The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
Pauline Bonaparte was the first sovereign Duchess of Guastalla, an imperial French Princess and the Princess consort of Sulmona and Rossano. She was the child of Letizia Ramolino and Carlo Buonaparte. Her elder brother, was the first Emperor of the French and she married Charles Leclerc, a French general, a union ended by his death in 1802. Later, she married Camillo Borghese, 6th Prince of Sulmona and her only child, Dermide Leclerc, born from her first marriage, died in childhood. She was the only Bonaparte sibling to visit Napoleon on his principality, maria Paola Buonaparte, the sixth child of Letizia Ramolino and Carlo Buonaparte, Corsicas representative to the court of King Louis XVI of France, was born on 20 October 1780 in Ajaccio, Corsica. She was popularly known as Paoletta, and her family took a French spelling of their surname. Little is known about her childhood, except that she received no formal education, following Carlos death in 1785, the family was plunged into poverty. Her brother Lucien Bonaparte made seditious comments at the local Jacobin chapter in the summer of 1793 and it was there on the mainland that she became known as Paulette.
The income the Bonapartes earned from their vineyards and other holdings on Corsica was interrupted by the English occupation and their existence became so dire that the Bonaparte women reportedly resorted to washing clothes for payment. Regardless, they received, like other Corsican refugees following the English invasion, from their landing place, they moved to Marseille, where General Napoleon Bonaparte, her elder brother, introduced her to Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron, the proconsul of Marseille. He intended them to marry, but Letizia objected, despite the fact that Pauline loved Stanislas, married her to General Charles Leclerc in French-occupied Milan on 14 June 1797. Napoleon returned to Paris and delegated the office of commander-in-chief of the French army in Italy to his brother-in-law, Pauline gave birth to a boy, Dermide Louis Napoleon, on 20 April 1798. In celebration, General Leclerc acquired a property outside Novellara worth 160,000 French francs, ill-health forced Leclerc to resign from his military post in October of the same year, he was transferred to Paris.
Leclerc was again relocated upon arrival, this time to Brittany, Pauline stayed in Paris with Dermide. Laure de Permond—the future Duchesse dAbrantès—and her mother welcomed Pauline into their salon at the rue Saint-Croix, Napoleon seized power in Coup of Brumaire in November 1799, deposing the Directory, he pronounced himself First Consul. Saint-Domingue had been a French colony since 1697, but had been in rebellion against France since 1791, Napoleon wished to restore French authority there, and so organized an expedition. He put General Leclerc at its head, appointing him Governor-General of the island, Leclerc and Pauline embarked for the colony from Brest on 14 December 1801. The gubernatorial family occupied the flagship, lOcéan, after a 45-day journey, the fleet arrived in Le Cap harbour
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma and Piacenza was the head of the House of Bourbon-Parma from 1977 until his death. Carlos Hugo was the Carlist pretender to the throne of Spain under the name Carlos Hugo I and he sought to change the political direction of the Carlist movement through the Carlist Party, of which he was the official head during the fatal Montejurra Incident. He was born as a male descendant of Louis XIV in Paris. On 28 June 1963 he was officially renamed Charles Hugues, by judgment of the court of appeal of la Seine and he was a French citizen, and from 1980, a naturalized Spanish citizen. His marriage to Princess Irene of the Netherlands in 1964 caused a crisis in the Netherlands. Carlos Hugo was the son of Xavier, Duke of Parma, in 1977, his father died, and Carlos Hugo succeeded him claiming the thrones of Parma and Spain. In 1952, Carlos Hugos father publicly laid claim to the Spanish throne as Javier I, but he was ignored by Spanish dictator Francisco Franco, on 5 May 1957 Javier proclaimed Carlos Hugo Prince of Asturias and Duke of San Jaime.
In February 1964 Carlos Hugo assumed the title Duke of Madrid, after alienating many Carlists during the mid-1960s by his attempts to approach Franco Carlos Hugos increasingly leftist politics prompted the prince to embrace Titoist socialism. Carlos Hugo assumed Carlist leadership in August 1975, during the Franco regime, the organization of Carlism has been known as the Traditionalist Communion. After Francos death, the Carlist movement was badly split and this incident became known as the Montejurra massacre. In the first democratic elections on 15 June 1977, only one Carlist senator was elected and writer Fidel Carazo from Soria, since then, Carlists have remained extra-parliamentary, obtaining only town council seats. Carlos Hugo abandoned his Carlist claims in 1979 and became a naturalised Spanish citizen as Carlos-Hugo de Borbón-Parma y Borbón, in 1980, he left the political arena, abandoning the new Partido Carlista which he had created. The party would become a founding member of the United Left coalition.
In 2002 Carlos Hugo donated his Houses archives to Spains national historical archives and this decision was opposed by his brother Sixtus. On 28 September 2003 at Arbonne in France, Carlos Hugo re-asserted his Carlist claim, Carlos Hugos engagement to Princess Irene of the Netherlands, daughter of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, caused a constitutional crisis in the Netherlands for several reasons. Irene lost her rights of succession to the Dutch throne because the government refused to enact a law permitting the marriage and her mother could not go to Madrid to talk Irene out of the marriage and of her conversion to Catholicism because the government advised her against it. The issue that prevented the government from making a law permitting the marriage was Carloss claim to the Spanish throne, the Dutch government saw international political difficulties arising from a possible heir to the Dutch throne holding a controversial claim to the throne of a foreign state. Carlos Hugo and Irene were married on 29 April 1964, in the Borghese Chapel at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, by Cardinal Paolo Giobbe, no other members of the Dutch Royal Family were present, Irenes parents watched the ceremony on television
House of Gonzaga
Their family includes a saint, twelve cardinals and fourteen bishops. Two Gonzaga descendants became empresses of the Holy Roman Empire, the first members of the family of historical importance are known to have collaborated with the Guelph faction alongside the monks of the Polirone Abbey. Starting from the 12th century they became a dominant family in Mantua, growing in wealth when their allies, the Bonacolsi, defeated the traditional familiar enemy, the Casalodi. Ludovico was succeeded by Guido and Ludovico II, while Feltrino, lord of Reggio until 1371, formed the cadet branch of the Gonzaga of Novellara, whose state existed until 1728. Francesco I abandoned the alliance with the Visconti of Milan. In 1530 Federico II received the title of Duke of Mantua, in 1531, the family acquired the Marquisate of Montferrat through marriage. Through maternal ancestors, the Gonzagas inherited the Imperial Byzantine ancestry of the Paleologus, the Gonzaga-Nevers came to rule Mantua again when Louiss son Charles inherited Mantua and Montferrat, triggering the War of the Mantuan Succession.
Another cadet branch were first sovereign counts, dukes of Guastalla and they descended from Ferrante, a younger son of Duke Francesco II of Mantua. Ferrantes grandson, Ferrante II, played a role in the War of the Mantuan Succession, a further cadet branch was that of Sabbioneta, founded by Gianfrancesco, son of Ludovico III. Marie Louise Gonzaga, daughter of Prince Charles Gonzaga-Nevers, was a Polish queen consort from 1645 to her death in 1667. Two daughters of the house, both named Eleanor Gonzaga, became Holy Roman Empresses, by marrying emperors Ferdinand II of Germany and Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, from the latter Empress Eleanor, the current heirs of the Gonzaga descend. St. Aloysius Gonzaga was a member of a branch of this family. The House of Gonzaga is the inspiration for the play-within-the-play in Shakespeares Hamlet, in Act 3 scene 2, they act out a play called The Murder of Gonzago. Gonzaga rule continued in Mantua until 1708 and in Guastalla until 1746, both ruling lines became extinct, and the headship of the House of Gonzaga passed to the Vescovato line, descended from Giovanni, a son of Federico I Gonzaga.
That branch, shorn of sovereign domains, is extant and its head is Don Maurizio Ferrante Gonzaga, Principe del Sacro Romano Impero, Marchese Gonzaga, Conte di Villanova, Conte di Cassolnovo, Marchese del Vodice, Signore di Vescovato, Patrizio Veneto. The branches of the Gonzaga family, showing marquises and dukes of Mantua in bold, dukes of Nevers and Rethel in italics and the Guastalla line to the right
Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
Alexander Farnese was Duke of Parma and Castro from 1586 to 1592, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the cities in the south. His talents as a commander and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries. Alessandro was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese of Parma and Margaret and he had a twin brother, who only lived one month. His mother was the half-sister of Philip II of Spain and John of Austria and he led a significant military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain under the service of his uncle the King. He fought in the Battle of Lepanto and in the Netherlands against the rebels and he accompanied his mother to Brussels when she was appointed Governor of the Netherlands. In 1565 his marriage with Maria of Portugal was celebrated in Brussels with great splendour and it was seven years before he again had the opportunity to display his great military talents.
During that time the provinces of the Netherlands had revolted against Spanish rule. In the autumn of 1577, Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of reinforcements, shortly afterwards Don John, whose health had broken down, died. Phillip appointed Farnese to take his place, both as Captain-General of the Army of Flanders, and as Governor-General, Farnese was confronted with a difficult situation. Perceiving that his opponents were divided between Catholic and Protestant and Walloon, he worked to exploit these divisions. By this means, he regained the allegiance of the Walloon provinces for the king, by the treaty of Arras, January 1579, he secured the support of the Malcontents for the royal cause. The rebels in the seven northern provinces formed the Union of Utrecht, formally abjuring Phillips rule, as soon as he had secured a base of operations in Hainaut and Artois, Farnese set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell under his control, Maastricht, Breda and Ghent opened their gates.
In a war composed mostly of sieges rather than battles, he proved his mettle and he finally laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp. The town was open to the sea, strongly fortified, and defended with resolute determination and they were led by the famous Marnix van St. Aldegonde and assisted by an ingenious Italian engineer named Federigo Giambelli. The siege began in 1584 and called all of Farneses military genius. He cut off all access to Antwerp from the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the Scheldt from Calloo to Oordam, the terms offered included the clause that all Protestants had to leave the city within four years
Most often, it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival or has been abolished. The term claimant is sometimes preferred, but the term pretend in itself is not pejorative in this context, the original meaning of the English word pretend comes from the French word prétendre, and originally meant to put forward, to profess or claim. A pretender was, simply one who put forward or professed a claim to a title or, in modern terms, only did the word acquire its modern sense of professing or claiming falsely. The term pretender applies to claimants with arguably genuine rights and it can be used for those possessing an arguable right to a position who do not actively claim it, as well as impostors with wholly fabricated claims. People in the category often assume the identities of deceased or missing royalty to support their claim. A Papal pretender is called an Antipope, ancient Rome knew many pretenders to the offices making up the title of Roman Emperor, especially during the crisis of the Third Century.
The Loeb translation of the chapter of the Augustan History therefore represents the Latin triginta tyranni by Thirty Pretenders to avoid this artificial. Not all of them were afterwards considered pretenders, several were successful in becoming Emperor at least in part of the Empire for a brief period. Disputed successions to the Roman Empire long continued at Constantinople, at times, some of these states and titles were subjected to multiple claims. Following the defeat and death of King James III King of Cyprus in 1474, his younger and illegitimate brother, Eugène Matteo de Lusignan, styled dArménie removed to Sicily, to Malta. He was acknowledged as heir to the thrones of Cyprus, Jerusalem. The title of Barone de Baccari was created in 1508 for Jacques Matteo dArmenia with the remainder to his descendants in perpetuity, the claimant to the throne of the last Greek kingdom is Constantine II, who reigned as king from 1964 to 1973. He belongs to the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
His designated heir is his son Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece, the establishment of the First Republic and the execution of Louis XVI in 1793 led to the kings son becoming pretender to the abolished throne, styled as Louis XVII. As Louis XVII was a child and imprisoned in Paris by the revolutionaries, his uncle, after Louis XVII died in 1795, the Comte de Provence became pretender himself, as Louis XVIII. Louis XVIII was restored to the throne in 1814, and was succeeded by his brother Charles X in 1824, Charles X was, forced into exile by the July Revolution. For most of the July Monarchy, the legitimists, as supporters of the senior line came to be known, were uncertain of whom to support. On his uncles death, Bordeaux proclaimed himself king as Henry V, but remains known to history by his title of pretense, the Count of Chambord
Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Jean reigned as Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1964 until his abdication in 2000. He is the father of the current ruler, Grand Duke Henri, Jean was born on 5 January 1921, at Berg Castle, in central Luxembourg, the son of Grand Duchess Charlotte and of Prince Félix of Bourbon-Parma. Among his godparents was Pope Benedict XV, who gave him his second name and he attended primary school in Luxembourg, where he continued the initial stage of secondary education. He completed secondary school at Ampleforth College, a Roman Catholic boarding school in the United Kingdom, upon reaching maturity, on 5 January 1938, he was styled Hereditary Grand Duke, recognising his status as heir apparent. On 10 May 1940, Germany invaded Luxembourg, beginning a four-year occupation, having been warned of an imminent invasion, the Grand Ducal Family escaped the previous night. At first, they sought refuge in Paris, before fleeing France only weeks later, the Grand Ducal Family sought refuge in the United States, renting an estate in Brookville, New York.
Jean studied Law and Political Science at Université Laval, Quebec City and he joined the British Army as a volunteer in the Irish Guards in November 1942. After receiving officer training at the Royal Military College at Sandhurst, Jean was commissioned as a Lieutenant in July 1943 and he landed in Normandy on 11 June 1944, and took part in the Battle for Caen and the liberation of Brussels. On 10 September 1944, he took part in the liberation of Luxembourg before moving on to Arnhem and the invasion of Germany. After the war, from 1984 until his abdication, he served as Colonel of the Regiment of the Irish Guards and he was named Lieutenant-Representative of the Grand Duchess on 28 April 1961. He became Grand Duke when his mother, the Grand Duchess Charlotte, the same day, he was made a General of the Luxembourg Army. Grand Duke Jean abdicated on 7 October 2000, and was succeeded on the throne by his son Henri, Grand Duke Jean now lives at Fischbach Castle. On 27 December 2016, Grand Duke Jean was hospitalized due to bronchitis and was discharged from hospital on 4 January 2017, the Grand Duke Jean Museum of Modern Art bears his name.
He was married in Luxembourg on 9 April 1953 to Joséphine-Charlotte of Belgium, daughter of Léopold III, King of the Belgians. They had three sons and two daughters, Princess Marie-Astrid, Grand Duke Henri, who ascended to the ducal throne in 2000, Prince Jean, Princess Margaretha. Many of the titles are held without regard to the rules of salic inheritance. Jean renounced the titles of the House of Bourbon-Parma for himself and his family in 1986 when his eldest son and it is not known if the marriage of Prince Guillaume was seen by Carlos Hugo as equal. The Arrêté Grand-Ducal of 21 September 1995 established that the title of Prince/Princesse de Luxembourg is reserved for the children of the sovereign and the heir to the throne
Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg
Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg is the third son and youngest child of Grand Duke Jean and Grand Duchess Josephine-Charlotte of Luxembourg. Prince Guillaume was born in Betzdorf Castle and he attended secondary school in Luxembourg and Switzerland, and received his baccalureate in Grenoble in 1982. He continued his studies at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, Guillaume was presented the degree Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, at Sacred Heart University’s Academic Convocation and Induction of the Class of 2011 on 10 September 2007. The official ceremony welcomed the students to SHU with a formal academic procession and messages from the faculty, student representatives. Guillaume worked for six months at the International Monetary Fund in Washington and he is currently a director of ArcelorMittal. Guillaume and Sibilla have four children, Prince Paul Louis Jean Marie Guillaume of Nassau Prince Léopold Guillaume Marie Joseph of Nassau, princess Charlotte Wilhelmine Maria da Gloria of Nassau.
Prince Jean André Guillaume Marie Gabriel Marc dAviano of Nassau and their sons are in the line of succession to the throne of Luxembourg
Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma
For the illegitimate son of Ranuccio I Farnese, see Ottavio Farnese. Ottavio Farnese reigned as Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1547, born in Valentano, he was the second son of Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, grandson of Pope Paul III, and brother to Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese. On 4 November 1538 he married Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Charles V. Ottavio was 14 years old, while Margaret, recently widowed by the death of Alessandro de Medici, was 15, at first she disliked her youthful bridegroom, but when he returned wounded from an expedition to Algiers in 1541 her aversion was turned to affection. Farnese had become lord of Camerino in 1540, but he gave up that fief when his father became duke of Parma in 1545, after the Parmesan nobility assassinated Pierluigi Farnese in 1547, troops of the Emperor occupied Piacenza. Farnese attempted to seize Parma by force, and having failed, entered negotiations with Ferrante Gonzaga. This rebellion on the part of his grandson is believed to have hastened the Popes death on 10 November 1549.
This did not end Farneses quarrel with the Emperor Charles V, for Gonzaga refused to give up Piacenza and even threatened to occupy Parma, a French army came to protect Parma, the War of Parma broke out, and Gonzaga at once laid siege to the city. But the duke came to an arrangement with his father-in-law, by which he regained Piacenza, the rest of his life was spent quietly at home, where the moderation and wisdom of his rule won for him the affection of his people. At his death in 1586 his only legitimate son Alessandro succeeded him and he and his wife Margherita had two sons, Charles Farnese, heir to the Duchy of Parma. Alexander Farnese, 3rd Duke of Parma, married Infanta Maria of Portugal and had issue. He had two daughters, married to Torquato Conti and had issue, married to Renato Borromeo, Conte di Arona, first cousin of St. Charles Borromeo. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Valentano is a town and comune of the province of Viterbo, in the Lazio region of central Italy. It is 33 kilometres from the capital, Viterbo. The placename is of uncertain origin, some identify the town with an Etruscan Verentum, others trace the name to ontano, Italian for alder, since alders cover the slopes of a nearby valley, Valle Ontano becoming Valentano. The town is named for the first time in a manuscript of 813 in the Farfa Register, in the Renaissance period, the town fell under the dominion of the Farnese family, it is to them that Valentano owes its fortress and many of its churches. In 1649, when the town of Castro, capital of the Duchy of Castro, was destroyed, Valentano became the center of the Castrense region. In June 1944, a shell exploded in the Portonaccio gate. The gate itself is a witness to the tragedy, since one of its stones is missing, throughout the summer, various events, including the Palio of the Duchy of Castro, a historical pageant. Haltwhistle, United Kingdom Saint-Méen-le-Grand, France Official website Valentano.
Org ProLoco Valentano George Dennis on Valentano
Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma
Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Parma is the eldest daughter of Umberto II of Italy and Marie-José of Belgium. She is the sister of Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples. She is the cousin of former King Albert II of Belgium, Maria Pia Elena Elisabetta Margherita Milena Mafalda Ludovica Tecla Gennara di Savoia was the first-born child of the Prince and Princess of Piedmont, born in Naples, Italy in 1934. Her parents, married since 1930, were together, as her mother confessed in an interview many years later. Exiled, the family gathered briefly in Portugal, and she, being devout Catholics, her parents never divorced. Not long after their wedding, Maria Pia gave birth to the set of fraternal twin sons. He was remarried to Eleonora Rajneri on 18 September 2004, Princess Helene Olga Lydia Tamara Maria of Yugoslavia, married Thierry Alexandre GaubertMilena Gaubert Nastasia Gaubert Leopold Gaubert The couple were divorced in 1967. Through him she was a sister-in-law of Queen Anne of Romania, Maria Pias ex-husband, Prince Alexander was remarried, to Princess Barbara of Liechtenstein, a cousin of that principalitys monarch, and they had one son, Prince Dušan Paul.
La mia vita, i miei ricordi
Parma listen is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto, architecture and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world, Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name. The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente, Parmas Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma. The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci wrote, As a capital city it had to have a river, as a little capital it received a stream, which is often dry. Parma was already an area in the Bronze Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare, the terramare were ancient villages built of wood on piles according to a defined scheme and squared form, constructed on dry land and generally in proximity to the rivers. During this age the first necropolis were constructed, diodorus Siculus reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans.
Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, the Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina,2,000 families were settled. Parma had an importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia. It had a forum, in what is today the central Garibaldi Square, in 44 BC, the city was destroyed, and Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house, the city was subsequently sacked by Attila, and given by the Germanic king Odoacer to his followers. During the Gothic War, Totila destroyed it and it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. Under Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county, like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guibodus. In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was usually a member of the Imperial party, two of its bishops became antipopes, Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II, and Guibert, as Clement III.
An almost independent commune was created around 1140, a treaty between Parma and Piacenza of 1149 is the earliest document of a comune headed by consuls, the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli, after a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248. The city was besieged in 1247–48 by Emperor Frederick II, who was crushed in the battle that ensued. Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341, after a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family, the Sforza imposed their rule through their associated families of Pallavicino, Sanvitale and Da Correggio