Historic Scotland was an executive agency of the Scottish Government from 1991 to 2015, responsible for safeguarding Scotland's built heritage, promoting its understanding and enjoyment. Under the terms of a Bill of the Scottish Parliament published on 3 March 2014, Historic Scotland was dissolved and its functions were transferred to Historic Environment Scotland on 1 October 2015. HES took over the functions of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Historic Scotland was a successor organisation to the Ancient Monuments Division of the Ministry of Works and the Scottish Development Department, it was created as an agency in 1991 and was attached to the Scottish Executive Education Department, which embraces all aspects of the cultural heritage, in May 1999. As part of the Scottish Government, Historic Scotland was directly accountable to the Scottish Ministers. In 2002, proposals to restore Castle Tioram in the West Highlands, by putting a roof back on, were blocked by Historic Scotland, which favoured stabilising it as a ruin.
This position was supported in an extensive local Public Inquiry at which the arguments for both sides were heard. It has been implied. After widespread consultation, Historic Scotland published a comprehensive series of Scottish Historic Environment Policy papers, consolidated into a single volume in October 2008; the agency's Framework Document set out the responsibilities of the Scottish Ministers and the agency's Chief Executive. Its Corporate Plan sets out its targets and performance against them. Historic Scotland and the Glasgow School of Art's Digital Design Studio formed the Centre for Digital Documentation and Visualization to promote the documentation and 3D representation of heritage objects and environments with laser scanning and 3D visualization software. Historic Scotland had direct responsibility for maintaining and running over 360 monuments in its care, about a quarter of which are manned and charge admission entry; these properties have additional features such as guidebooks and other resources.
Historic Scotland sought to increase the number of events run at its sites, most designed to engage young people with history. New museums and visitor centres were opened, notably at Arbroath Abbey and Urquhart Castle. There was a hospitality section, which makes some properties available for wedding receptions and other functions. Membership of Historic Scotland was promoted by the organisation, with benefits such as free entry to all their properties and over 400 events for the duration of the annual membership, as well as half price entry to properties in England and the Isle of Man, becoming free in subsequent years. Lifetime memberships were available, all members received a quarterly magazine'Historic Scotland'. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland Scottish Ten Official website
Charles Edward Stuart
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain. During his lifetime, he was known as "The Young Pretender" or "The Young Chevalier" and in popular memory as "Bonnie Prince Charlie", he is best remembered for his role in the 1745 rising. His escape from Scotland after the uprising led him to be portrayed as a romantic figure of heroic failure in representations. Charles was born in the Palazzo Muti, Italy, on 31 December 1720, where his father had been given a residence by Pope Clement XI, he spent all his childhood in Rome and Bologna. He was the son of the Old Pretender, son of the exiled Stuart King James II and VII, Maria Clementina Sobieska, the granddaughter of John III Sobieski, most famous for the victory over the Ottoman Turks in the 1683 Battle of Vienna, he had a privileged childhood in Rome, where he was brought up Catholic in a loving but argumentative family.
As the legitimate heirs to the thrones of England and Ireland—according to the Jacobite succession—his family lived with a sense of pride, staunchly believed in the divine right of kings. His grandfather, James II of England, Ireland and VII of Scotland, ruled the countries from 1685 to 1688, he was deposed when Parliament invited the Dutch Protestant William III and his wife Princess Mary, King James' eldest daughter, to replace him in the Revolution of 1688. Many Protestants, including a number of prominent parliamentarians, had been worried that King James aimed to return England to the Catholic fold. Since the exile of James, the "Jacobite Cause" had striven to return the Stuarts to the thrones of England and Scotland, which were united in 1603 under James VI and I, with the parliaments joined by the Acts of Union in 1707 as the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Charles Edward played a major part in the pursuit of this goal. In 1734, Charles Edward observed the Spanish siege of Gaeta, his first exposure to war.
His father managed to obtain the renewed support of the French government in 1744, whereupon Charles Edward travelled to France with the sole purpose of commanding a French army that he would lead in an invasion of England. The invasion never materialised. By the time the fleet regrouped, the British fleet realised the diversion that had deceived them and resumed their position in the Channel. Undeterred, Charles Edward was determined to continue his quest for the restoration of the Stuarts. In December 1743, Charles's father named giving him authority to act in his name. Eighteen months he led a French-backed rebellion intended to place his father on the thrones of England and Scotland. Charles raised funds to fit out two ships: the Elisabeth, an old man-of-war of 66 guns, the Du Teillay, a 16-gun privateer, which landed him and seven companions at Eriskay on 23 July 1745. Charles had hoped for support from a French fleet, but it was badly damaged by storms, he was left to raise an army in Scotland.
The Jacobite cause was still supported by both Catholic and Protestant. Charles hoped for a warm welcome from these clans to start an insurgency by Jacobites throughout Britain, he raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan and gathered a force large enough to enable him to march on Edinburgh. The city, under the control of the Lord Provost Archibald Stewart surrendered. While he was in Edinburgh a portrait of Charles was painted by the artist Allan Ramsay, which survives in the collection of the Earl of Wemyss at Gosford House. On 21 September 1745, he defeated the only government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans; the government army was led by General Sir John Cope, their disastrous defence against the Jacobites is immortalised in the song "Johnnie Cope". By November, Charles was marching south at the head of 6,000 men. Having taken Carlisle, his army progressed as far as Swarkestone Bridge in Derbyshire. Here, despite Charles' objections, his council decided to return to Scotland, given the lack of English and French support and rumours that large government forces were being amassed.
The Jacobites marched north once more, winning the Battle of Falkirk Muir, but were pursued by King George II's son, the Duke of Cumberland, who caught up with them at the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. Ignoring the advice of one of his generals, Lord George Murray, Charles chose to fight on flat, marshy ground where his forces would be exposed to superior government firepower. Charles commanded his army from a position behind his lines, where he could not see what was happening. Hoping Cumberland's army would attack first, he had his men stand exposed to the British Royal artillery. Seeing the error in this, he ordered an attack, but his messenger was killed before the order could be delivered; the Jacobite attack, charging into withering musket fire, grapeshot fired from the cannons, was uncoordinated and met with little success. The Jacobites broke through the bayonets of the redcoats in one place, but they were shot down by a second line of soldiers, the survivors fled. Cumberland's troops were claimed to have committed a number of atrocities as they hunted for the defeated Jacobite soldiers, earning him the title "the Butcher" from the Highlanders.
Murray managed intending to continue the fight. Believing himself betrayed, Charles had decided to
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It is known for Iona Abbey, though there are other buildings on the island. Iona Abbey was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for three centuries and is today known for its relative tranquility and natural environment, it is a place for spiritual retreats. Its modern Gaelic name means "Iona of Columba"; the Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of several languages since the Iron Age, as a result many of the names of these islands have more than one possible meaning. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the island now known in English as "Iona"; the earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like "yew-place"; the element Ivo-, denoting "yew", occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and may form the basis of early Gaelic names like Eogan. It is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning "man of the yew".
Mac an Tàilleir lists the more recent Gaelic names of Ì, Ì Chaluim Chille and Eilean Idhe noting that the first named is "generally lengthened to avoid confusion" to the second, which means "Calum's Iona" or "island of Calum's monastery". The possible confusion results from "ì", despite its original etymology, becoming a Gaelic noun meaning "island". Eilean Idhe means "the isle of Iona" known as Ì nam ban bòidheach; the modern English name comes of yet another variant, either just Adomnán's attempt to make the Gaelic name fit Latin grammar or else a genuine derivative from Ivova. Ioua's change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of "n" and "u" in Insular Minuscule. Despite the continuity of forms in Gaelic between the pre-Norse and post-Norse eras, Haswell-Smith speculates that the name may have a Norse connection, Hiōe meaning "island of the den of the brown bear", The medieval English language version was "Icolmkill". Murray claims that the "ancient" Gaelic name was Innis nan Druinich and repeats a Gaelic story that as Columba's coracle first drew close to the island one of his companions cried out "Chì mi i" meaning "I see her" and that Columba's response was "Henceforth we shall call her Ì".
Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull. It is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125; the geology of the island consists of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side and small outcrops of pink granite on the eastern beaches. Like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees. Iona's highest point is Dùn Ì, 101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD 200. Iona's geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, said to be adjacent to the beach where St. Columba first landed; the main settlement, located at St. Ronan's Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as "The Village"; the primary school, post office, the island's two hotels, the Bishop's House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north. Port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
There are numerous offshore islets and skerries: Eilean Annraidh and Eilean Chalbha to the north, Rèidh Eilean and Stac MhicMhurchaidh to the west and Eilean Mùsimul and Soa Island to the south are amongst the largest. The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, the crew of 11 escaping in two boats. On a map of 1874, the following territorial subdivision is indicated: Ceann Tsear Sliabh Meanach Machar Sliginach Sliabh Siar Staonaig In the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata, in the region controlled by the Cenél Loairn; the island was the site of a important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. According to tradition the monastery was founded in 563 by the monk Columba known as Colm Cille, exiled from his native Ireland as a result of his involvement in the Battle of Cul Dreimhne. Columba and twelve companions founded a monastery there; the monastery was hugely successful, played a crucial role in the conversion to Christianity of the Picts of present-day Scotland in the late 6th century and of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria in 635.
Many satellite institutions were founded, Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland. Iona became a renowned centre of learning, its scriptorium produced important documents including the original texts of the Iona Chronicle, thought to be the source for the early Irish annals; the monastery is associated with the distinctive practices and traditions known as Celtic Christianity. In particular, Iona was a major supporter of the "Celtic" system for calculating the date of Easter at the time of the Easter controversy, whi
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Alexander III of Scotland
Alexander III was King of Scots from 1249 until his death in 1286. Alexander was born at the only son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. Alexander III was the grandson of William the Lion. Alexander's father died on 8 July 1249 and he became king at the age of seven, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249; the years of his minority featured an embittered struggle for the control of affairs between two rival parties, the one led by Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith, the other by Alan Durward, Justiciar of Scotia. The former dominated the early years of Alexander's reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III of England seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255 an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durward's party, but though disgraced, they still retained great influence, two years seizing the person of the king, they compelled their rivals to consent to the erection of a regency representative of both parties.
On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262, Alexander declared his intention of resuming the projects on the Western Isles which the death of his father thirteen years before had cut short. He laid a formal claim before the Norwegian king Haakon. Haakon rejected the claim, in the following year responded with a formidable invasion. Sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks. At length Haakon, weary of delay, only to encounter a terrific storm which damaged his ships; the Battle of Largs proved indecisive, but so, Haakon's position was hopeless. Baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263; the Isles now lay at Alexander's feet, in 1266 Haakon's successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man and the Western Isles to Scotland in return for a monetary payment. Norway retained only Shetland in the area. Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence, on 25 December 1251.
She died in 1275. Margaret, who married King Eric II of Norway Alexander, Prince of Scotland. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway"; the need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux on 1 November 1285. Alexander died in a fall from his horse while riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 18 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day, he had spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle celebrating his second marriage and overseeing a meeting with royal advisors. He was advised by them not to make the journey to Fife because of weather conditions, but he travelled anyway. Alexander became separated from his guides and it is assumed that in the dark his horse lost its footing; the 44-year-old king was found dead on the shore the following morning with a broken neck. Some texts have said. Although there is no cliff at the site where his body was found, there is a steep rocky embankment, which "would have been fatal in the dark."
After Alexander's death, his strong realm was plunged into a period of darkness that would lead to war with England. He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey; as Alexander left no surviving children, the heir to the throne was his unborn child by Queen Yolande. When Yolande's pregnancy ended with a miscarriage, Alexander's seven-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, became the heir. Margaret died, still uncrowned, on her way to Scotland in 1290; the inauguration of John Balliol as king on 30 November 1292 ended the six years of the Guardians of Scotland governing the land. The death of Alexander and the subsequent period of instability in Scotland was lamented in an early Scots poem recorded by Andrew of Wyntoun in his Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland. Quhen Alexander our kynge was dede, That Scotlande lede in lauche and le, Away was sons of alle and brede, Off wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle. Our golde was changit into lede. Crist, borne in virgynyte, Succoure Scotlande, ramede, That is stade in perplexite.
In 1886, a monument to Alexander III was erected at the approximate location of his death in Kinghorn. Alexander III has been depicted in historical novels, they include: The Thirsty Sword by Robert Leighton. The novel depicts the "Norse invasion of Scotland" and the Battle of Largs, it includes his opponent Haakon IV of Norway. Alexander the Glorious by Jane Oliver; the novel covers the entire reign of Alexander III, "almost from Alexander's viewpoint". The Crown in Darkness by Paul C. Doherty. A crime fiction novel where Hugh Corbett
Loch Etive is a 30 km sea loch in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. It reaches the sea at Connel, 5 km north of Oban, it measures 31.6 km long and from 1.2 km to 1.6 km wide. Its depth varies up to a maximum of 150 m; the name Etive is believed to mean "little ugly one" from the Gaelic goddess associated with the loch. It heads east for half its length alongside the main road and rail link to Oban, before heading northeast into mountainous terrain. A road along Glen Etive makes the head of the loch accessible from Glen Coe; the narrow mouth of the loch results in the Falls of Lora. Part of the north bank has been designated a Special Area of Conservation in particular due to old sessile oak woods. A small colony of around 20 common seals is resident in Loch Etive. Just seaward of the mouth of the loch is Dunstaffnage Castle; this was a stronghold of the kingdom of Dál Riata until the 9th century, its centre at one time. It is believed to have held the Stone of Scone before its transfer to Scone Palace; the current ruins date from 1275.
Cruises up Loch Etive followed by carriage trip to Glen Coe were started in 1881 as Oban developed as a fashionable resort. Connel Bridge, a cantilever bridge over the loch at the Falls of Lora, was built in 1903 for the Connel-Ballachulish railway. A rail-bus ferried foot-passengers across from 1909 until 1914 when the bridge was converted to allow for rail and passenger traffic. Since the railway line closed in 1966, the bridge has been for road traffic. In the parish of Ardchattan, on the north shore, stands the beautiful ruin of St. Modan's Priory, founded in the 13th century for Cistercian monks of the Valliscaulian Order, it is said that Robert Bruce held within its walls the last parliament in which the Gaelic language was used. On the coast of Loch Nell, or Ardmucknish Bay, is the vitrified fort of Beregonium, not to be confounded with Rerigonium on Loch Ryan in Wigtownshire town of the ancient Novantae tribe, identified with Innermessan; the confusion has arisen through a textual error in an early edition of Ptolemy's Geography.
Loch Etive was the name of an Iron Clipper Ship. In geology, Etive is the name of a geological Formation of the North Sea stratigraphy, named after the Loch. Category:Loch Etive on Wikimedia Commons. Media related to Loch Etive at Wikimedia Commons Fishing-Argyll web site; the Falls of Lora information website
James III of Scotland
James III was King of Scots from 1460 to 1488. James was an unpopular and ineffective monarch owing to an unwillingness to administer justice a policy of pursuing alliance with the Kingdom of England, a disastrous relationship with nearly all his extended family. However, it was through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark that the Orkney and Shetland islands became Scottish, his reputation as the first Renaissance monarch in Scotland has sometimes been exaggerated, based on attacks on him in chronicles for being more interested in such unmanly pursuits as music than hunting and leading his kingdom into war. In fact, the artistic legacy of his reign is slight when compared to that of his successors, James IV and James V; such evidence as there is consists of portrait coins produced during his reign that display the king in three-quarter profile wearing an imperial crown, the Trinity Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes, not commissioned by the king, an unusual hexagonal chapel at Restalrig near Edinburgh inspired by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
James was born to James II of Mary of Guelders. His exact date and place of birth have been a matter of debate. Claims were made that he was born in May 1452, or 10 or 20 July 1451; the place of birth was either the St Andrews Castle, depending on the year. His most recent biographer, the historian Norman Macdougall, argued for late May 1452 at St Andrews, Fife, he succeeded his father James II on 3 August 1460 and was crowned at Kelso Abbey, Roxburghshire, a week later. During his childhood, the government was led by three successive factions, first the King's mother, Mary of Guelders James Kennedy, Bishop of St Andrews, Gilbert, Lord Kennedy Robert, Lord Boyd; the Boyd faction made itself unpopular with the king, through self-aggrandisement. Lord Boyd's son Thomas was married to the king's sister Mary. However, the family negotiated the king's marriage to Margaret of Denmark, daughter of Christian I of Denmark in 1469 as a part of ending the annual fee owed to Norway for the Western Isles, receiving Orkney and Shetland.
When James permanently annexed the islands to the crown in 1472, Scotland reached its greatest territorial extent. James married the 15 year old Margaret of Denmark in July 1469 at Edinburgh. Christian I of Denmark gave the Shetland Islands to Scotland as a dowry; the service was overseen by Abbot Archibald Crawford. The marriage produced three sons: James IV of Scotland James Stewart, Duke of Ross John Stewart, Earl of Mar Conflict broke out between James and the Boyd family following the marriage to Princess Mary. Robert and Thomas Boyd were out of the country involved in diplomacy when their regime was overthrown. Mary's marriage was declared void in 1473; the family of Sir Alexander Boyd was executed by James in 1469. James became powerful enough to attempt to manage the Lord of the Isles who ruled over the Western Isles and Highlands of Scotland in 1475; the treaty made by the Lords with England at Ardtornish in 1462 was used as evidence of their usurpation of royal power. John of Islay, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles was censured for making his son Angus his lieutenant and for besieging Rothesay Castle in the Isle of Bute.
John, Lord of the Isles was ordered to appear for trial in Edinburgh on 1 December and when he did not attend, he was declared forfeit. The Earls of Lennox, Argyll and Huntly were ordered to put the forfeiture in practice. John, Lord of the Isles, came to Edinburgh in July 1476 and the forfeiture was rescinded, but he resigned to the crown the Earldom of Ross, lands in Kintyre and Knapdale, the offices of Sheriff of Inverness and Nairn. James made John a Lord of Parliament as Lord of the Isles. In April 1478 Parliament required John to answer for his assistance to rebels who held Castle Sween against the crown. In December John received confirmation of his 1476 charters. James's policies during the 1470s revolved around ambitious continental schemes for territorial expansion and alliance with England. Between 1471 and 1473 he suggested annexations or invasions of Brittany and Guelders; these unrealistic aims resulted in parliamentary criticism since the king was reluctant to deal with the more humdrum business of administering justice at home.
In 1474 a marriage alliance was agreed to with Edward IV of England by which the future James IV of Scotland was to marry Princess Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. It might have been a sensible move for Scotland, but it went against the traditional enmity of the two countries dating back to the reign of Robert I and the Wars of Independence, not to mention the vested interests of the border nobility; the alliance, therefore was at least one of the reasons why the king was unpopular by 1479. During the 1470s conflict developed between the king and his two brothers, Duke of Albany, John, Earl of Mar. Mar died suspiciously in Edinburgh in 1480 and his estates were forfeited given to a royal favourite, Robert Cochrane. Albany fled to France in 1479, breaking the alliance with England, but by 1479 the alliance was collapsing and war with England existed on an intermittent level in 1480–1482. In 1482 Edward IV launched a full-scale invasion led by the Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III, including the