed; the inhabitants of what is now Lithuania traveled less and engaged in local hunting and fresh-water fishing. Agriculture did not emerge until the 3rd millennium BC due to a harsh climate and terrain and a lack of suitable tools to cultivate the land. Crafts and trade started to form at this time. Over a millennium, the Indo-Europeans, who arrived in the 3rd – 2nd millennium BC, mixed with the local population and formed various Baltic tribes.
The Baltic tribes did not maintain close cultural or political contacts with the Roman Empire, but they did maintain trade contacts. Tacitus, in his study Germania, described the Aesti people, inhabitants of the south-eastern Baltic Sea shores who were Balts, around the year 97 AD; the Western Balts became known to outside chroniclers first. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD knew of the Galindians and Yotvingians, early medieval chroniclers mentioned Old Prussians and Semigallians; the Lithuanian language is considered to be conservative for its close connection to Indo-European roots. It is believed to have differentiated from the Latvian language, the most related existing language, around the 7th century. Traditional Lithuanian pagan customs and mythology, with many archaic elements, were long preserved. Rulers' bodies were cremated up until the conversion to Christianity: the descriptions of the cremation ceremonies of the grand d
A fief was the central element of feudalism. It consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty; the fees were lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade, tax farms. In ancient Rome a "benefice" was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered to the state. In medieval Latin European documents, a land grant in exchange for service continued to be called a beneficium; the term feudum, or feodum, began to replace beneficium in the documents. The first attested instance of this is from 984, although more primitive forms were seen up to one hundred years earlier; the origin of the feudum and why it replaced beneficium has not been well established, but there are multiple theories, described below.
The most held theory is put forth by Marc Bloch that it is related to the Frankish term *fehu-ôd, in which *fehu means "cattle" and -ôd means "goods", implying "a moveable object of value." When land replaced currency as the primary store of value, the Germanic word *fehu-ôd replaced the Latin word beneficium. This Germanic origin theory was shared by William Stubbs in the nineteenth century. A theory put forward by Archibald R. Lewis that the origin of'fief' is not feudum, but rather foderum, the earliest attested use being in Astronomus's Vita Hludovici. In that text is a passage about Louis the Pious which says annona militaris quas vulgo foderum vocant, which can be translated as " military provender which they popularly call'fodder'."A theory by Alauddin Samarrai suggests an Arabic origin, from fuyū. Samarrai's theory is that early forms of'fief' include feo, feuz and others, the plurality of forms suggesting origins from a loanword. First use of these terms was in Languedoc, one of the least-Germanized areas of Europe and bordered Muslim Spain, where the earliest use of feuum as a replacement for beneficium can be dated to 899, the same year a Muslim base at Fraxinetum in Provence was established.
It is possible, Samarrai says, that French scribes, writing in Latin, attempted to transliterate the Arabic word fuyū, being used by the Muslims at the time, resulting in a plurality of forms - feo, feuz and others - from which feudum derived. Samarrai, however advises medieval and early modern Muslim scribes used etymologically "fanciful roots" in order to claim the most outlandish things to be of Arabian or Muslim origin. In the 10th and 11th centuries the Latin terms for fee could be used either to describe dependent tenure held by a man from his lord, as the term is used now by historians, or it could mean "property", it lacked a precise meaning until the middle of the 12th century, when it received formal definition from land lawyers. In English usage, the word "fee" is first attested around 1250–1300. In French, the term fief is found from the middle of the 13th century, derived from the 11th-century terms feu, fie; the odd appearance of the second f in the form fief may be due to influence from the verb fiever'to grant in fee'.
In French, one finds "seigneurie", which gives rise to the expression "seigneurial system" to describe feudalism. Vassalage did not imply the giving or receiving of landholdings, but by the eighth century the giving of a landholding was becoming standard; the granting of a landholding to a vassal did not relinquish the lord's property rights, but only the use of the lands and their income. In 8th-century France, Charles Martel was the first to make large-scale and systematic use of the remuneration of vassals by the concession of the usufruct of lands for the life of the vassal, or, sometimes extending to the second or third generation. By the middle of the 10th century, fee had become hereditary; the eldest son of a deceased vassal would inherit, but first he had to do homage and fealty to the lord and pay a "relief" for the land. The fees of the 11th and the 12th century derived from two separate sources; the first was land carved out of the estates of the upper nobility. The second source was allodial land transformed into dependent tenures.
During the 10th century in northern France and the 11th century in France south of the Loire, local magnates either recruited or forced the owners of allodial holdings into dependent relationships and they were turned into fiefs. The process occurred in Germany, was still going on in the 13th century. In England, Henry II transformed them into important sources of royal patronage; the discontent of barons with royal claims to arbitrarily assessed "reliefs" and other feuda
The Prutenic Tables, were an ephemeris by the astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published in 1551. They are sometimes called the Prussian Tables after Albert I, Duke of Prussia, who supported Reinhold and financed the printing. Reinhold calculated this new set of astronomical tables based on Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, the epochal exposition of Copernican heliocentrism published in 1543. Throughout his explanatory canons, Reinhold used as his paradigm the position of Saturn at the birth of the Duke, on 17 May 1490. With these tables, Reinhold intended to replace the Alfonsine Tables. Several tables based on the Alfonsine Tables were published after the publication of the Prussian Tables. Copernicus's heliocentric claims did not win over the hearts of all European astronomers overnight. Rather, the Prussian Tables became popular in German speaking countries for nationalistic and confessional reasons, it seems, it is through these tables that Copernicus's reputation was established as a skilled mathematician or an astronomer on a par with Ptolemy, helped to disseminate the Copernicus' methods of calculating the positions of astronomical objects throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
They replaced the Alfonsine tables, which astronomers and astrologers had used for 300 years. The Alfonsine tables in Table of the Stars by Regiomontanus were used by sailors and sea explores during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Christopher Clavius used Reinhold's Prutenic Tables and Copernicus' work as a basis for the calendar reform instituted under Pope Gregory XIII. Decades in Prague, Johannes Kepler compiled the Rudolphine Tables, based on Tycho Brahe's lifetime of astronomical observations, which were the most extensive and accurate observations until his time. Kepler completed the work in 1625 and managed to publish it in 1627. In modern times, Owen Gingerich discovered Reinhold's annotated copy of Copernicus' De revolutionibus; this inspired him to explore the dissemination and use of De revolutionibus in the several decades following its publication. Gingerich wrote about his explorations and their results, the role of Reinhold's Prutenic Tables, in The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions of Nicolaus Copernicus.
Owen Gingerich, "The role of Erasmus Reinhold and the Prutenic Tables in the Dissemination of Copernican Theory", Studia Copernicana, 6, 43-62. Owen Gingerich & B. Welther, "The Accuracy of Ephemerides 1500-1800", Vistas in Astronomy, 28, 339-342. Owen Gingerich, "The Alphonsine Tables in the Age of Printing", in: M. Comes et al. De astronomia Alphonsi Regis, pp. 89-95. Prutenicae tabulae coelestium motuum Prutenicae tabulae coelestium motuum Astronomical Tables