Henry II of Navarre
Henry succeeded his mother, Queen Catherine, upon her death. His father was her husband and co-ruler, King John III, after the latest failed reconquest attempt of Navarre in 1516, John III died, followed by Catherine Is demise in her independent dependencies of Béarn. Heir apparent Henry was proclaimed King of Navarre, and was crowned in Lescar. After ineffectual conferences at Noyon in 1516 and at Montpellier in 1518, a French and Navarrese expedition made another attempt at reconquering occupied Navarre, but were ultimately repelled by Charles after the Battle of Noain. In 1525, Henry was taken prisoner at the Battle of Pavia, by her, he was the father of Joan III of Navarre, and was consequently the grandfather of Henry IV of France. In 1530, after the Treaty of Cambrai between Castile and France, Charles V evacuated the northernmost county of Navarre, Lower Navarre, the Pyrenean border between Lower and Upper Navarre now constitutes the Franco-Spanish border in this sector. Henry had some sympathy with the Huguenots, and was fluent in both French and Spanish, according to the seigneur de Brantôme.
He died at Hagetmau on 25 May 1555
Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy
Emmanuel Philibert was Duke of Savoy from 1553 to 1580, KG. Born in Chambéry, Emmanuel Philibert was the child of Charles III, Duke of Savoy. Instead, he continued to serve the Habsburgs in hopes of recovering his lands, in this capacity he personally led the Spanish invasion of northern France and won a brilliant victory at Saint-Quentin on 10 August 1557. He was a suitor to Lady Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII of England and their only child was Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy. Following the death of his uncle, Henry I of Portugal, on 31 January 1580, however, he soon realised that he had quite a fragile position due to the claims of Philip II, who gained control of the country, thus uniting Spain and Portugal. Emmanuel Philibert spent his rule regaining what had been lost in the wars with France. A skilled political strategist, he took advantage of various squabbles in Europe to slowly regain territory from both the French and the Spanish, including the city of Turin. Internally, he moved the capital of the duchy from Chambéry to Turin and he was attempting to acquire the marquisate of Saluzzo when he died in Turin.
Later, he was buried in the Chapel of the Holy Shroud of the Turin Cathedral, where he did move the Sindone in 1578
Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne.
Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over him
Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France
Louis Joseph de France was the second child and elder son of King Louis XVI of France and Marie Antoinette. As son of a king of France, he was a Fils de France, Louis Joseph died at age seven of tuberculosis and was succeeded as Dauphin de France by his four-year-old brother Louis-Charles. Louis Joseph Xavier François de France was born at the Palace of Versailles on October 22,1781 and his elder sister, Marie Thérèse Charlotte, Madame Royale, was not allowed to succeed to the throne due to the Salic Law. The birth of Louis Joseph at that point ruined his uncles hopes of becoming the king and his private household was created upon his birth and he was put into the care of Geneviève Poitrine, one of his wet nurses. She was accused of transmitting tuberculosis to the young Dauphin and his sous-gouverneur was the Maréchal de camp Antoine Charles Augustin dAllonville. Another member of his household was Yolande de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac, Louis Joseph was very close to his sister and to his parents, who closely watched over his education.
He was always praised for being a bright child for his young age, however. Finally the Queen got closer to her husband and while he was not the man of her dream, out of fear for his health, he was transported to the Château de La Muette where the air was reputed to have healing properties. The time spent at La Muette seemed to have helped Louis Joseph recover, and almost a year on March 1785, Louis Joseph returned to La Muette, in 1786, the fevers returned but his household regarded them as being of no importance. These fevers, were the first signs of tuberculosis, in the same year, Louis Josephs education was turned over to men, as was customary for the sons of the kings of France. By January 1788 the fevers grew more frequent and the disease progressed quickly, Louis Joseph died at the Château de Meudon on June 4,1789, at the age of seven and a half, during the Estates General. He was buried on June 13 in a ceremony at the Basilica of St Denis. were desecrated. At the death of Louis Joseph, the title of Dauphin passed to his younger brother Louis Charles, Duke of Normandy, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, is named after him.
The borough of Dauphin, so named when it was incorporated in 1845, is located in Dauphin County. It is also, named for him, history of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania Historical Commission, Pennsylvania
Joan II, Countess of Auvergne
Joan II, Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne, known as Jeanne de Boulogne, and Joan, Duchess of Berry, was the daughter of John II of Auvergne, and second wife of John, Duke of Berry. She is arguably most famous for saving the life of her nephew, King Charles VI of France, Joan was born c.1378 to John II, Count of Auvergne and Boulogne and his wife Alenor de Comiinges. Joans mother was a descendant of Peter II of Courtenay, Emperor of Constantinople, in 1389, Joan was married to John, Duke of Berry, a son of John II of France, whose wife had died in the previous year. At the age of fifteen, Joan was present at the infamous Bal des Ardents given by Queen Isabeau, wife of the Duke of Berrys nephew King Charles, on 28 January 1393. At length, the King became separated from the others, and made his way to the Duchess, who jokingly refused to let him wander off again until he told her his name. When Charles brother, Louis of Orléans, accidentally set the other dancers on fire, Joan swathed the King in her skirts, protecting him from the flames, upon her fathers death in 1394, Joan became Countess of Auvergne and Boulogne.
Joan was widowed upon the death of the Duke of Berry in 1416 and she married Georges de la Trémoille soon after, they produced no children, and the counties passed to her cousin, Marie I of Auvergne, upon her death in 1424. Echols and Marty Williams, An Annotated Index of Medieval Women, key Figures in Medieval Europe, An Encyclopedia
Dauphin of France
The Dauphin of France —strictly The Dauphin of Viennois —was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word is French for dolphin, as a reference to the depiction of the animal on their coat of arms, guigues IV, Count of Vienne, had a dolphin on his coat of arms and was nicknamed le Dauphin. The wife of the Dauphin was known as la Dauphine, the first French prince called le Dauphin was Charles the Wise, to become Charles V of France. The title was equivalent to the English Prince of Wales, the Scottish Duke of Rothesay, the Portuguese Prince of Brazil. The official style of a Dauphin of France, prior to 1461, was par la grâce de Dieu, dauphin de Viennois, comte de Valentinois et de Diois. A Dauphin of France united the coat of arms of the Dauphiné, which featured Dolphins, with the French fleurs-de-lis, and might, where appropriate, further unite that with other arms. Because of this, the Dauphiné suffered from anarchy in the 14th and 15th centuries, for example, he married Charlotte of Savoy against his fathers wishes.
Savoy was an ally of the Dauphiné, and Louis wished to reaffirm that alliance to stamp out rebels. Louis was driven out of the Dauphiné by Charles VIIs soldiers in 1456, after his succession as Louis XI of France in 1461, Louis united the Dauphiné with France, bringing it under royal control. The sons of the King of France hold the style and rank of Son of France, while male-line grandsons hold the style, the sons and grandsons of the Dauphin ranked higher than their cousins, being treated as the kings children and grandchildren respectively. The title was abolished by the Constitution of 1791, which made France a constitutional monarchy, under the constitution the heir to the throne was restyled Prince Royal, taking effect from the inception of the Legislative Assembly on 1 October 1791. The title was restored in potentia under the Bourbon Restoration of Louis XVIII, with the accession of his brother Charles X, Charles son and heir Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême automatically became Dauphin.
With the removal of the Bourbons the title fell into disuse, in Mark Twains Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck encounters two odd characters who turn out to be professional con men. One of them claims that he should be treated with deference, since he is really an impoverished English duke, in Baronness Emma Orczys Eldorado, the Scarlet Pimpernel rescues the Dauphin from prison and helps spirit him from France. Alphonse Daudet wrote a story called The Death of the Dauphin. It is mentioned in Cormac McCarthys Blood Meridian
Yolande of Valois
Yolande of France was a Duchess consort of Savoy. She was a daughter of King Charles VII of France, The Victorious and she married Duke Amadeus IX of Savoy in 1452. She was named after her grandmother, Yolande of Aragon and she is sometimes known as Yolande of France. Yolande acted as regent of Savoy in 1472-78 and her husbands retiring disposition and epilepsy left her in control of the state, to struggle with the Savoyard barons. After his death in March 1472, she became regent for her son Philibert until her own death, like her brother Charles, she was an ally to Charles, duke of Burgundy against her own brother Louis XI of France. After the humiliation of Burgundy at the Battle of Grandson in 1476, after her release, she made peace with her brother and remained on good terms with him until her death
Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel I, known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was nicknamed Testa dfeu for his rashness and military aggression and he was born in the Castle of Rivoli in Piedmont, the only child of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry. He became duke on 30 August 1580, well-educated, and intelligent, he spoke Italian and Spanish, as well as Latin. He proved an able warrior although short and hunchbacked, being ambitious and confident, he pursued a policy of expansion for his duchy, seeking to expand it into a kingdom. In the autumn of 1588, taking advantage of the civil war weakening France during the reign of his first cousin Henry III, he occupied the Marquisate of Saluzzo, which was under French protection. The new king, Henry IV, demanded the restitution of land, but Charles Emmanuel refused. The broader conflict involving France and Spain ended with the Peace of Vervins, after the Duke started talks with Spain, Henry threatened to return to war until, with the Treaty of Lyon, Saluzzo went to Savoy in exchange for Bresse and other territories over the Alps.
By terms of the treaty, the eradication of Protestants was to be carried on in the duchy, in 1602 Charles Emmanuel attacked the city of Geneva. On 11 December that year he led his troops to the city during the night, the Savoyard cuirassiers were ordered to dismount and climb the city walls in full armour as a shock tactic. However, the alarm was raised by a watchman and Genevas militia rose to meet the invaders. The attempted raid was a failure, and 54 Savoyards were killed. Charles Emmanuels army retreated in a panic and the Savoyard prisoners were executed, the heavy helmets worn by Charles Emmanuels troops, which featured visors made in crude imitation of a human face, were henceforth known as Savoyard helmets after this notorious incident. A number of suits of armour were captured by the Swiss. The Geneva militias successful defence of the walls is still celebrated as an act of heroism during the annual festival of LEscalade. Nevertheless, Charles Emmanuel obtained the help of French troops to free Alba from the Spaniards and his sister Christine Marie was married to Charles Emmanuels son, Victor Amadeus in 1619.
In the First Genoese-Savoyard War of 1625, Charles Emmanuel tried with the help of France to obtain access to the Mediterranean Sea at the expense of Genoa, after Spanish intervention, the status-quo was restored in the Treaty of Monçon. However, when the French occupied Casale Monferrato during the War of the Mantuan Succession, when Richelieu invaded Piedmont and conquered Susa, the duke changed sides again and returned to an alliance with France. The French troops, soon backed by army, occupied Pinerolo
John II of France
John II, called John the Good, was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death. While John was a prisoner in London, his son Charles became regent and faced several rebellions, to liberate his father, he concluded the Treaty of Brétigny, by which France lost many territories and paid an enormous ransom. In an exchange of hostages, which included his second son Louis, Duke of Anjou, when John was informed that Louis had escaped from captivity, he voluntarily returned to England, where he died in 1364. He was succeeded by his son Charles V, John was nine years old when his father had himself crowned as Philip VI of France. Initially a marriage with Eleanor of Woodstock, sister of King Edward III of England, was considered, Bohemia had aspirations to control Lombardy and needed French diplomatic support. The military clauses stipulated that, in the event of war, the political clauses ensured that the Lombard crown would not be disputed if the king of Bohemia managed to obtain it.
Philip selected Bonne of Bohemia as a wife for his son, as she was closer to child-bearing age, and the dowry was fixed at 120,000 florins. John reached the age of majority,13 years and one day, on 27 April 1332, the wedding was celebrated on 28 July at the church of Notre-Dame in Melun in the presence of six thousand guests. The festivities were prolonged by a two months when the young groom was finally knighted at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. Upon his accession as Duke of Normandy in 1332, John had to deal with the reality that most of the Norman nobility was already allied with the English camp, Normandy depended economically more on maritime trade across the English Channel than on river trade on the Seine. The Duchy had not been English for 150 years, but many landowners had holdings across the Channel, consequently, to line up behind one or other sovereign risked confiscation. Therefore, Norman members of the nobility were governed as interdependent clans and it was split into two key camps, the counts of Tancarville and the counts of Harcourt, which had been in conflict for generations.
King Philip, worried about the richest area of the breaking into bloodshed, ordered the bailiffs of Bayeux. Geoffroy dHarcourt raised troops against the king, rallying a number of nobles protective of their autonomy, the rebels demanded that Geoffroy be made duke, thus guaranteeing the autonomy granted by the charter. Royal troops took the castle at Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte and Geoffroy was exiled to Brabant, three of his companions were decapitated in Paris on 3 April 1344. In 1342, John was in Avignon at the coronation of Pope Clement VI, by 1345, increasing numbers of Norman rebels had begun to pay homage to Edward III, constituting a major threat to the legitimacy of the Valois kings. The defeat at the Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346, defections by the nobility, whose land fell within the broad economic influence of England, particularly in the north and west, increased. Consequently, King Philip VI decided to seek a truce, Duke John met Geoffroy dHarcourt, to whom the king agreed to return all confiscated goods, even appointing him sovereign captain in Normandy