Coots are small water birds that are members of the Rallidae family. They constitute the genus Fulica, the name being the Latin for coot, coots have predominantly black plumage, and—unlike many rails—they are usually easy to see, often swimming in open water. They are close relatives of the moorhen, coots have prominent frontal shields or other decoration on the forehead, with red to dark red eyes and coloured bills. Many, but not all, have white on the under tail, the featherless shield gave rise to the expression as bald as a coot, which the Oxford English Dictionary cites in use as early as 1430. Like other rails, they have long, lobed toes that are adapted to soft. Coots have strong legs and can walk and run vigorously and they tend to have short, rounded wings and are weak fliers, though northern species nevertheless can cover long distances. The greatest species variety occurs in South America, and the genus originated there. They are common in Europe and North America, Coot species that migrate do so at night.
The American coot has been observed rarely in Britain and Ireland, in southern Louisiana, the coot is referred to by the French name poule deau, which translates into English as water hen or moorhen. Coots are omnivorous, eating plant material, but small animals. They are aggressively territorial during the season, but are otherwise often found in sizeable flocks on the shallow vegetated lakes they prefer. Chick mortality occurs mainly due to rather than predation as coots have difficulty feeding a large family of hatchlings on the tiny shrimp. Most chicks died in the first 10 days after hatching, when they are most dependent on adults for food. Coots can be brutal to their own young under pressure such as the lack of food. After a short while, these attacks concentrate on the weaker chicks, the coot may eventually raise only two or three out of nine hatchlings. In this attacking behaviour, the parents are said to tousle their young and this can result in the death of the chick. A group of coots may be referred to as a covert or cover, minor Coot videos on the Internet Bird Collection Beach, Chandler B. ed.
Coot. Chicago, F. E. Compton and Co
Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are bilaterally symmetric coelomates, in the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized via segmentation. There are additional extinct taxa, the Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata, consisting of chordates with a skull, the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, the worlds largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans. Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion, which includes the acorn worms, has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but it now is usually treated as a separate phylum. The Hemichordata, along with the Echinodermata, form the Ambulacraria, the Chordata and Ambulacraria form the superphylum Deuterostomia, composed of the deuterostomes.
Attempts to work out the relationships of the chordates have produced several hypotheses. All of the earliest chordate fossils have found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna. Because the fossil record of early chordates is poor, only molecular phylogenetics offers a prospect of dating their emergence. However, the use of molecular phylogenetics for dating evolutionary transitions is controversial and it has proved difficult to produce a detailed classification within the living chordates. Attempts to produce family trees shows that many of the traditional classes are paraphyletic. While this has been known since the 19th century, an insistence on only monophyletic taxa has resulted in vertebrate classification being in a state of flux. Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson, it was already in prevalent use by 1880, ernst Haeckel described a taxon comprising tunicates and vertebrates in 1866. Though he used the German vernacular form, it is allowed under the ICZN code because of its subsequent latinization, among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, and in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail.
In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the pharynx is the part of the throat immediately behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, a muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. This is a groove in the wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus and it stores iodine, and may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland
Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the worlds bird species. Flight assists birds while feeding, avoiding predators, and this article discusses the mechanics of bird flight, with emphasis on the varied forms of birds wings. The specifics of hovering, take-off and landing are examined, additional adaptations of birds bodies relating to their flying ability are covered. Finally, theories on the evolution of flight are discussed. The fundamentals of flight are similar to those of aircraft, in which the aerodynamic forces sustaining flight are lift. Lift force is produced by the action of air flow on the wing, the airfoil is shaped such that the air provides a net upward force on the wing, while the movement of air is directed downward. Additional net lift may come from airflow around the body in some species. Aerodynamic drag is the force opposite to the direction of motion, the streamlining of birds body and wings reduces these forces. Flapping involves two stages, the down-stroke, which provides the majority of the thrust, and the up-stroke, at each up-stroke the wing is slightly folded inwards to reduce the energetic cost of flapping-wing flight.
Birds change the angle of attack continuously within a flap, as well as with speed, when in gliding flight, the upward aerodynamic force on both birds and gliders is equal to the weight. The birds forelimbs are the key to flight, each wing has a central vane to hit the wind, composed of three limb bones, the humerus and radius. The other set of feathers, behind the carpal joint on the ulna, are called the secondaries. The remaining feathers on the wing are known as coverts, of which there are three sets, the wing sometimes has vestigial claws. Albatrosses have locking mechanisms in the joints that reduce the strain on the muscles during soaring flight. Female birds exposed to predators during ovulation produce chicks that grow their wings faster than chicks produced by predator-free females, both adaptations may make them better at avoiding avian predators. The shape of the wing is important in determining the capabilities of a bird. Different shapes correspond to different trade-offs between advantages such as speed, low use, and maneuverability.
Two important parameters are the ratio and wing loading
Plumage refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies, and may vary with age classes, within species there can be different colour morphs. The placement of feathers on a bird are not haphazzard, but rather emerge in organized, overlapping rows and groups, most birds moult, usually before and after breeding, resulting in a breeding or nuptial plumage and a basic plumage. Many ducks and some species such as the red junglefowl have males wearing a bright nuptial plumage while breeding. The painted buntings juveniles have two inserted moults in their first autumn, each yielding plumage like an adult females, the first starts a few days after fledging replacing the juvenile plumage with an auxiliary formative plumage, the second a month or so giving the formative plumage. Abnormal plumages include a variety of conditions, total loss of colour, is rare, but partial loss of colours is more common.
Some species are polymorphic, having two or more colour variants. A few species have special types of polymorphism, as in the male ruff which has an assortment of different colours around the head, hen feathering is an inherited plumage character in domestic fowl controlled by a single gene. Plumology is the name for the science that is associated with the study of feathers, almost all species of birds moult at least annually, usually after the breeding season, known as the pre-basic moult. This resulting covering of feathers, which will last either until the breeding season or until the next annual moult, is known as the basic plumage. Many species undertake another moult prior to the season known as the pre-alternate moult. The alternate plumage is brighter than the basic plumage, for the purposes of sexual display. The Humphrey-Parkes terminology requires some attention to detail to name moults, many ducks have bright, colourful plumage, exhibiting strong sexual dimorphism. However, they moult into a dull plumage after breeding in mid-summer and this drab, female-like appearance is called eclipse plumage.
When they shed feathers to go into eclipse, the ducks become flightless for a period of time. Although mainly found in the Anatidae, a few species, including related red junglefowl, most fairywrens. There are hereditary as well as variations in plumage that are rare. Melanism refers to an excess of black or dark colours, erythromelanism or erythrism is the result of excessive reddish brown erythromelanin deposition in feathers that normally lack melanin
Pacific black duck
It is usually called the grey duck in New Zealand, where it is known by its Maori name, pārera. This sociable duck is found in a variety of habitats, and its nesting habits are much like those of the mallard. It feeds by upending, like other Anas ducks and it has a dark body, and a paler head with a dark crown and facial stripes. In flight, it shows a green speculum and pale underwing, the size range is 54–61 cm, males tend to be larger than females, and some island forms are smaller and darker than the main populations. It is not resident on the Marianas islands, but sometimes occurs there during migration, the now extinct Mariana mallard was probably originally derived from hybrids between this species and the mallard, which came to the islands during migration and settled down there. Rhymer et al. say their data points to the loss of identity of the grey duck as a separate species in New Zealand. Heather, Barrie D. & Robertson, Hugh A, the Field Guide to the Birds of New Zealand. BirdLife Species Factsheet Parera, the grey duck Australian Museum fact sheet
The Anatinae are a subfamily of the family Anatidae. Its surviving members are the ducks, which feed mainly at the surface rather than by diving. The other members of the Anatinae are the extinct moa-nalo, a young, there has been much debate about the dabbling ducks systematical status and which ducks belong to the Anatinae. As understood here, the subfamily contains only the dabbling ducks and their close relatives, the Anatinae are considered to include most ducks, and the dabbling ducks form a tribe Anatini within these. The classification as presented here more appropriately reflects the uncertainty about the interrelationships of the major lineages of Anatidae. The dabbling duck group, of worldwide distribution, was delimited in a 1986 study to include eight genera, Salvadoris teal is almost certainly closely related to the pink-eared duck, and other genera are likewise of unresolved affiliation. The peculiar marbled duck, formerly assigned to the dabbling ducks, is thought to be a diving duck or even a distinct subfamily.
This group of ducks has been so named because its members feed mainly on vegetable matter by upending on the surface, or grazing. These are mostly gregarious ducks of freshwater or estuaries and these birds are strong fliers and northern species are highly migratory. Compared to other types of duck, their legs are placed more towards the centre of their bodies and they walk well on land, and some species feed terrestrially. Puddle ducks, as they are called, generally feed on the surface of the water or feed on very shallow bottoms. They are not equipped to dive down several feet like their diving counterparts, the most prominent difference between puddle ducks and divers are the size of the feet. A puddle ducks feet are smaller because they do not need the extra propulsion to dive for their forage. Another distinguishing characteristic of puddle ducks when compared to diving ducks is the way in which take flight when spooked or are on the move. Puddle ducks spring straight up from the water, but diving ducks need to gain momentum to take off, so they must run across the water a short distance to gain flight.
Traditionally, most ducks were assigned to either the shelducks, the ducks, and the dabbling and diving ducks. However, the perching ducks turned out to be an assemblage of various tropical waterfowl that happened to evolve the ability to perch well in their forested habitat. Several of these, such as the Brazilian teal, were assigned to the Anatinae
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, the Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for The Guardian. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders, the Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardians print edition had a daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US, the newspapers online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers, notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowlers phone.
The investigation led to the closure of the UKs biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, in 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the British Prime Minister David Camerons links to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of The Grauniad, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle and they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they better than those that do. When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, the prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty.
Warmly advocate the cause of Reform, endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and. Support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, in 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828. The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian the foul prostitute, the Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labours claims. The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators –, if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. CP Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised and he was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylors son in 1907. Under Scott, the moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886
The bufflehead is a small sea duck of the genus Bucephala, the goldeneyes. This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Anas albeola, the genus name is derived from Ancient Greek boukephalos, from bous and kephale, head, a reference to the oddly bulbous head shape of the species. The species name albeola is from Latin albus, the English name is a combination of buffalo and head, again referring to the head shape. This is most noticeable when the male puffs out the feathers on the head, the bufflehead ranges from 32–40 cm long and weighs 270–550 g, with the drakes larger than the females. Averaging 35.5 cm and 370 g, it rivals the green-winged teal as the smallest American duck, adult males are striking black and white, with iridescent green and purple heads and a large white patch behind the eye. Females are grey-toned with a white patch behind the eye. They are migratory and most of winter in protected coastal waters, or open inland waters, on the east and west coasts of North America.
The bufflehead is a rare vagrant to western Europe. Their breeding habitat is wooded lakes and ponds in Alaska and Canada, Buffleheads have evolved their small size to fit the nesting cavity of their metabiotic host, a woodpecker, the northern flicker. Due to their size, they are highly active, undertaking dives almost continuously while sustained by their high metabolism. They do not tend to collect in large flocks, groups are limited to small numbers. One duck serves as a sentry, watching for predators as the others in the dive in search of food. Buffleheads are amongst the last waterfowl to leave their breeding grounds and one of the worlds most punctual migrants, Buffleheads are monogamous, and the females return to the same breeding site, year after year. They nest in cavities in trees, primarily aspens or poplars, using mostly old flicker nests, nest competitors include mountain bluebird, tree swallow, and European starling. There was one recorded instance of a female Barrows goldeneye killing an adult female.
Smaller cavities are preferred because of competition with the larger goldeneyes. Females may be killed on the nest by mammals, such as weasels or mink, average clutch size is nine, and eggs average 50.5 by 36.3 mm. Incubation averages 30 days, and nest success is high compared to ground-nesting species like the teal, a day after the last duckling hatches, the brood leaps from the nest cavity
In fact, these living species are all included in Anatidae except for the three screamers and the magpie goose. All species in the order are highly adapted for an aquatic existence at the water surface, the males, except for the screamers, have a penis, a trait that has disappeared in Neoaves. All are web-footed for efficient swimming, the earliest known Anseriform is the recently discovered Vegavis, which lived during the Cretaceous period. It is thought that the Anseriformes originated when the original Galloanserae split into the two main lineages, the extinct dromornithids may possibly represent early offshoots of the anseriform line, if they arent stem-Galliformes instead, and so maybe Gastornis. The ancestors of the Anseriformes developed the characteristic bill structure that they still share, the prehistoric wading presbyornithids were even more bizarre. The Anseriformes and the Galliformes are the most primitive neognathous birds, Anatidae systematics, especially regarding placement of some odd genera in the dabbling ducks or shelducks, is not fully resolved.
See the Anatidae article for information, and for alternate taxonomic approaches. Some unusual groups, such as the extinct Gastornithidae and Dromornithidae, are found to be at the base of the Anseriformes family tree. Anatidae is traditionally divided into subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae, the Anatinae consists of tribes Anatini, Aythyini and Tadornini. The higher-order classification below follows a phylogenetic analysis performed by Angolin,2007, Mikkos Phylogeny Archive, the clade Somaterini has a single genus Somateria. List of Anseriformes by population Agnolin, F. Brontornis burmeisteri Moreno & Mercerat, un Anseriformes gigante del Mioceno Medio de Patagonia, revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales. Clarke, J. A. Tambussi, C. P. Noriega, erickson, G. M. & Ketcham, R. A. Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the Cretaceous, & Zusi, R. L. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds based on comparative anatomy. Zoological Journal of the Linnen Society, murray, P. F.
& Vickers-Rich, P. Magnificent Mihirungs, The Colossal Flightless Birds of the Australian Dreamtime
Geese are waterfowl belonging to the tribe Anserini of the family Anatidae. This tribe comprises the genera Anser and Chen, some other birds, mostly related to the shelducks, have goose as part of their names. More distantly related members of the family Anatidae are swans, most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks, the word goose is a direct descendent of Proto-Indo-European root, *ghans-. In Germanic languages, the root gave Old English gōs with the plural gēs and gandres, Frisian goes and guoske, New High German Gans, Gänse, and Ganter, and Old Norse gās. The term goose applies to the female in particular, while applies to the male in particular. Young birds before fledging are called goslings, the collective noun for a group of geese on the ground is a gaggle, when in flight, they are called a skein, a team, or a wedge, when flying close together, they are called a plump. The three living genera of true geese are, grey geese, including the goose, and domestic geese, white geese.
Either these or, more probably, the goose-like Coscoroba swan is the closest living relative of the true geese, the aptly named Anser atavus from some 12 million years ago had even more plesiomorphies in common with swans. In addition, some birds are known from subfossil remains found on the Hawaiian Islands. Geese are monogamous, living in permanent pairs throughout the year, unlike most other permanently monogamous animals, paired geese are more dominant and feed more, two factors that result in more young. Some mainly Southern Hemisphere birds are called geese, most of which belong to the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae, the blue-winged goose, Cyanochen cyanopterus, and the Cape Barren goose, Cereopsis novaehollandiae, have disputed affinities. They belong to separate ancient lineages that may ally either to the Tadorninae, the three species of small waterfowl in the genus Nettapus are named pygmy geese. They seem to represent another ancient lineage, with affinities to the Cape Barren goose or the spur-winged goose.
A genus of prehistorically extinct seaducks, Chendytes, is sometimes called diving-geese due to their large size, the unusual magpie goose is in a family of its own, the Anseranatidae. The northern gannet, a seabird, is known as the Solan goose, although it is a bird unrelated to the true geese. Well-known sayings about geese include, To have a gander is to something in detail. Whats sauce for the goose is sauce for the means that what is appropriate treatment for one person is equally appropriate for someone else. Saying that someones goose is cooked means that they have suffered, or are about to suffer, a wild goose chase is a useless, futile waste of time and effort
Duck as food
In food terminology, duck or duckling refers to duck meat, the meat of several species of bird in the family Anatidae, found in both fresh and salt water. One species of duck, the mallard, has been domesticated and is a common livestock bird in many cultures. Duck is eaten in various cuisines around the world, magret refers specifically to the breast of a mulard or Muscovy duck that has been force fed to produce foie gras. Duck meat is derived primarily from the breasts and legs of ducks, the meat of the legs is darker and somewhat fattier than the meat of the breasts, although the breast meat is darker than the breast meat of a chicken or a turkey. Being waterfowl, ducks have a layer of heat-insulating subcutaneous fat between the skin and the meat, de-boned duck breast can be grilled like steak, usually leaving the skin and fat on. Internal organs such as heart and kidneys may be eaten, Duck is particularly predominant in the Chinese cuisine — a popular dish is Peking duck, which is made from the Pekin duck.
Duck meat is eaten with scallions and hoisin sauce wrapped in a tortilla-like pancake made of flour and water or a soft. The Pekin duck is the most common meat consumed in the United States. Because most commercially raised Pekins come from Long Island, New York, Pekins are sometimes called Long Island ducks, some specialty breeds have become more popular in recent years, notably the Muscovy duck, and the mulard duck. Unlike most other domesticated ducks, Muscovy ducks are not descended from mallards, Duck is used in a variety of dishes around the world, most of which involve roasting for at least part of the cooking process to aid in crisping the skin. Some dishes use parts of the duck as an ingredient along with other ingredients, notable duck dishes include, Ballotine Bebek Betutu – a famous traditional dish from Bali, Indonesia. The duck is first seasoned with pungent roots and various herbs, wrapped with banana leaves, chicken is used to prepare Betutu. Chicken and duck blood soup Duck blood and vermicelli soup Duck confit – duck legs that have been cured in salt and poached in duck fat, typically with garlic and other herbs.
The French word confit means preserved, and the French name for duck confit is confit de canard, czernina – a sweet and sour Polish soup made of duck blood and clear poultry broth. It was once considered a symbol of Polish culture until the 19th century, Duck à lorange – a classic French dish in which the duck is roasted and served with an orange sauce. Long Island roast duckling – this is a roasted bird. When done properly, most of the fat melts off during the process, leaving a crispy skin. Some restaurants on Long Island serve this dish with a cherry sauce, lemon duck Nanjing Salted Duck Oritang – a variety of guk, Korean soup made with duck and various vegetables
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language of Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval South Asia. As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia, as one of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, philosophical, the compositions of Sanskrit were orally transmitted for much of its early history by methods of memorization of exceptional complexity and fidelity. Thereafter and derivatives of the Brahmi script came to be used, Sanskrit is today one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which mandates the Indian government to develop the language. It continues to be used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns.
The Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- may be translated as refined, elaborated, as a term for refined or elaborated speech, the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit in the Manusmṛti and the Mahabharata. The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the fourth century BCE. Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, evolved out of the earlier Vedic form, the present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium BCE. Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or Pāṇinian Sanskrit as separate dialects, although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a collection of hymns and theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, for nearly 2000 years, Sanskrit was the language of a cultural order that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent East Asia.
A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of Indian epic poetry—the Ramayana, the deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or innovations, and not because they are pre-Paninian. Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations ārṣa, meaning of the ṛṣis, in some contexts, there are more prakritisms than in Classical Sanskrit proper. There were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit, paścimottarī, madhyadeśī, pūrvi, the predecessors of the first three dialects are attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest. In the 2001 Census of India,14,035 Indians reported Sanskrit to be their first language, in India, Sanskrit is among the 14 original languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. The state of Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its official language. In October 2012 social activist Hemant Goswami filed a petition in the Punjab. More than 3,000 Sanskrit works have been composed since Indias independence in 1947, much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature and modern literature in other Indian languages