Sir Lawrence Dundas, 1st Baronet
Sir Lawrence Dundas, 1st Baronet was a Scottish businessman and politician. He was the son of Bethia Baillie, he made his first fortune by supplying goods to the British Army during their campaigns against the Jacobites and in Flanders during the Seven Years' War, 1756-1763. He subsequently branched out into banking and was a major backer of the Forth and Clyde Canal which happened to run through his estate, centered on Kerse House, near Falkirk, he left his son an inheritance worth £900,000. Sir Lawrence was a man of taste, elected a member of the Society of Dilettanti in 1750, he bought the Aske Estate, near Richmond in North Yorkshire in 1763 from Lord Holderness for £45,000 and proceeded to enlarge and remodel it in Palladian taste by the premier Yorkshire architect, John Carr, who designed new stables. His house in St. Andrew Square, designed by Sir William Chambers, became the headquarters of the Royal Bank of Scotland in 1825; the facade and 1857 ceiling feature on the current designs of the banknotes issued by the Royal Bank.
He purchased Leoni's grand house near London, Moor Park, for which he ordered a set of Gobelins tapestry hangings with medallions by François Boucher and a long suite of seat furniture to match, for which Robert Adam provided designs: they are among the earliest English neoclassical furniture. Other new furnishings, for Aske and for Sir Lawrence's magnificently appointed London house at 19 Arlington Street, were supplied by Thomas Chippendale, Chippendale's rivals, the royal cabinet-makers William Vile and John Cobb, Samuel Norman. A pair of marquetry commodes in the French taste by a French cabinet-maker working in London, Pierre Langlois, is at Aske. Capability Brown provided a design for a bridge. In the 1770s, Sir Lawrence turned to Robert Adam for further remodelling and designs for furnishings; the Aske estate included the pocket borough of Richmond, so Sir Lawrence was therefore able to appoint the Member of Parliament. Sir Lawrence married Margaret Bruce, they had one son, Thomas Dundas.
James Boswell described Dundas as "a comely jovial Scotch gentleman of good address but not bright parts... I liked him much". Dundas was a great collector of art. Long after his death Messrs Greenwood sold 116 of his paintings on 29-31 May 1794 from their room in Leicester Square, they included works by Cuyp, Raphael and Teniers. Some of the Murillos and other works would have been bought on commission by Dundas's friend John Blackwood. Sir Lawrence died in 1781 and is buried in the Dundas Mausoleum at Falkirk Old Parish Church where his wife Margaret and son Thomas joined him. Colvin, Howard. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840, 3rd edition 1995. Gilbert, Christopher; the Life and Work of Thomas Chippendale 1978. Vol I, pp 154–60. Leigh Rayment' s baronetage page
St Andrew's and St George's West Church
St Andrew's and St George's West Church serves Edinburgh's New Town, in Scotland. It is a congregation of the Church of Scotland; the parish today constitutes the whole of the First New Town of Edinburgh and a small part of the early-19th-century Second New Town of Edinburgh. The church building was completed in 1784, is now protected as a category A listed building. Two churches, St Andrew's and St George's, were planned as principal elements in the New Town of Edinburgh. James Craig's plan of 1767 for the First New Town laid out a grid pattern of streets reflecting classical order and rationalism, it was the age of the Scottish Enlightenment, Edinburgh was becoming internationally renowned as the centre of new philosophy and thought. The two churches were intended to be built on Charlotte Square, at the west end of George Street, St Andrew Square at the east end. However, Sir Lawrence Dundas, a wealthy businessman, preferred the eastern site for his home and bought the ground before Craig's plan could be implemented.
St. Andrew's Church had to be built part-way along George Street, its place was taken by Dundas House, designed by Sir William Chambers; the Town Council held a competition for a design for the eastern church, St Andrew's, won by Captain Andrew Frazer of the Royal Engineers and Robert Kay. The church was founded in 1781 and opened in 1784; the church is notable for its elliptical plan, the first in Britain. The site on the north side of George Street was developed when the Town Council bought it back to establish the Church, this shallow space suited the elliptical design. There are similarities to William Adam's design for Hamilton Old Parish Church and to James Gibbs' original idea for St Martin-in-the-Fields in London, both of which were circular sanctuaries fronted with porticoes; the architectural style reflects the contemporary 18th-century fashion for classical Roman forms. These include the temple-front portico with ceiling rosettes based on examples found in Syria by Robert Wood and illustrated in his Ruins of Palmyra of 1753.
The magnificent interior-ceiling design, in the style of Robert Adam incorporates many features found in Roman and Pompeian interior design, as well as Scottish thistles. The pulpit stands on the north wall, with a panelled gallery with original box pews round the other sides of the ellipse; the pulpit was lowered and the sounding board removed during a 1953 refurbishment, with sections of 19th century box pews removed during 2012 refurbishments. The original design for St Andrew's Church included a short tower but the Town Council opted for a 51m steeple, built in 1787, it contains a unique peal of eight bells cast in 1788 by William and Thomas Mears at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry, the oldest complete ring in Scotland. The bells were restored to full change ringing; the original Georgian crown glass sash windows with glazing bars no longer exist. Of the replacements the most noteworthy are stained glass windows depicting The Beatitudes by Alfred Webster and The Son of Man by Douglas Strachan.
In 1976 the cellar space under the church was adapted for use as the "Undercroft" linked by a stair to the vestibule. St George's Church, on the west side of Charlotte Square, was begun in 1811, with Robert Reid adapting Adam's design from 1791; the original estimate of £18,000 rose to over £23,600 by the time the church was opened in 1814. Severe structural defects, caused by the use of wood and stone underneath the dome, led to its closure in the 1960s when it was taken over by the Ministry of Public Building and Works and converted for use as archives. Free St George's Church was built in 1866-69 to designs by David Bryce in Roman Baroque style; the tower in the south-west corner is by Bryce, but was completed by Robert Rowand Anderson, in partnership with Bryce, in 1879-81 with a 56m Venetian campanile, modeled on that of San Giorgio Maggiore. In 1900 the church was one of the several which amalgamated with the Church of Scotland to create the United Free Church of Scotland, it continued to be called St George's Free Church.
In 1929 the United Free Church merged with the Church of Scotland and ceased to exist. The church was thereafter called St George's West and was operated by the Church of Scotland; the church was the setting for the Disruption of 1843, one of the most significant events in 19th-century Scotland. Fuelled by increasing concern and resentment about the Civil Courts' infringements on the liberties of the Church of Scotland, around one third of the ministers present at the annual church's General Assembly walked out, cheered by onlookers outside, constituted the Free Church of Scotland. In 1964, the congregation of St George's Church in Charlotte Square was united with St Andrew's, forming St Andrew's and St George's; the St George's Church building is now used by the National Records of Scotland. Today, the church hosts an annual book sale for Christian Aid. First held in 1974, in 2006 this event raised over £113,000, including the proceeds of the sale of the script of the Doctor Who episode "New Earth", signed by David Tennant and Billie Piper.
In January 2010, the congregation of St Andrew's and St George's was united with St George's West, Shandwick Place, to form the congregation of St Andrew's and St George's West. Both buildings were in use for three years, with the former St Andrew's and St George's building as the principal place of worship until renovation work started in 2012. On 17 February 2013, St. George's West church closed its doors on yet another chapter in its history: the building's final Church of Scotland service was held at 11 a.m. with much fanfare: a special piece of choral
James Craig (architect)
James Craig was a Scottish architect who worked in lowlands of the country and his native city of Edinburgh. He is remembered for his layout of the first Edinburgh New Town. James Craig's birth date is traditionally given as 1744, as his baptism is recorded in parish register as Tuesday 13 November 1744. However, more recent research has shown that his birth date was 31 October 1739, as recorded in the registers of George Watson's Hospital, where Craig was educated; as well as his date of birth, the records show he entered the school in 1748, left in 1755. The 1744 date must therefore be incorrect, as it would mean he started school aged four, left aged eleven; the baptism year, although not the date, has been shown to be in error, as 13 November fell on a Tuesday in 1739 also. James Craig was the son of William Craig, a merchant, Mary Thomson, sister of the poet James Thomson. In life, the architect was famous for being the nephew of the poet. However, closer examination of his family history shows that he had well established links to Edinburgh Town Council, Edinburgh College and the city's Churches where he would find work as an architect.
He was proud to be a Craig, his letter seal bore the Craig arms and motto. His father was William Craig, a son of Robert Craig, a businessman and successful local politician, Elizabeth Handieside, he had eight siblings of whom James and Janet lived into life, with other sisters Marion and Agnes reaching adulthood. Witnesses to the births of Robert Craig's children denote his professional friends; these included politicians with links to the College and Town Council, clergymen. From 1694 Robert Craig had trained to be a merchant in Edinburgh. Though in late in life to do so, this decision was a good one as he and his elder brother, John Craig, a lawyer. Together the Craigs formed an effective partnership in managing money, loans and property; the family legacy was that the architect James Craig inherited a family used to discussing and managing property planning and building. From being a burgess and guildbrother of Edinburgh and a church elder, by 1704 Robert had been elected to the city's Town Council.
Within two years he was Edinburgh College's Treasurer, Baillie of Leith in 1707, an Edinburgh Baillie after 1708, Water Baillie of Leith in 1709. His rise was impressive enough to be elected a Governor of George Heriot's Hospital in 1710; the same year he was made a burgess of the burgh of Canongate. The next decade saw. In 1713 he was elected Baron Baillie of Canongate, from 1714 he became Edinburgh Town Council's moderator of stent tax, annually levied on property values, its Dean of Guild; as Dean he held one of the top three posts in the Town Council beside the Treasurer and Lord Provost. He served a full three-year term in this post until 1717. In this period, from 1714 to 1716, he was Edinburgh's Commissioner of the General Convention of Royal Burghs. Here he saw applications from other Scottish towns and cities to expand and improve through new harbours and roads. In his years as an active politician until 1720 Robert Craig could be found in Town Council meetings and affairs as "Old Dean of Guild" Craig or "Old Baillie" Craig.
He oversaw tax collection, the city's market and property management. He was a capable and trusted administrator of the city's affairs, one who oversaw building up the city's interests and physical size; as well as writing reports on the city's finances, in 1719 he inspected land around Broughton and Multrees Hill - the area near where the New Town was planned out. Robert Craig would have known tradesmen as well as politicians. Not least among these magistrates would have been George Drummond. From 1723 Drummond had the ambition to create Edinburgh's New Town through petitions to Parliament to building Register House. Robert Craig's sons and John became clerks to the Presbyterian Church of Scotland's Assembly in Edinburgh, after 1715 joined his brother William in being made a burgess and guildbrother of Edinburgh through his father; the Craig family home was a temple tenement at the foot of West Bow facing the Corn Market. In years, they all, including James the architect, lived in the first floor apartment of this property.
In business, Robert died leaving debts to be paid. William managed his father's bank account into the 1740s. Newspaper advertisements from the 1730s and 1740s reveal that his shop was in Forglen's Land from where he traded in many goods, including tobacco and sugar. William did not follow his father into Town Council politics, but in 1745 he was elected by the magistrates to be its sword and mace bearer for formal processions and ceremonies which gave an allowance of £200. However, at the same time, like his father, he too ran into business difficulties. Of the six children he and Mary Thomson had, James was the only one to survive infancy. By 1750s, William Craig's business was in serious decline, through rights of his grandfather and father's lives as merchants and familial poverty, James was able to claim a place at George Watson's College, set up as a school to educate the sons of "deceased and indigent" merchants. Although James Craig the architect celebrated his family's history through the poet, James Thomson, a review of the books and goods he kept at the family home indicate that there were family heirlooms there inherited from his grandfather Robert.
These included a twenty-fou
Twickenham is an affluent suburban area of south-west London, England. It is 10 miles west-southwest of Charing Cross. Part of Middlesex, it has formed part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames since 1965. Twickenham has an extensive town centre and is famous for being the home of rugby union in England, with hundreds of thousands of spectators visiting Twickenham Stadium, the world's largest rugby stadium, each year; the historic riverside area is famous for its network of 18th-century buildings and pleasure grounds, many of which survive intact. This area has three grand period mansions with public access: York House, Marble Hill and Strawberry Hill House. Another has been lost. Among these is the Neo-Gothic prototype home of Horace Walpole which has given its name to a whole district, Strawberry Hill, is linked with the oldest Roman Catholic university in the country, St Mary's University. Excavations have revealed settlements in the area dating from the Early Neolithic Mesolithic periods.
Occupation seems to have continued through the Iron Age and the Roman occupation. The area was first mentioned in an 8th-century charter to cede the area to Waldhere, Bishop of London, "for the salvation of our souls"; the charter, dated 13 June 704, is signed with 12 crosses. The signatories included Swaefred of Cenred of Mercia and Earl Paeogthath. In Norman times Twickenham was part of the Manor of Isleworth – itself part of the Hundred of Hounslow, Middlesex; the manor had belonged to Ælfgār, Earl of Mercia in the time of Edward the Confessor, but was granted to Walter de Saint-Valery by William I of England after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. The area was farmed for several hundred years, while the river provided opportunities for fishing and trade. Bubonic plague spread to the town in 1665 and 67 deaths were recorded, it appears. There was a watch house in the middle of the town, with stocks, a pillory and a whipping post whose owner was charged to "ward within and about this Parish and to keep all Beggars and Vagabonds that shall lye abide or lurk about the Towne and to give correction to such...".
In 1633 construction began on York House. It was occupied by Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester in 1656 and by Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. 1659 saw the first mention of the Twickenham Ferry, although ferrymen had been operating in the area for many generations. Sometime before 1743 a "pirate" ferry appears to have been started by Twickenham inhabitants. There is a floating hostelry of some kind. Several residents wrote to the Lord Mayor of the City of London:... Complaining that there is fixed near the Shore of Twickenham on the River Thames a Vessell made like a Barge and called the Folly wherein divers loose and disorderly persons are entertained who have behaved in a indecent Manner and do afront divers persons of Fashion and Distinction who in an Evening Walk near that place, desired so great a Nuisance might be removed.... In 1713 the nave of the ancient St Mary's Church collapsed, the church was rebuilt in the Neo-classical style to designs by a local architect, John James. In 1736, the noted pharmacist and quack doctor Joshua Ward set up the Great Vitriol Works to produce sulphuric acid, using a process discovered in the seventeenth century by Johann Glauber in which sulphur is burned together with saltpetre, in the presence of steam.
The process generates an unpleasant smell, which caused objections from local residents. The area was soon home to the world's first industrial production facility for gunpowder, on a site between Twickenham and Whitton on the banks of the River Crane. There were frequent explosions and loss of life. On 11 March 1758, one of two explosions was felt in Reading, in April 1774 another explosion terrified people at church in Isleworth. In 1772 three mills blew up. Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, wrote complaining to his friend and relative Henry Seymour Conway Lieutenant General of the Ordnance, that all the decorative painted glass had been blown out of his windows at Strawberry Hill; the powder mills remained in operation until 1927. Much of the site is now occupied by Crane Park, in which the old Shot Tower, mill sluices and blast embankments can still be seen. Much of the area along the river next to the Shot Tower is now a nature reserve; the 1818 Enclosure Award led to the development of 182 acres of land to the west of the town centre between the present day Staines and Hampton Roads, where new roads – Workhouse Road, Middle Road, 3rd, 2nd and 1st Common Roads – were laid out.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, a number of fine houses were built and Twickenham became a popular place of residence for people of "fashion and distinction". Further development was stimulated by the opening of Twickenham station in 1848. Electricity was introduced to Twickenham in 1902 and the first trams arrived the following year. In 1939, when All Hallows Lombard Street was demolished in the City of London, its distinctive stone tower designed by Christopher Wren, with its peal of ten bells and connecting stone cloister, the interior furnishings, including a Renatus Harris organ and a pulpit used by John Wesley, were brought to Twickenham to be incorporated in the new All Hallows Church on
Ashlar is finely dressed stone, either an individual stone, worked until squared or the structure built of it. Ashlar is the finest stone masonry unit cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius as opus isodomum, or less trapezoidal. Cut "on all faces adjacent to those of other stones", ashlar is capable of thin joints between blocks, the visible face of the stone may be quarry-faced or feature a variety of treatments: tooled, smoothly polished or rendered with another material for decorative effect. One such decorative treatment consists of small grooves achieved by the application of a metal comb. Used only on softer stone ashlar, this decoration is known as mason's drag. Ashlar is in contrast to rubble masonry, which employs irregularly shaped stones, sometimes minimally worked or selected for similar size, or both. Ashlar is related but distinct from other stone masonry, finely dressed but not quadrilateral, such as curvilinear and polygonal masonry. Ashlar may be coursed, which involves lengthy horizontals layers of stone blocks laid in parallel, therefore with continuous horizontal joints.
Ashlar may be random, which involves stone blocks laid with deliberately discontinuous courses and therefore discontinuous joints both vertically and horizontally. In either case, it uses a joining material such as mortar to bind the blocks together, although dry ashlar construction, metal ties, other methods of assembly have been used; the dry ashlar of Inca architecture in Cusco and Machu Picchu is fine and famous. The word is attested in Middle English and derives from the Old French aisselier, from the Latin axilla, a diminutive of axis, meaning "plank". "Clene hewen ashler" occurs in medieval documents. Ashlar blocks have been used in the construction of many buildings as an alternative to brick or other materials. In classical architecture, ashlar wall surfaces were contrasted with rustication; the term is used to describe the dressed stone work of prehistoric Greece and Crete, although the dressed blocks are much larger than modern ashlar. For example, the tholos tombs of Bronze Age Mycenae use ashlar masonry in the construction of the so-called "beehive" dome.
This dome consists of finely cut ashlar blocks that decrease in size and terminate in a central capstone. These domes are constructed using the corbel arch. Ashlar masonry was heavily used in the construction of palace facades on Crete, including Knossos and Phaistos; these constructions date to the MM III-LM Ib period, ca. 1700–1450 BC. In modern European masonry the blocks are about 35 centimetres in height; when shorter than 30 centimetres, they are called small ashlar. In some Masonic groupings, which such societies term jurisdictions, ashlars are used as a symbolic metaphor for how one's personal development relates to the tenets of their lodge; as described in the explanation of the First Degree Tracing Board, in Emulation and other Masonic rituals the rough ashlar is a stone as taken directly from the quarry, allegorically represents the Freemason prior to his initiation. Ablaq Dimension stone Opus quadratum Rustication Stone cladding Stone veneer
John Hope, 4th Earl of Hopetoun
General John Hope, 4th Earl of Hopetoun PC KB FRSE, known as the Honourable John Hope from 1781 to 1814 and as the Lord Niddry from 1814 to 1816, was a Scottish politician and British Army officer. Hopetoun was the only son of John Hope, 2nd Earl of Hopetoun, by his second wife Jane or Jean Oliphant, his mother died. He was commissioned into the 10th Light Dragoons in 1784, he sat as Member of Parliament for Linlithgowshire from 1790 to 1800. He took part in the capture of the French West Indies and Spanish West Indies in 1796 and 1797. In 1799 he was sent to Den Helder as Deputy Adjutant-General and was present at the Battle of Bergen and the Battle of Castricum. In 1801 he was sent to Cairo and to Alexandria to take the surrender of the French garrisons there, he became Lieutenant-Governor of Portsmouth and General Officer Commanding South-West District in June 1805. He commanded a Division during the advance into Spain and commanded the British left at the Battle of Corunna in 1809, succeeding to overall command when Sir John Moore was killed.
That year he commanded the reserve army during the Walcheren Campaign. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief and was admitted to the Irish Privy Council in 1812, he commanded the First Division under The Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Nivelle and at the Battle of the Nive in 1813. He was captured fighting the French sortie at the Battle of Bayonne in 1814, he served as Lord-Lieutenant of Linlithgowshire from 1816 to 1823. On 17 May 1814, two years before he succeeded in the earldom, he was raised to the peerage in his own right as Baron Niddry, of Niddry Castle in the County of Linlithgow, with remainder to the male issue of his father. In 1816 he succeeded his elder half-brother as fourth Earl of Hopetoun, he died in Paris, France on 27 August 1823. In 1798 Lord Hopetoun married firstly Elizabeth Hope Vere of Craigiehall, daughter of Charles Hope-Weir. After her death he married secondly Louisa Dorothea Wedderburn, daughter of John Wedderburn of Ballendean, granddaughter of Sir John Wedderburn, 5th Baronet of Blackness.
On his death he was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son from John. Lady Hopetoun died in 1836. Following Lord Hopetoun's death, the Hopetoun Monument was erected on Byres Hill, East Lothian, in 1824; this was followed in 1826 by a similar monument on Mount Hill in Fife. In 1824 the city of Edinburgh commissioned a bronze statue of Lord Hopetoun, by Thomas Campbell, designed as a centrepiece for Charlotte Square in 1829, but, placed in St Andrew Square in 1834, in front of Dundas House where he had acted as vice governor of the bank. A boarding house at Wellington College, has been named after him, it has been turned into a girls house. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Lundy, Darryl. "FAQ". Smith, Digby; the Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Hopetoun
John Dick Peddie
John Dick Peddie was a Scottish architect, businessman and a Liberal Party politician. John Dick Peddie and his twin brother William were the second and third sons of James Peddie WS and Margaret Dick; the twins were educated at the University of Edinburgh, studying law, but in 1842 John was articled to the architect David Rhind. His sons, John More Dick Peddie and Walter Lockhart Dick Peddie were architects. Peddie set up his own practice in 1845, winning the competition for the United Presbyterian Synod Hall in Edinburgh through the influence of his family, who were prominent members of the United Associate Synod. Through another family connection, his cousin Benjamin Blyth, Peddie secured work for the Caledonian Railway at their Princes Street station, he undertook study tours to central and eastern Europe, on 21 July 1851 he married Euphemia Lockhart More. He was appointed architect to the Royal Bank of Scotland, designing several branches across Scotland in the mid-1850s. In 1857 Peddie was responsible for the addition of an opulent banking hall to Dundas House, the Royal Bank's head office in St Andrew Square, Edinburgh.
Peddie was involved in the creation of Cockburn Street, linking Edinburgh's Royal Mile with Waverley Station, from 1851, which led him to take on his assistant Charles Kinnear as a partner from 1 January 1856. The partnership of Peddie and Kinnear was successful, winning numerous commissions for churches and public buildings, including the municipal buildings in Aberdeen and branches of the Bank of Scotland. Peddie was elected in 1870 as an academician of the Royal Scottish Academy, served as its secretary for six years. In 1878 his son John More Dick Peddie joined the firm, the following year John senior retired from practice. Peddie secured the Liberal nomination for Kilmarnock in 1878, was elected at the 1880 general election as the Member of Parliament for Kilmarnock Burghs, on a disestablishment platform. In 1884 he introduced a private members bill on disestablishment. In Parliament he represented the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. Peddie narrowly lost his seat in the 1885 general election, due to a split in the Liberal vote.
Although Gladstone asked him to consider it, he did not stand again. Despite great success the family suffered several financial humiliations, he spent much of his life supporting his unmarried sisters, but had to support his unmarried brother James Peddie and their father. He had built a house for his father at Lansdowne Crescent in Edinburgh's fashionable west end, but this had to be sold to meet his father's debts and his father thereafter rented accommodation from John on Chalmers Street. However, the greater shame came when his uncle Donald Smith Peddie, fled to the USA, having been discovered to have embezzled over £75,000 from various parties for whom he acted as accountant; this included religious bodies such as the Friendly Society of Dissenting Ministers. John Peddie made amends as best he could. Although he was not obliged to do this, it would appear an exercise in trying to limit the family shame. To compound the family's problems, John had invested in several new self-designed Hydropathic Companies and in 1880 these all went into liquidation.
The collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank in the 1880s worsened things further. Peddie sought foreign investments in the Australia to win back some of his losses. On a business trip to Australia in 1885 his wife Euphemia died suddenly, her body was buried in Dean Cemetery. Peddie never recovered thereafter, he died in March 1891. Peddie is memorialized on a small monument in Warriston Cemetery beside a far more noticeable red sandstone memorial to his grandfather, the Rev. James Peddie DD. Peddie was the architect for the main extension of Warriston cemetery, his uncle, Dr Alexander Peddie lies there. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Peddie