Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history spanning the 17th century and after the part of the Eighty Years' War for Dutch independence. The new Dutch Republic was the most prosperous nation in Europe and led European trade and art; the northern Netherlandish provinces that made up the new state had traditionally been less important artistic centres than cities in Flanders in the south. The upheavals and large-scale transfers of population of the war, the sharp break with the old monarchist and Catholic cultural traditions, meant that Dutch art had to reinvent itself; the painting of religious subjects declined but a large new market for all kinds of secular subjects grew up. Although Dutch painting of the Golden Age is included in the general European period of Baroque painting, shows many of its characteristics, most lacks the idealization and love of splendour typical of much Baroque work, including that of neighbouring Flanders. Most work, including that for which the period is best known, reflects the traditions of detailed realism inherited from Early Netherlandish painting.
A distinctive feature of the period is the proliferation of distinct genres of paintings, with the majority of artists producing the bulk of their work within one of these. The full development of this specialization is seen from the late 1620s, the period from until the French invasion of 1672 is the core of Golden Age painting. Artists would spend most of their careers painting only portraits, genre scenes, landscapes and ships, or still lifes, a particular sub-type within these categories. Many of these types of subject were new in Western painting, the way the Dutch painted them in this period was decisive for their future development. A distinctive feature of the period, compared to earlier European painting, was the limited number of religious paintings. Dutch Calvinism forbade religious paintings in churches, though biblical subjects were acceptable in private homes few were produced; the other traditional classes of history and portrait painting were present, but the period is more notable for a huge variety of other genres, sub-divided into numerous specialized categories, such as scenes of peasant life, townscapes, landscapes with animals, maritime paintings, flower paintings and still lifes of various types.
The development of many of these types of painting was decisively influenced by 17th-century Dutch artists. The held theory of the "hierarchy of genres" in painting, whereby some types were regarded as more prestigious than others, led many painters to want to produce history painting; however this was the hardest to sell, as Rembrandt found. Many were forced to produce portraits or genre scenes. In descending order of status, the categories in the hierarchy were: history painting, including allegories and popular religious subjects. Portrait painting, including the tronie genre painting or scenes of everyday life landscape, including seascapes, battlescenes and ruins still lifeThe Dutch concentrated on the "lower" categories, but by no means rejected the concept of the hierarchy. Most paintings were small – the only common type of large paintings were group portraits. Painting directly onto walls hardly existed. For the extra precision possible on a hard surface, many painters continued to use wooden panels, some time after the rest of Western Europe had abandoned them.
In turn, the number of surviving Golden Age paintings was reduced by them being overpainted with new works by artists throughout the 18th and 19th century – poor ones were cheaper than a new canvas and frame. There was little Dutch sculpture during the period. Painted delftware tiles were cheap and common, if of high quality, but silver in the auricular style, led Europe. With this exception, the best artistic efforts were concentrated on printmaking. Foreigners remarked on the enormous quantities of art produced and the large fairs where many paintings were sold – it has been estimated that over 1.3 million Dutch pictures were painted in the 20 years after 1640 alone. The volume of production meant that prices were low, except for the best known artists; those without a strong contemporary reputation, or who had fallen out of fashion, including many now considered among the greatest of the period, such as Vermeer, Frans Hals and Rembrandt in his last years, had considerable problems earning a living, died poor.
In particular the French invasion of 1672, brought a severe depression to the art market, which never quite returned to earlier heights. The distribution of pictures was wide: "yea many tymes, cobblers etts. will have some picture or other by their Forge and in their stalle. Such is the generall Notion and delight that these Countrie Native have to Painting" reported an English traveller in 1640. There were for the first time many professional art dealers, several significant artists, like Vermeer and his father, Jan van
Freemountain Toys, Inc. was a company based in Bristol, Vermont, USA that produced anthropomorphic vegetables and fruits called Vegimals and other plush toys and hats with stuffed appendages. The company was founded in 1975 by Beverly Red in her home in Burlington and moved from there to a loft a storefront and to a former grist mill in Bristol, renamed the Vegimill. In 1978 the company's gross income was $6 million. Products were sewn by as many as 140 local women in addition to a staff of ten at the Vegimill, where the grain bins were used in cutting and boxing merchandise. In June 1980, Red sold Freemountain to Michael Balser; the company's trademarks have since expired. Vegimals, the company's initial product, were velour and fur-covered vegetables and fruits, some with Velcro fastenings, which had embroidered faces, they included peas in a zippered pod, a tomato, a stalk of broccoli, a cauliflower, a giant carrot, a slice of watermelon with removable stuffed seeds, an olive with removable pit, a peelable and segmentable orange, a shuckable ear of corn, two peanuts in a peanut shell, a banana with Velcro-fastened peel.
Non-vegetable, non-fruit characters included an egg that unzipped to release a stuffed fried egg, a zippered can containing four Velcro-attached sardines, animals such as a fish inside a fish inside another fish, a whale with a baby inside, a mother sheep with lamb, "Emile Bearhart" with a pocket containing a red velour heart, an 11-inch velour pyramid containing a blue velour mummy. In 1978 the company was producing 43 different types of Vegimal; the company started producing baseball caps with stuffed wings. A separate division, Freemountain hats, produced caps with horns and lightning bolts sewn on in addition to wings, with considerable sales success. Freemountain was awarded a certificate of commendation by the Public Action Coalition on Toys for its safe, imaginative products in non-sexist packaging and inspiring constructive and non-violent play; the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library includes several Vegimals in its library of educational materials, to assist pre-school and elementary-school children in learning about foodstuffs.
The Kings School is an English Medium co-educational school in Mugalli, Goa. The school is affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education; the school was a dream of founder Annette Pereira. Chairman Melvin Pereira and director Ligia Pereira envisioned and executed those dreams in the garden of Child Care School, where in the year 2005, The Kings School was planted and grew; the school has over 20 classrooms. It was based for grades from Nursery to X but on February 2014, the school announced that it would have a higher secondary. On Children's day, 14 November 2006 the school purchased a 2.5 acre land in the scenic village of Mugalli in Sao Jose de Areal, 4 km away from Margao. In May 2007 a further 2.5 acre land was purchased and the foundation stone was laid by the founder of Child Care School, Annette Pereria on 14 June 2007 for the 3,000 m2 built up area school building for The Kings School. The building was completed on record time by the builders; the building was furnished and ready to start a new academic year on 5 June 2008.
One of the Lok Sabha Member of Parliament, Francisco Sardinha inaugurated the new school building at the School Sports Festival in 2009. The second phase of the school started construction on June 2008; the third phase of the school was completed in the academic year 2013-14. This phase was built for the IX-XII classes. Other than this the phase houses the school canteen'Pitstop', a staffroom and an indoor sports room. In 2011, a swimming pool was gifted to the school by one of the well wishers of the school. A dedicated indoor sports area was made where students are trained to play chess, table tennis and carom; the third phase of the school featured a canteen for more than 100 students where breakfast and lunch is served. A library was as well constructed in the first phase of the building; the school has a turf playground where a variety of sports are played which include football and athletics. Library, Audio Visual Room, Computer Lab, Math Lab, Physics Lab, Biology Lab, Chemistry Lab, Learning center for students with learning disabilities, Manuel Filipe Pereira Hall.
Medical Hub, Art Space and Language Room.'Pitstop'- the school canteen and Indoor sports room Bus bay cum skating rink, Open-air stage, Football ground, Multi-sport court, Swimming pool, Cricket nets, Rock climbing, Green house, Volleyball court, Kids play area, Long-jump pit, Table Tennis play area, Mango tree sit-outs, Rain water harvesting system and the school has a smart class system in all its classes. The school has a total of 21 non teaching staff; the school's headmaster is principal is Tanuja Dessai. In addition, the school has separate specialized teaching staff for each co-curricular activity; the school has expert sports coaches in addition to Leapstart sports staff and Gait dance staff. The school puts up many activities for the students; the school in association with Oil and Natural Gas Corporation and Institute of Fire Safety and Environmental Management Goa celebrated'Fire Service Week'. The school held many workshops; the school held a Wikipedia workshop in the school where the students were explained what Wikipedia was all about and thought how to make articles and use them to the fullest.
The school annually hosts the event'Dine & Dance', a fundraiser in the aid of cancer patients. In addition, the school hosts its annual'Sports Festival' before the Diwali vacations which includes 100% participation by the students, they perform dances and participate in sport events. The school hosts various other events like cookery classes, Van Mahotsav, Gandhi Jayanti, language festivals, etc; the school hosted the'Swachhata Pakhwada' after winning the Swachh Vidyalaya Puraskar. The school has its own clubs for its students:- D'Artist club which hosts the'Expression Express', Dance club which hosts the'Dance Fiesta', Singing club which hosts'The Voice', Robotics club, Literary club, Eco-club, Nature Buddies, Sports club, Cajetan Lobo Civic Sense Club, etc; the school hosts a'Club Day' twice a year. The school was awarded with the national Swacch Vidyalaya Puraskar 2017–18 for exemplary work in the field of sanitation and hygiene, the school stood 36th out of the 52 schools shortlisted, it became the first private school from Goa to be awarded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development.