The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Dirk Jan de Geer
Jhr. Dirk Jan de Geer was a Dutch politician of the defunct Christian Historical Union now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal, he served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 8 March 1926 until 10 August 1929 and from 10 August 1939 until 3 September 1940. Born in Groningen, he was a descendant of the De Geer family. After receiving his J. D. in 1895, De Geer acted as the town councillor of Rotterdam. He served from 1907 as a Christian Historical member of Parliament. De Geer was a stable and respected politician before World War II. From 1920 to 1921 de Geer served as mayor of Arnhem. Between 1921 and 1923 he served as Minister of Finance, he resigned in 1923 because of his disagreement with the Naval Law of 1924. From 1925 to 1926 he served as minister of the minister of agriculture, he was Prime Minister from 8 March 1926 to 10 August 1929. He served as Minister of Finances from 1926 to 1933. After the end of the fifth cabinet of Colijn he was again asked to form a government in August 1939, concurrently holding the office of Minister of Finance and of General Affairs.
However, he was not suited for the role of prime minister of a nation at war. When the Germans attacked the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, the situation soon became serious; because of this the government decided to flee to London. When in London, De Geer advocated negotiating a separate peace between the Netherlands and the Third Reich, which damaged the Dutch government and the Dutch morale by stating that the war could never be won, he was removed from office on the instigation of the iron-willed Queen Wilhelmina, replaced by Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy on account of ill-health. On, he was sent with a diplomatic package to the Dutch East Indies, present day Indonesia, he never arrived there: on a stop-over in Portugal he left, returned via Berlin to his ailing wife, the rest of his family in the Netherlands with the permission of the Germans. This angered Queen Wilhelmina, who called him a traitor and deserter to the Dutch cause, he wrote a controversial leaflet with "instructions" for the people on how to cooperate with the Germans.
"With this pamphlet," the Dutch government in exile stated in a broadcast, "the writer has betrayed the Netherlands people, whatever happens to him personally." Wilhelmina warned De Geer that if he went on to publish this, he would be put on trial after the conclusion of the war. With the permission of the Nazis, De Geer went through with the publication, he was stripped of all of his honorary titles. The Appeal Court confirmed the sentence of a year's imprisonment for high treason in time of war, with 3 years' probation, but waived the fine of 20,000 guilders and his deprivation of the title "Minister of State", he died some 15 years in Soest. On 11 August 1904, De Geer married Maria Voorhoeve, his grandson is ex-footballer Boudewijn de Geer, his great-grandson is current footballer Mike de Geer. Newspaper clippings about Dirk Jan de Geer in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics Jhr. Mr. D. J. de Geer Parlement & Politiek
Luxembourg government in exile
The Luxembourgish government in exile known as the Luxembourgish government in London, was the government in exile of Luxembourg during the Second World War. The government was based in London between 1940 and 1944, while Luxembourg was occupied by Nazi Germany, it was led by Pierre Dupong, included three other Ministers. The head of state, Grand Duchess Charlotte escaped from Luxembourg after the occupation; the government was bipartite, including two members from both the Party of the Right and the Socialist Workers' Party. The government was located in 27 Wilton Crescent in Belgravia, London which now serves as the Luxembourgish Embassy in London, it was located only a few hundred meters from the Belgian government in exile in Eaton Square. On 10 May 1940, neutral Luxembourg was invaded by German troops as part of a wider attack on France; the same day, the Luxembourgish government under the Dupong-Krier Ministry, fled the country. The outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939 and the ensuing Phoney War had made it possible to predict a violation of Luxembourgish neutrality, so that the government decided it would depart into exile if the country was occupied by German forces.
While the departure of the Grand Duchess and her ministers was the result of a decision taken in advance, it was not well-prepared. The government left no written declaration explaining the reasons for its departure to a distressed population, nor any instructions for the commission charged with provisionally administering the country; the advance of German troops was so rapid that one of the ministers, Nicolas Margue, was captured by the invaders. So as not to compromise the action of his colleagues, he informed the Chamber of Deputies that due to his circumstances, he felt obliged to provisionally renounce the exercise of his functions as minister; the government established itself first in Paris when a French defeat was imminent, fled to Portugal. In the meantime, in Luxembourg, an Administrative Commission composed of government counsellors and headed by Albert Wehrer started operating, it tried to fill the vacuum left by the departure of the executive, tried to come to an arrangement with the German military authorities.
The Administrative Commission and the Chamber of Deputies appealed to the Grand Duchess, asking her to return to Luxembourg. The Luxembourgish authorities remaining in the country had not yet abandoned the hope that in the new European order dominated by Nazi Germany, the Grand Duchy could retain its independence. In Lisbon, the month of July passed in uncertainty. While Dupong and the Grand Duchess leaned towards returning, Bech was reluctant. Germany's de facto annexation of Luxembourg put an end to hesitations. On 29 July 1940, Gustav Simon, Gauleiter of the Gau Koblenz-Trier, was named Chef der Zivilverwaltung in Luxembourg. All the institutions of the Luxembourgish state were abolished; the Grand Duchess and the government decided to definitively join the Allied side, opted for a dual seat. The Grand Ducal family, Pierre Dupong and for a time, Victor Bodson, established themselves in Montréal, Canada, a Francophone city close to the United States. Joseph Bech and Pierre Krier remained in London, the seat of several other governments in exile, such as those of Belgium and the Netherlands.
The government first fled to Paris and the United Kingdom. While the Government established itself in Wilton Crescent in London, the Grand Duchess and her family moved to Francophone Montreal in Canada; the government in exile was vocal in stressing the Luxembourgish cause in newspapers in Allied countries and succeeded in obtaining Luxembourgish language broadcasts to the occupied country on BBC radio. The government encouraged the foundation of the Luxembourg Society in London in 1942. In 1944, the government in exile signed the London Customs Convention with the Belgian and Dutch governments, laying the foundation for the Benelux Economic Union and signed into the Bretton Woods system of currency controls; the first reaction of the government in exile was to protest against the German violation of its independence and neutrality and appealing for French and British help. In choosing to go into exile, first in France and in Britain and Canada, the Luxembourgish government abandoned its traditional policy of neutrality and joined the camp of those fighting the Axis powers.
Despite its small size, Luxembourg was a party to the great agreements which brought together the Allied war effort and laid foundations for the post-war period. Thus, Luxembourg signed the declaration of St James’s Palace and the Declaration by United Nations, adhered to the Atlantic Charter and participated in the Bretton Woods Conference which put in place a new international monetary system; the government had drawn lessons from the First World War, directed all diplomatic efforts towards the goals of assuring the country's survival, preventing a "Luxembourg Question" from arising after the war, having Luxembourg recognised as a full member of the Allies despite its weak military capability. In 1944, the government succeeded in furnishing a modest contribution to the Allied military effort by creating the Luxembourg Battery, composed of Luxembourgish volunteers and integrated in the Belgian Brigade Piron. During the course of the war, the government developed a policy of active communication intended to make the Luxembourgish voice heard within the United Nations and to support the morale of the Luxembourgish population.
It published a Grey Book, placed articles in the English-speaking press, obtained Luxemb
Flag of the Netherlands
The flag of the Netherlands is a horizontal tricolour of red and blue. The current design originates as a variant of the late 16th century orange-white-blue Prinsenvlag, evolving in the early 17th century as the red-white-blue Statenvlag, the naval flag of the States-General of the Dutch Republic, making the Dutch flag the oldest tricolour flag in continuous use, it has inspired the seminal French flags. During the economic crisis of 1930s the old Prince's Flag with the colour orange gained some popularity among some people. To end the confusion, the colours red and blue and its official status as the national flag of the Kingdom of the Netherlands were reaffirmed by royal decree on 19 February 1937; the national flag of the Netherlands is a tricolour flag. The horizontal fesses are bands of equal size in the colours from top to bottom, red and blue; the flag proportions are 2:3. The color parameters were defined on 16 August 1949 as follows: The Dutch flag is identical to that of Luxembourg, except that it is shorter and its red and blue stripes are a darker shade.
Despite the visual similarity, there is no documented relationship between the two designs. The similarity of the two flags has given rise to a national debate to change the flag of Luxembourg, initiated by Michel Wolter in 2006, it has been suggested that during the 15th century, the colours red and blue were mentioned as the coastal signals for this area, with the 3 bands straight or diagonal, single or doubled, that the colours were taken from the coat of arms of the Bavarian house, the rulers of the county of Holland during 1354–1433, who used the Bavarian coat of arms quartered with the arms of the counts of Holland. At the end of the 15th century, when the majority of the Netherlands provinces were united under the Duke of Burgundy, the Cross of Burgundy Flag of the Duke of Burgundy was used for joint expeditions, which consisted of a red saltire resembling two crossed, roughly-pruned branches, on a white field. Under the House of Habsburg this flag remained in use. In 1568 provinces of the Low Countries rose in revolt against King Philip II of Spain, William Prince of Orange placed himself at the head of the rebels.
The etymology of the House of Orange is unrelated to the name of the colour. Usage of the colours orange and blue was based on the livery of William and was first recorded in the siege of Leiden in 1574, when Dutch officers wore orange-white-blue brassards; the first known full color depiction of the flag appeared in 1575. In Ghent in 1577, William was welcomed with a number of theatrical allegories represented by a young girl wearing orange and white; the first explicit reference to a naval flag in these colours is found in the ordonnances of the Admiralty of Zeeland, dated 1587, i.e. shortly after William's death. The colour combination of orange and blue is considered the first Dutch flag; the 400th anniversary of the introduction of the Dutch flag was commemorated in the Netherlands by the issue of a postage stamp in 1972. That was based on the fact that in 1572 the Watergeuzen, the pro-Dutch privateers, captured Den Briel in name of William, Prince of Orange. However, it is uncertain whether they took an orange-white-blue flag with them on the event, although they started using an orange-white-blue tricolour somewhat in the 1570s.
It became known as the Prinsenvlag and served as the basis for the former South African flag, the flags of New York City and the Flag of Albany, New York, all three former dominions of the Dutch Republic. Red as replacement for orange appeared as early as 1596, but more after about 1630, as indicated by paintings of that time, it has been suggested. It appears that prior to 1664, the red-white-blue tricolour was known as the "Flag of Holland". In 1664, the States of Zeeland, one of the other revolting provinces, complained about this, a resolution of the States-General introduced the name "States Flag"; the Dutch navy between 1588 and 1630 always displayed the Prince's Flag, after 1663 always the States Flag, with both flag variants being in use during the period of 1630–1662. The red-white-blue triband flag as used in the 17th century is said to have influenced the seminal Russian flag and the French flag. With the Batavian Revolution in the Netherlands in the last decade of the 18th century, the subsequent conquest by the French, the name "Prince's Flag" was forbidden and the red-white-blue of the Statenvlag was the only flag allowed, analogous as is was to France's own tricolour, chosen just a few months earlier influenced by that same Statenvlag.
In 1796 the red division of the flag was embellished with the figure of a Netherlands maiden, with a lion at her feet, in the upper left corner. In one hand she bore a shield with the Roman fasces and in the other a lance crowned with the cap of liberty; this flag had a life as short as that of the Batavian Republic. Louis Bonaparte, made king of Holland by his brother the Emperor Napoleon, wished to pursue a purely Dutch policy and to respect national sentiments as much as possible, he restored the old tricolour. His pro-Dutch policies led to conflicts with his brother and the Netherlands were incorporated into the French Empire. In 1810 its
The Reichskommissariat Niederlande was the civilian occupation regime set up by Germany in the German-occupied Netherlands during World War II. Its full title was the Reich Commissariat for the Occupied Dutch Territories; the administration was headed by Arthur Seyss-Inquart the last chancellor of Austria before initiating its annexation by Germany. The German domination of the Netherlands began with the German invasion. On the day of the capitulation the entire ministerial staff fled to London to form a Dutch government in exile. Queen Wilhelmina had preceded them the previous day; this had de facto left government authority in the hands of general Henri Winkelman as the senior-most military commander in the Netherlands. On 20 May 1940 a military administration was implemented, led by Militärsbefehlshaber Alexander Freiherr von Falkenhausen; this was disbanded however to be replaced by a civil administration under the authority of the newly appointed Arthur Seyss-Inquart, named Reichskommissar für die besetzten niederländische Gebiete.
The new form of government was therefore not a German military government but a civil government. Hitler chose this option on ideological grounds: the Dutch were considered a "racially related kindred-people" and therefore had to be won over for National Socialism; this move was technically justified on legal grounds according to the provisions of the Hague Conventions on the laws of war. The wholly unconstitutional evacuation of the monarch and her government before the advancing German forces meant that there was no longer any functioning civil authority left in the area. Article 43 of The Laws and Customs of War on Land stipulate that in this scenario the occupying power is accorded responsibility for maintaining order in the territories that it has occupied in lieu of the native government exercising this authority. On the longer term, the German authorities anticipated the direct integration of the Netherlands into the expanding Third Reich; the Nationaal Socialistiche Beweging, or the Dutch Nazi Party, had existed for years before the Germans arrived in the Low Countries.
Between World War I and World War II, Dutch society experienced a crisis in its sociopolitical system. The National Socialist movement offered a solution to Netherlands' instability and gained some influence without endangering the existing political order, a system, frail during the period of political democracy. However, this form of democracy was not in practice nor uncontested as a principle by the NSB. Leading up to the German invasion, the Dutch Nazi Party spent much of the 1930s loudly denouncing the government's inability to protect the Dutch people from economic suffering, social chaos, the expanding influence of Marxism-Bolshevism; the group separated itself as an internal force, gaining a small degree of importance during that mid-1930s, contributing to the German efforts to nazify the occupied Netherlands. The NSB began to admire the'achievements' of the German Reich by 1936 and broadcast their own warnings that'International Jewry' had taken a hold of the Netherlands and would conquer Europe.
As the Germans gained power in the Netherlands, the NSB believed it could influence occupation policy and German behavior. The group anticipated Anton Mussert, a prominent and founding member of the Party, to be Hitler's appointee during the occupational regime. If the German invasion had never occurred, it is undisputed that the NSB would never have managed to take over political power of the Netherlands; the Germans did not allow for an independent Dutch way to National Socialism and only wanted to incorporate Dutch Nazis into the political structure as supporters and executors of German policy, not leaders of the country in its entirety. The German government in the Netherlands was headed by Seyss-Inquart as Reichskommissar. Beneath him were four Generalkommissare; these were: Generalkommissar für Finanz und Wirtschaft. Succeeded by Willi Ritterbusch after the former's suicide on 26 June 1943. There was a constant conflict between Seyss-Inquart, Hitler's appointed Reich Commissioner who relied directly on Hitler's support, Rauter, the Generalkommissar for security matters and nominally subordinate to Seyss-Inquart, but as Higher SS and Police Leader he took direct orders from Heydrich and his chief, Himmler.
In the period following the February Strike, Seyss-Inquart and Rauter engaged in a political struggle as each competed for control over Jewish affairs in the country. The control which Seyss-Inquart was supposed to have was non-existent in practice due to overlapping and contradictory competences and a series of unresolved conflicts between party and state organizations, as well as the individuals listed above. Despite his nominal government subordination to Seys-Inquart, Rauter as an SS officer was only responsible to Heinrich Himmler as Reichsführer-SS, his own deputies in turn were the Befehlshaber der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD Wilhelm Harster, the Aussenstelle in Amsterdam, the Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung (Central Office for Jewish "Emi
French Indochina known as the Indochinese Union after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin and Cochinchina with Cambodia was formed in 1887. Laos was added in 1893 and the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan in 1898; the capital was moved from Saigon to Hanoi in 1902 and again to Da Lat in 1939. In 1945 it was moved back to Hanoi. After the Fall of France during World War II, the colony was administered by the Vichy government and was under Japanese occupation until March 1945, when the Japanese overthrew the colonial regime. After the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh, a communist organization led by Hồ Chí Minh, declared Vietnamese independence, but France subsequently took back control of French Indochina. An all-out independence war, known as the First Indochina War, broke out in late 1946 between French and Viet Minh forces. In order to create a political alternative to the Viet Minh, the State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was proclaimed in 1949.
On 9 November 1953 the Kingdom of Cambodia proclaimed its independence. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam and French Indochina came to an end. French–Vietnamese relations started during the early 17th century with the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes. Around this time, Vietnam had only just begun its "Push to the South"—"Nam Tiến", the occupation of the Mekong Delta, a territory being part of the Khmer Empire and to a lesser extent, the kingdom of Champa which they had defeated in 1471. European involvement in Vietnam was confined to trade during the 18th century, as the remarkably successful work of the Jesuit missionaries continued. In 1787, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, a French Catholic priest, petitioned the French government and organised French military volunteers to aid Nguyễn Ánh in retaking lands his family lost to the Tây Sơn. Pigneau died in Vietnam but his troops fought on until 1802 in the French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh; the French colonial empire was involved in Vietnam in the 19th century.
For its part, the Nguyễn dynasty saw Catholic missionaries as a political threat. In 1858, the brief period of unification under the Nguyễn dynasty ended with a successful attack on Da Nang by French Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly under the orders of Napoleon III. Diplomat Charles de Montigny's mission having failed, Genouilly's mission was to stop attempts to expel Catholic missionaries, his orders were to stop the persecution of missionaries and assure the unimpeded propagation of the faith. In September 1858, fourteen French gunships, 3,000 men and 300 Filipino troops provided by the Spanish attacked the port of Tourane, causing significant damage and occupying the city. After a few months, Rigault had to leave the city due to supply illnesses. Sailing south, de Genouilly captured the poorly defended city of Saigon on 18 February 1859. On 13 April 1862, the Vietnamese government was forced to cede the three provinces of Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường to France. De Genouilly was criticised for his actions and was replaced by Admiral Page in November 1859, with instructions to obtain a treaty protecting the Catholic faith in Vietnam, but refrain from territorial gains.
French policy four years saw a reversal, with the French continuing to accumulate territory. In 1862, France obtained concessions from Emperor Tự Đức, ceding three treaty ports in Annam and Tonkin, all of Cochinchina, the latter being formally declared a French territory in 1864. In 1867 the provinces of Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long were added to French-controlled territory. In 1863, the Cambodian king Norodom had requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country. In 1867, Siam renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and recognised the 1863 French protectorate on Cambodia, in exchange for the control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces which became part of Thailand.. France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French War. French Indochina was formed on 17 October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia; the federation lasted until 21 July 1954. In the four protectorates, the French formally left the local rulers in power, who were the Emperors of Vietnam, Kings of Cambodia, Kings of Luang Prabang, but in fact gathered all powers in their hands, the local rulers acting only as figureheads.
French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by the mid-1880s they had established a firm grip over the northern region. From 1885 to 1895, Phan Đình Phùng led a rebellion against France. Nationalist sentiments intensified in Vietnam during and after World War I, but all the uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain sufficient concessio
Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. During the 19th century, the Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century; this colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule, contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects; the term Indonesia came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia as a nation state, set the stage for an independence movement. Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution.
The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty at the 1949 Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea, ceded to Indonesia 14 years in 1963 under the provisions of the New York Agreement. The word Indies comes from Latin: Indus; the original name Dutch Indies was translated by the English as the Dutch East Indies, to keep it distinct from the Dutch West Indies. The name Dutch Indies is recorded in the Dutch East India Company's documents of the early 1620s. Scholars writing in English use the terms Indië, the Dutch East Indies, the Netherlands Indies, colonial Indonesia interchangeably. Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states; the first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese in 1512. Following disruption of Dutch access to spices in Europe, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia.
When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed. Recognising the potential of the East Indies trade, the Dutch government amalgamated the competing companies into the United East India Company; the VOC was granted a charter to wage war, build fortresses, make treaties across Asia. A capital was established in Batavia. To their original monopolies on nutmeg, peppers and cinnamon, the company and colonial administrations introduced non-indigenous cash crops like coffee, cacao, rubber and opium, safeguarded their commercial interests by taking over surrounding territory. Smuggling, the ongoing expense of war and mismanagement led to bankruptcy by the end of the 18th century; the company was formally dissolved in 1800 and its colonial possessions in the Indonesian archipelago were nationalized under the Dutch Republic as the Dutch East Indies. From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late 16th century, to the declaration of independence in 1945, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was always tenuous.
Although Java was dominated by the Dutch, many areas remained independent throughout much of this time, including Aceh, Bali and Borneo. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces. Piracy remained a problem until the mid-19th century. In the early 20th century, imperial dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. In 1806, with the Netherlands under Imperial French domination, Emperor Napoleon I appointed his brother Louis Bonaparte to the Dutch throne, which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshal Herman Willem Daendels as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. In 1811 Daendels was replaced by Governor-General Jan Willem Janssens, but shortly after his arrival British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java, Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor. Following Napoleon's defeat at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo and the Congress of Vienna, independent Dutch control was restored in 1816.
Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between former British and Dutch possessions remain today between modern Malaysia and Indonesia. Since the establishment of the VOC in the 17th century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been a business matter. Graaf van den Bosch's Governor-generalship confirmed profitability as the foundation of official policy, restricting its attention to Java and Bangka. However, from about 1840, Dutch national expansionism saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions in the outer islands. Motivations included: the protection of areas held.