Dundee is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom. The mid-year population estimate for 2018 was 148,750, giving Dundee a population density of 2,478/km2 or 6,420/sq mi, the second-highest in Scotland, it lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea. Under the name of Dundee City, it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Part of Angus, the city developed into a burgh in the late 12th century and established itself as an important east coast trading port. Rapid expansion was brought on by the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century when Dundee was the centre of the global jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute and journalism". Today, Dundee is promoted as "One City, Many Discoveries" in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, built in Dundee and is now berthed at Discovery Point.

Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital entertainment industry, including mobile app development and gaming. Dundee has two universities -- the University of the Abertay University. In 2014, Dundee was recognised by the United Nations as the UK's first UNESCO City of Design for its diverse contributions to fields including medical research and video games. A unique feature of Dundee is that its two professional football clubs, Dundee F. C. and Dundee United, have stadiums all but adjacent to each other. With the decline of traditional industry, the city has adopted a plan to regenerate and reinvent itself as a cultural centre. In pursuit of this, a £1 billion master plan to regenerate and to reconnect the Waterfront to the city centre started in 2001 and is expected to be completed within a 30-year period; the V&A Dundee – the first branch of the V&A to operate outside of London – is the main centre piece of the waterfront project.

In recent years, Dundee's international profile has risen. GQ magazine named Dundee the'Coolest Little City In Britain' in 2015 and The Wall Street Journal ranked Dundee at number 5 on its'Worldwide Hot Destinations' list for 2018; the name "Dundee" is made up of two parts: meaning fort. While earlier evidence for human occupation is abundant, Dundee's success and growth as a seaport town arguably came as a result of William the Lion's charter, granting Dundee to his younger brother, David in the late 12th century; the situation of the town and its promotion by Earl David as a trading centre led to a period of prosperity and growth. The earldom was passed down amongst whom was John Balliol; the town became a Royal Burgh on John's coronation as king in 1292. The town and its castle were occupied by English forces for several years during the First War of Independence and recaptured by Robert the Bruce in early 1312; the original Burghal charters were lost during the occupation and subsequently renewed by Bruce in 1327.

The burgh suffered during the conflict known as the Rough Wooing of 1543 to 1550, was occupied by the English forces of Andrew Dudley from 1547. In 1548, unable to defend the town against an advancing Scottish force, Dudley ordered that the town be burnt to the ground. In 1645, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Dundee was again besieged, this time by the Royalist Marquess of Montrose; the town was destroyed by Parliamentarian forces led by George Monck in 1651. The town played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Jacobite cause when John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee raised the Stuart standard on the Dundee Law in 1689; the town was held by the Jacobites in the 1715–16 rising, on 6 January 1716 the Jacobite claimant to the throne, James VIII and III, made a public entry into the town. Many in Scotland, including many in Dundee, regarded him as the rightful king. A notable resident of Dundee was Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan of Baron of Lundie, he was born in the son of Alexander Duncan of Lundie, Provost of Dundee.

Adam was educated in Dundee and joined the Royal Navy on board the sloop Trial. He in October 1797 defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown; this was seen as one of the most significant actions in naval history. The economy of mediaeval Dundee centred on the export of raw wool, with the production of finished textiles being a reaction to recession in the 15th century. Two government Acts in the mid 18th century had a profound effect on Dundee's industrial success: the textile industry was revolutionised by the introduction of large four-storey mills, stimulated in part by the 1742 Bounty Act which provided a government-funded subsidy on Osnaburg linen produced for export. Expansion of the whaling industry was triggered by the second Bounty Act, introduced in 1750 to increase Britain's maritime and naval skill base. Dundee, Scotland more saw rapid population increase at end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the city's population increasing from 12,400 in 1751 to 30,500 in 1821.

The phasing out of the linen export bounty between 1825 and 1832 stimulated demand for cheaper textiles for cheaper, tough fabrics. The discovery that the dry fibres of jute could be lubricated with whale oil (of which

Fencing response

The fencing response is a peculiar position of the arms following a concussion. After moderate forces have been applied to the brainstem, the forearms are held flexed or extended for a period lasting up to several seconds after the impact; the fencing response is observed during athletic competition involving contact, such as American football, rugby union, rugby league, Australian rules football and combat sports. It is used as an overt indicator of injury force magnitude and midbrain localization to aid in injury identification and classification for events including on-field and/or bystander observations of sports-related head injuries; the fencing response designation arises from the similarity to the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex in infants. Like the reflex, a positive fencing response resembles the en garde position that initiates a fencing bout, with the extension of one arm and the flexion of the other. Tonic posturing preceding convulsion has been observed in sports injuries at the moment of impact where extension and flexion of opposite arms occur despite body position or gravity.

The fencing response emerges from the separation of tonic posturing from convulsion and refines the tonic posturing phase as an immediate forearm motor response to indicate injury force magnitude and location. The neuromotor manifestation of the fencing response resembles reflexes initiated by vestibular stimuli. Vestibular stimuli activate primitive reflexes in human infants, such as the asymmetric tonic neck reflex, Moro reflex, parachute reflex, which are mediated by vestibular nuclei in the brainstem; the lateral vestibular nucleus has descending efferent fibers in the vestibulocochlear nerve distributed to the motor nuclei of the anterior column and exerts an excitatory influence on ipsilateral limb extensor motoneurons while suppressing flexor motoneurons. The anatomical location of the LVN, adjacent to the cerebellar peduncles, suggests that mechanical forces to the head may stretch the cerebellar peduncles and activate the LVN. LVN activity would manifest as limb extensor activation and flexor inhibition, defined as a fencing response, while flexion of the contralateral limb is mediated by crossed inhibition necessary for pattern generation.

In simpler terms, the shock of the trauma manually activates the nerves that control the muscle groups responsible for raising the arm. This is similar to the reflexive extension of the arm. In a survey of documented head injuries followed by unconsciousness, most of which involved sporting activities, two thirds of head impacts demonstrated a fencing response, indicating a high incidence of fencing in head injuries leading to unconsciousness, those pertaining to athletic behavior. Animal models of diffuse brain injury have illustrated a fencing response upon injury at moderate but not mild levels of severity as well as a correlation between fencing, blood brain barrier disruption, nuclear shrinkage within the LVN, all of which indicates diagnostic utility of the response; the most challenging aspect to managing sport-related concussion is recognizing the injury. Consensus conferences have worked toward objective criteria to identify mild TBI in the context of severe TBI. However, few tools are available for distinguishing mild TBI from moderate TBI.

As a result, greater emphasis has been placed on the management of concussions in athletes than on the immediate identification and treatment of such an injury. On-field predictors of injury severity can define return-to-play guidelines and urgency of care, but past criteria have either lacked sufficient incidence for effective utility, did not directly address the severity of the injury, or have become cumbersome and fraught with interrater reliability issues. By providing a clear, discernible physiological event upon injury, the fencing response can discern moderate brain injury forces from milder forces, providing an additional criterion by which the identification and classification of concussions can be improved, with immediate application to sport-related on-field diagnoses and decisions affecting return-to-play status for athletes, thereby facilitating the transition from diagnosis to the treatment of any post-concussion symptoms; the fencing response may have the potential to indicate traumatic brain injury for soldiers in military settings with regard to blast injury and subsequent shell shock.

There are no studies or data to determine the utility of the fencing response in such an arena. Increased awareness of clinical significance on behalf of the bystander is critical to the utility of the fencing response designation. Therefore, notable fencing displays are listed below in order to aid the bystander in identifying the various physical manifestations of the fencing response as well as demonstrating the prevalence of such a response in popular sporting and social events. Kyle Sinckler, professional rugby player: following a collision with Maro Itoje in just the second minute of the 2019 Rugby World Cup Final on November 2, 2019. Dennis Milton, professional boxer: following a punch to the head by Julian Jackson on September 14, 1991. Jahvid Best, NCAA college football running back for the California Golden Bears: Oregon State vs. California, November 7, 2009 Austin Collie, professional American football wide receiver for the Indianapolis Colts: Indianapolis vs. Philadelphia, November 8, 2010 Denarius Moore, NCAA college football wide receiver for the Tennessee Volunteers: Tennessee vs. Alabama, October 23, 2010 James Rodgers, NCAA college football wide receiver for the Oregon State Beavers: Oregon State vs. Boise State, Sep

Abdus Sobhan

Maulana Muhammad Abdus Sobhan was a Bangladeshi politician. He was a member of the Central Working committee of the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami, he was a two time elected parliamentarian from Pabna-5 constituency, during the elections of 1991 and 2001 respectively. He went to trial for his relationship with war crimes committed during the War of Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971. Abdus Sobhan was born in 19 February 1936 in the village of Mominpara, Sujanagar thana, Pabna district, his father, Late Munshi Nayeem Uddin Ahmed, was an Islamic scholar. In 1965, he moved with his family to Pathortola, Pabna city, has resided there permanently, he enrolled at the Ramchandrapur Maktab. He completed his primary education in Manikhaat and Machpara Primary School. In 1941, he studied there till 1947, completing his matriculation. In 1950, he obtained his Alim certification. In 1952, he obtained his Fazil Degree from Sirajganj Alia Madrassah. In 1954, he obtained his Kamil degree with distinction from the same madrassah, obtaining 7th position in the first division in the Madrassah Board.

After completion of his Fazil studies, he joined Pabna Aliya Madrasah. After that he taught at Gopalchandra institute, Arifpur Ulat Senior Madrassah and Magura Baroria Fazil Madrasah, his teaching career spanned 10 years from 1952-1962. Abdus Sobhan was active in politics from his student life, he was Secretary of Pabna District for East Pakistan Jamiat Talaba Arabiya. In 1951, he joined over time was appointed the Ameer of Pabna District, he was a member of the Central Majlis-e-Shura, the Central Working Committee and the Executive Committee of Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami. He was a Nayeb-e-Ameer of the party. In 1962 and again in 1965, he was elected as a member of the East Pakistan Constituent Assembly and acted as the senior deputy leader of the opposition in his latter term, he was a member of parliament elected from Pabna-5 constituency in 1991, deputy leader of the Jamaat's parliamentary group, securing 47.31% of the votes. In 2001, he was again elected as a Member of Parliament from Pabna-5 constituency as a candidate of 4-party alliance, securing 56.78% of the votes in his constituency.

In 1996, he campaigned on a platform to increase women's education. Abdus Sobhan was arrested on 20 September 2012 from Bangabandhu Bridge area while he was traveling from Dhaka to Pabna, he was taken to Pabna to appear before the court that issued the warrant against him in connection with a case filed in 2003. A day after his arrest he appeared before the International Crimes Tribunal in Dhaka on charges of crimes against humanity committed during the Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971; the International Crimes Tribunal-1 framed nine charges of wartime offences against Abdus Sobhan for alleged crimes against humanity in 1971. Sobhan denied the charges brought against him and claimed that he had served as a mole for the Mukti Bahini against Pakistani forces in his time at the Peace Committee. Sobhan died on 14 February 2020 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital at the age of 83. Next day 15 February he was buried on Pabna Sadar Arifpur graveyard