Mallabia is an elizate and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Mallabia is part of the comarca of Durangaldea and has a population of 1.135 inhabitants as of 2006 and according to the Spanish National Statistics Institute. The etymology of the word Mallabia may come from the Basque word malla and bi refers to the place with "two levels" or "two heights"; as it is common with the elizates, the date of foundation of Mallabia is unknown. Its origin is linked with the old Tierra Llana of the ancient merindad of Durango. At some point, it split from the elizate of Zanazaurra. Since 1635, Mallabia had voice and right to vote in the Juntas of Guerendiaga, where it occupied the seat number three; the local church was opened in the 11th century, it was reconstructed in the 16th century and finished in 1750. The municipality of Mallabia is located in the eastern part of Biscay, it limits at north with the municipalities of Markina-Xemein and Etxebarria, at south with Zaldibar at east with Eibar and Ermua and at west with Berriz.
The town is crossed by the roads BI-3301, BI-633 and the N-634, which connects the town with Bilbao, Donostia and Eibar, among others. The nearest highway is the AP-8; the narrow-gauge regional railways Euskotren does not have a station in the town, despite crossing near to it. Mikel Pradera, cyclist Durangaldea Biscay MALLABIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Ermua is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. In 2014, Ermua had 16,194 inhabitants. Ermua is a town in the Durangaldea comarca of the province of Biscay in northern Spain, it is situated in a steep-sided valley beside a tributary of the Deba River. Because of the steep, irregular terrain, building space is limited, Ermua is one of the most densely populated towns in the Basque country. To the north of Ermua lies the municipality of Mallabia, to the east lies Eibar and to the south lies Zaldibar. Eibar is a larger town which lies just across the provincial border, in the province of Gipuzkoa, the two towns forming a single urban area. Ermua has grown in size during the 1960s and 1970s and acts as a dormitory town to Eibar, both of them being industrial towns. Ermua and Eibar are linked by the N-634 and share a common exit from the Autopista AP-8, the toll road that crosses the Basque Country, connects Bilbao with the French Border.
Ermua and Eibar are connected by the narrow gauge railway that runs from Bilbao to San Sebastián. Historic buildings in Ermua include the Church of Santiago Apóstol, an unusual Renaissance building with a fine bell tower, the Baroque Valdespina Palace, now the Town Hall, the sixteenth century Lobiano Palace. On 10 July 1997, Miguel Ángel Blanco, a town councillor in Ermua, was kidnapped by ETA, the Basque separatist organization. ETA demanded that the Spanish government transfer members of the organization imprisoned outside the Basque Country to prisons in the Basque Country, when the Spanish government did not accede to their demands, their hostage was executed, his kidnapping and death had a great impact on both Spanish and Basque society and sparked the formation of an anti-terrorism organisation, a peace movement known as "Foro de Ermua". It aimed to promote political and civil liberties but was limited in popular appeal, being handicapped by being supported by the Basque elite and Spanish nationalists.
ERMUA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia ERMUA. Football championship – Ermua Libertario
Abadiño is a town located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain, about 35 km from the provincial capital of Bilbao. The area of the municipality is about 36 km2 and according to the 2014 census, the population is 7504; the original name of the town was Abadiano Celayeta. Abadiño is located on the N-636 road a few kilometres to the southeast of Durango in the province of Biscay in northern Spain; the town is in a broad valley formed by the Urkiola Rivers. Livestock farming is practised here on the flat valley floor, to the south the land rises to form the Urkiola mountain range; the lower slopes are clad in natural woodland of oak and pine, the higher parts consist of limestone peaks with gullies and caves and are included in the Urkiola Natural Park. The town of Abadiño has a number of historic buildings; the Muntsaratz Tower is a good example of ninth century Renaissance architecture. The Sanctuary of San Antonio is a church inside the Urkiola Natural Park.
The Astola Manor House was one of the political and administrative centres of the Merindad de Durango region. It was purchased by the Merindad in 1576 and was subsequently used as a courthouse, as the residency of the local lieutenant, as the local gaol and as the district archive; the Gederiaga Complex includes the Chapel of San Salvador. This was an ancient "oath chapel" in which general assemblies of the authorities of Merindad de Durango valley were held. There are mountain bike riding and horse riding facilities near the town. There are the main one being that of the patron saint, Santa Domingo; this takes place on May 12th and the succeeding days and there is much music and dancing in the town. The Festival of San Blas takes place on February 3rd, at this event there is a livestock fair. Another festival, that of San Antonio, is celebrated on June 13th near his sanctuary in Urkiola. Athletic Bilbao players Ustaritz Aldekoaotalora and Ander Iturraspe were born in Abadiño. ABADIÑO in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Abadiño Official Website In Basque and Spanish
Elorrio is a town and a municipality located in the eastern part of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, in northern Spain. As of 2017, it has a population of 7,307 inhabitants, it covers an area of 37.20 square kilometers and it has a population density of 193.58 people per square kilometer. It holds the medieval title of Noble Villa. Elorrio was founded in 1356 by the Infante Tello Alfonso of Castile, the 20th Lord of Biscay, near the elizate of Saint Agustín of Etxebarria. San Agustin Etxebarria was part of the medieval County of Durango, Elorrio remains part of the comarca of Durangaldea. In 1630, Elorrio annexed Saint Agustín of Etxebarria. Elorrio had municipal representation in the medieval Juntas Generales; the town has been affected by its main economic activity: the industrial sector. It is renowned for its rich architectural heritage, being listed as a Conjunto histórico by the Ministry of Culture. In the Basque language, elorrio is the word for the red fruit of the common hawthorn.
The Basque word elorri means "hawthorn". The coat of arms of the town shows a hawthorn. Colloquially, the town was called Elorrixo in Basque; the Argiñeta tombs that today lie just outside the town of Elorrio are both pre-Christian and Christian. In 1053, the San Agustín de Etxebarria monastery was founded, which in time was renovated and became present-day church. In 1356, Don Tello, Lord of Biscay created Elorrio on the land where the monastery stood, as a means of creating a town to defend his borders against invasion from neighboring Gipuzkoa. In 1468 the town was the site of a major battle between warring clan factions in the Basque Country. However, incidents of this type decreased, between the sixteenth and the eighteenth centuries, the town's fortunes grew, gaining renown for its iron-forges, the production of lances; as a result of this economic expansion, a number of important buildings were constructed that are today considered monuments of significant historical and architectural importance.
In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, although it remained a predominantly rural town, became a tourist destination, as people visited the locality to attend one of its two well-known spas. After the Spanish Civil War, Elorrio went through a period of industrialization, with a number of small, family firms and worker cooperative enterprises emerging. In 1964, the whole town was the first one in Biscay to be declared a Centre of Historical and Artistic Importance, its population, which grew from 3,500 in 1950 to 8,000 in 1981 numbers just over 7,000 people. Elorrio is located at the easternmost point of Biscay, in the comarca of Durangaldea, northern Spain, it limits at north with Berriz and Zaldibar at northwest with Abadiño, at west with Atxondo, at east with the province of Gipuzkoa and at south with the province of Álava. The town is surrounded by various mountains, such as Intxorta and Udalatx, is traversed by the Zumelegi river that, after joining the River Arrazola in Atxondo, goes on to form the Ibaizabal river.
The town is situated 39 km from the provincial capital of Bilbao. The National Institute of Statistics estimates that the population of Elorrio was 7,294 in January 1, 2013; the economy of the municipality is based on the industrial activity. Nonetheless, the farming activities still have relevance in the area. Most of the rural exploitations are based on beef and milk production and, in less numbers, the exploitation of pines; the most important economical activity in the area is the industry. The only mean of transport is by road. In Durango the road connects with the AP-8 highway to Bilbao and Donostia-San Sebastián while in Arrasate-Mondragón it connects to the AP-1 highway to Eibar and Vitoria-Gasteiz. From Elorrio starts the BI-2632 road to Bergara and Elgeta and the BI-3321 road to Berriz. Two lines of the Bizkaibus network have stations in Elorrio. Elorrio has buses to Bilbao every hour and to Durango and other lesser municipalities every 30 minutes. Aniceto Sagastizabal, born in 1940, using the name'Gasti' was known as'The World's Greatest Jai-Alai Player'.
Gasti had a successful career as a professional player of the Basque sport Cesta Punta from the mid-50s thru the early 80s in Italy and the United States. Saint Balendin Berrio-Otxoa, one of the Vietnamese Martyrs, was born in Elorrio in 1827. Ordained in 1851, he became a Dominican and was sent to Manila and Tonkin as a missionary. At the age of thirty-one, he was named a bishop, but was killed in Tonkin in 1861, he was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1988. José Antonio Ardanza, born in 1941, was lehendakari or president of the Basque Autonomous Community, 1985-1999, he was the CEO of Euskaltel, a Basque telecommunications company, until his retirement in 2011. Alejandro Goicoechea, born in 1895, was the engineer who developed with José Luis Oriol the Talgo railway vehicle, he died in 1984. Anne Igartiburu, born in 1969, is actress. Victor Maria Bereicua, born in 1954, is a professional Jai-Alai player, who used the name'Elorrio,' in honor of his hometown. Elorrio is famous
Mañaria is an elizate and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. Mañaria is part of the comarca of Durangaldea and has a population of 459 inhabitants as of 2006 according to the Spanish National Statistics Institute; as happens with most of the elizates, little is known about the early history of the town and its foundation. Prehistoric deposits of Magdalenian and Neolithic origin have been found in the caves of Silibranka and Atxuri, among others. A Visigoth liturgical vase of the 7th Century has been found. Mañaria was part of the merindad of Durango, it had voice and right to vote in the Juntas of Guerendiaga, where it occupied the seat number four. On the 18th Century the construction of the Royal Road connecting the city of Vitoria with the coast of Biscay going through Urkiola meant the realignment of the town's location, making it the central axis of the municipality. Since mid 18th Century and during the entire 19th Century, Mañaria lived a period of splendor because of the exploitation of its quarries.
The church is extended, the school, the Basque pelota fronton, the tower of the clock and the cemetery are built. Mañaria is located in the southeastern part of the province of Biscay, located in northern Spain, it limits at north with the municipalities of Izurtza and Durango, at west with Dima and at east and south with Abadiño. Mañaria is surrounded by mountains. Other important mountains that surround the municipality are the Saibi; the road BI-623 that connects Durango with Vitoria-Gasteiz crosses the city from north to south before ascending to Urkiola. More than 70% of the territory of the municipality is part of the Urkiola Natural Park; the valley is formed by the Mañaria River that originates in the hillsides of the mountains that surround it. This river joins the Ibaizabal river; the economy of the municipality is based on industry. The primary sector is based on the exploitation of resources as limestone and marble in quarries, being this the main economical activity of the municipality.
Some small farming activities are present. The secondary sector is based on the metallurgical transformation. Most of the industries are located in the deeper area of the valley, it is non-existent due the proximity of bigger cities, as Durango or Bilbao, where most of the services are located. The transportation is based on road transportation by the BI-623 road, which connects the town with Durango, the capital city of the comarca of Durangaldea and 5 km away; the same road by south connects the town with Urkiola and from there to Otxandio and the province of Álava. In Durango, the road is connected to the National Road N-634 and the highway AP-8 to Bilbao and Donostia-San Sebastián. Durango, Biscay Durangaldea MAÑARIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Durango is a town and municipality of the historical territory and province of Biscay, located in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the main town of one of the comarcas of Biscay; because of its economical activities and population, Durango is considered one of the largest towns in Biscay after the ones that compose the conurbation of Greater Bilbao. Durango has 29,318 inhabitants; the town is crossed by three rivers. The Ibaizabal river is the main river, lies in the middle of its wide valley, with the scenic Urkiola mountain range and natural park to the south; the most important peak is the majestic Anboto. In addition, inside the town stand out two mountains: Pagasarri mugarra mountain. There are many differing opinions about the origin of the name Durango. Basque linguist Alfonso Irigoyen has suggested its origin to be in the name Duranco used in the early Middle Ages. Other authors suggest the name to be an evolved form of Padurango. In the confirmation of the town's fuero it is referred to as Tavira de Durango.
Until the 16th century, the town was known as Uribarri de Durango, Uribarri being Basque for "New town". It has been postulated by the Royal Basque Academy of the Language that the name Durango stems from the Latin name Turanicus a Roman fundus like many others in the Basque Country. While it is not known when Durango was founded, it was suzerain to the Kingdom of Navarre, is attested on an 1179 document revolving around territorial litigation between Alfonso VIII of Castile and Sancho VI of Navarre, The Wise; the impending threat of a military intervention conducted by King Alfonso VIII against the Navarrese led King Sancho VI to found other fortified towns, such as San Sebastián and Vitoria-Gasteiz. Between 1199 and 1201, King Alfonso VIII of Castile occupied the lordship of Durango and its hinterland, as well as other key western Basque districts. Durango went on to form part of the Crown of Castile, but former laws and institutions were upheld by the Castilian king. In the 15th century, Durango got engaged in the wider War of the Bands, with various conflicts involving the Ibarguen and Unzueta families.
During this period, tower houses belonging to different clans were erected, such as the ones of Arandoño, Etxebarria, Lariz and Otalora. Henry III and Henry IV, the Castilian Kings, were both received in Durango, as well as Queen Isabel of Castile, who enticed Durango and the Lordship of Biscay to her cause in exchange for ratifying their laws and institutions, i.e. she swore the fueros, favourable trade conditions. According to the municipal records, both monarchs took shelter in the Lariz Tower. In 1517 Durango was devastated by a terrible epidemic of plague that caused many deaths amongst the inhabitants; some years after the epidemic, in 1544, heavy flooding inundated a good part of the town. Just the opposite, in 1554 the town was ravaged by fire, burning all wooden buildings to the ground, i.e. all the buildings were burnt down. In 1597 another plague epidemic spread across the town; the Town Hall is recorded to have been built in the 16th century. The name Durango was used by conquistadores like Francisco de Ibarra to found more Durangos in America named after the Basque original one, e.g. a state in Mexico called Durango, whose principal city is called Durango.
During the 17th century, the town of Durango had to face up to the enormous human and economic cost incurred on the various wars the Crown of Castile embarked upon against France. Following heavy human losses suffered in battles and an episode of cholera epidemic, the town ended up ruined. At the end of the 19th century in 1882, the railway line from Bilbao to Durango was inaugurated. While the construction was expensive, during the early 20th century Durango flourished. On 31 March 1937, Durango was bombed by the Legion Condor, it was a busy shopping day—St. Maria, the central church with a covered marketplace, was targeted. More than 500 people were killed in the following days; the Kurutziaga Cross. It was built between early 16th century, it tells a story and it has a gothic style with a clear Flemish, German influence. Baroque Santa Ana's Arch, designed by local architect Juan de Herdoiza for the now disappeared line of walls; the arch was constructed to symbolise the town gates, through which the King was required to pass when he visited.
Mikeldi idol, of pre-Roman times. Lariz Tower is an urban palace, built around the end of the 15th century, it was renovated in 2009 and it is the Tourist Information Office of the town. It is believed that the Queen Isabella Catholic stayed overnight when she visited Durango in order to swear the regional laws and those of the Merindad de Durango. In the building there are decorative elements of the final Gothic such as large windows of seat or heights of taste Hispanic-Fleming and others of the Renaissance There is less heavy industry in the town than in the late 20th century, as it is being replaced by high density housing projects and shopping facilities. Durango was for many years the home of Euskal Telebista; this public television company broadcasts in Spanish. It has a global presence with satellite channel beamed across the world. ETB has moved to a new headquarters in Bilbao. In Durango, bes
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated, from around 13,000 BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt, sheep and pigs were being raised on farms. Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Lincoln Longwool sheep were improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat and wool. A wide range of other species such as horse, water buffalo, llama and guinea pig are used as livestock in some parts of the world. Insect farming, as well as aquaculture of fish and crustaceans, is widespread.
Modern animal husbandry relies on production systems adapted to the type of land available. Subsistence farming is being superseded by intensive animal farming in the more developed parts of the world, where for example beef cattle are kept in high density feedlots, thousands of chickens may be raised in broiler houses or batteries. On poorer soil such as in uplands, animals are kept more extensively, may be allowed to roam foraging for themselves. Most livestock are herbivores, except for chickens which are omnivores. Ruminants like cattle and sheep are adapted to feed on grass. Pigs and poultry cannot digest the cellulose in forage, require cereals and other high-energy foods; the domestication of livestock was driven by the need to have food on hand when hunting was unproductive. The desirable characteristics of a domestic animal are that it should be useful to man, should be able to thrive in his company, should breed and be easy to tend. Domestication was not a single event. Sheep and goats were the animals that accompanied the nomads in the Middle East, while cattle and pigs were associated with more settled communities.
The first wild animal to be domesticated was the dog. Half-wild dogs starting with young individuals, may have been tolerated as scavengers and killers of vermin, being pack hunters, were predisposed to become part of the human pack and join in the hunt. Prey animals, goats and cattle, were progressively domesticated early in the history of agriculture. Pigs were domesticated in Mesopotamia around 13,000 BC, sheep followed, some time between 11,000 and 9,000 BC. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan around 8,500 BC. A cow was a great advantage to a villager as she produced more milk than her calf needed, her strength could be put to use as a working animal, pulling a plough to increase production of crops, drawing a sledge, a cart, to bring the produce home from the field. Draught animals were first used about 4,000 BC in the Middle East, increasing agricultural production immeasurably. In southern Asia, the elephant was domesticated by 6,000 BC.
Fossilised chicken bones dated to 5040 BC have been found in northeastern China, far from where their wild ancestors lived in the jungles of tropical Asia, but archaeologists believe that the original purpose of domestication was for the sport of cockfighting. Meanwhile, in South America, the llama and the alpaca had been domesticated before 3,000 BC, as beasts of burden and for their wool. Neither was strong enough to pull a plough which limited the development of agriculture in the New World. Horses occur on the steppes of Central Asia, their domestication, around 3,000 BC in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea region, was as a source of meat. Around the same time, the wild ass was being tamed in Egypt. Camels were domesticated soon after this, with the Bactrian camel in Mongolia and the Arabian camel becoming beasts of burden. By 1000 BC, caravans of Arabian camels were linking India with the Mediterranean. In ancient Egypt, cattle were the most important livestock, sheep and pigs were kept; the Nile provided a plentiful source of fish.
Honey bees were domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, providing both wax. In ancient Rome, all the livestock known in ancient Egypt were available. In addition, rabbits were domesticated for food by the first century BC. To help flush them out from their underground burrows, the polecat was domesticated as the ferret, its use described by Pliny the Elder. In northern Europe, agriculture including animal husbandry went into decline when the Roman empire collapsed; some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive; the Domesday Book recorded every parcel of land and every animal in Britain: "there was not one single hide, nor a yard of land, moreover... not an ox, nor a cow, nor a swine was there left, not set down in writ." For example, the royal manor of Earley in Berkshire, one of thousands of villages recorded in the book, had in 1086 "2 fisheries worth 7s and 6d and 20 acres of meadow.
Woodland for 70 pigs." Exploration and colonisat