Dust Bowl

The Dust Bowl was a period of severe dust storms that damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, 1939–1940, but some regions of the high plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years. With insufficient understanding of the ecology of the plains, farmers had conducted extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains during the previous decade; the rapid mechanization of farm equipment small gasoline tractors, widespread use of the combine harvester contributed to farmers' decisions to convert arid grassland to cultivated cropland. During the drought of the 1930s, the unanchored soil turned to dust, which the prevailing winds blew away in huge clouds that sometimes blackened the sky; these choking billows of dust – named "black blizzards" or "black rollers" – traveled cross country, reaching as far as the East Coast and striking such cities as New York City and Washington, D.

C. On the plains, they reduced visibility to 3 feet or less. Associated Press reporter Robert E. Geiger happened to be in Boise City, Oklahoma, to witness the "Black Sunday" black blizzards of April 14, 1935. While the term "the Dust Bowl" was a reference to the geographical area affected by the dust, today it refers to the event itself; the drought and erosion of the Dust Bowl affected 100,000,000 acres that centered on the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma and touched adjacent sections of New Mexico and Kansas. The Dust Bowl forced tens of thousands of poverty-stricken families to abandon their farms, unable to pay mortgages or grow crops, losses reached $25 million per day by 1936. Many of these families, who were known as "Okies" because so many of them came from Oklahoma, migrated to California and other states to find that the Great Depression had rendered economic conditions there little better than those they had left; the Dust Bowl has been the subject of many cultural works, notably the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, the folk music of Woody Guthrie, photographs depicting the conditions of migrants by Dorothea Lange.

The Dust Bowl area lies principally west of the 100th meridian on the High Plains, characterized by plains which vary from rolling in the north to flat in the Llano Estacado. Elevation ranges from 2,500 feet in the east to 6,000 feet at the base of the Rocky Mountains; the area is semiarid. The region is prone to extended drought, alternating with unusual wetness of equivalent duration. During wet years, the rich soil provides bountiful agricultural output, but crops fail during dry years; the region is subject to high winds. During early European and American exploration of the Great Plains, this region was thought unsuitable for European-style agriculture; the lack of surface water and timber made the region less attractive than other areas for pioneer settlement and agriculture. The federal government encouraged settlement and development of the Plains for agriculture via the Homestead Act of 1862, offering settlers 160-acre plots. With the end of the Civil War in 1865 and the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869, waves of new migrants and immigrants reached the Great Plains, they increased the acreage under cultivation.

An unusually wet period in the Great Plains mistakenly led settlers and the federal government to believe that "rain follows the plow" and that the climate of the region had changed permanently. While initial agricultural endeavors were cattle ranching, the adverse effect of harsh winters on the cattle, beginning in 1886, a short drought in 1890, general overgrazing, led many landowners to increase the amount of land under cultivation. Recognizing the challenge of cultivating marginal arid land, the United States government expanded on the 160 acres offered under the Homestead Act – granting 640 acres to homesteaders in western Nebraska under the Kinkaid Act and 320 acres elsewhere in the Great Plains under the Enlarged Homestead Act of 1909. Waves of European settlers arrived in the plains at the beginning of the 20th century. A return of unusually wet weather confirmed a held opinion that the "formerly" semiarid area could support large-scale agriculture. At the same time, technological improvements such as mechanized plowing and mechanized harvesting made it possible to operate larger properties without increasing labor costs.

The combined effects of the disruption of the Russian Revolution, which decreased the supply of wheat and other commodity crops, World War I increased agricultural prices. For example, in the Llano Estacado of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas, the area of farmland was doubled between 1900 and 1920 tripled again between 1925 and 1930; the agricultural methods favored by farmers during this per

Serbs in Turkey

The Serbs in Turkey are Turkish citizens of Serbian descent or Serbia-born people who reside in Turkey. During the age of the Ottoman Empire most of Serbia and the Balkans were under Turkish control, many Serbs moved to Istanbul and Anatolia for reasons ranging from economic to forceful relocation. Many Janissaries were of Serbian descent and were taken as children from their homes and educated in Turkey; some Serbs achieved several Grand Viziers were born as Serbs. According to the 1965 Census 6,599 Turkish citizen spoke Serbian as a first language and another 58,802 spoke Serbian as a second language. Zagan Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1453 to 1456 Mahmud Pasha Angelović, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1456 to 1466, 1472 to 1474 Gedik Ahmed Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1474 to 1477 Deli Husrev Pasha, Ottoman statesman and second vizier Hadım Ali Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1501 to 1503 and 1506 to 1511 Lala Mustafa Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier in 1580 Semiz Ali Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1561 to 1565 Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1565 to 1579 Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1604 to 1606 Boşnak Derviş Mehmed Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier during 1606 Nevesinli Salih Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1645 to 1647 Kara Musa Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier during 1647 Sarı Süleyman Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1685 to 1687 Daltaban Mustafa Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1702 to 1703 Damat Melek Mehmed Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1792 to 1794 Ivaz Mehmed Pasha, Ottoman Grand Vizier from 1739 to 1740 Yavuz Ali Pasha, Ottoman Governor of Egypt from 1601 to 1603 Meylişah Hatun, Consort to Sultan Osman II George Berovich, Governor-General of Crete and Prince of Samos.

Omar Pasha, convert Mara Branković, wife of Murad II influential in imperial affairs, ambassador to Venice Osman Aga of Temesvar, Ottoman commander Şehsuvar Sultan Aşub Sultan Skenderbeg Crnojević George Berovich Aganlija Kučuk-Alija Sali Aga Sinan-paša Sijerčić, Ottoman Bosnian general. Bosnian Serb origin. Malkoçoğlu family, one of four leading akinci families. Serbian origin. Ivana Sert, Serbian-Turkish television personality, presenter, model Gallipoli Serbs Belgrad Forest Asia Minor Slavs


AIDAperla is a cruise ship of AIDA Cruises, built by Mitsubishi Shipbuilding at their shipyard in Nagasaki, Japan. The vessel was delivered in May 2017 and was formally named in June 2017 by its godmother, German fashion model and television host Lena Gercke. AIDAperla has overall length of 300.00 m, moulded beam of 37.00 m, maximum draft of 8.25 m. The vessel has deadweight of 9,200 DWT and gross tonnage of 125,572 GT; the cruise ship has capacity for 3,286 passengers in double occupancy. AIDAperla has 16 passenger decks; the cruise ship AIDAperla is driven by three Caterpillar 12V M43C diesel units, each with power of 12,670 hp. Additionally the ship has one dual-fuel Caterpillar M46DF with power of 11,650 hp and generator Caterpillar 3516B with power of 2,250 kW; the cruise ship operates with service speed of 22.5 kts. DNV GL: AIDAperla Video of AIDAperla @ Marseille