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Wilhelmina of the Netherlands

Wilhelmina was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948. She reigned for nearly 58 years, longer than any other Dutch monarch, her reign saw the First and the Second world wars, the Dutch economic crisis of 1933, the decline of the Netherlands as a major colonial power. Wilhelmina was his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. On William's death in 1890, she ascended to the throne at the age of ten under the regency of her mother. In 1901, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, with whom she had Juliana. Wilhelmina was credited with maintaining Dutch neutrality during the First World War. Following the German invasion of the Netherlands in 1940, Wilhelmina fled to Britain and took charge of the Dutch government-in-exile, she spoke to the Dutch people over radio and came to be regarded as a symbol of the Dutch resistance. She returned to the Netherlands following its liberation in 1945. Beset by poor health after the war, Wilhelmina abdicated in September 1948 in favour of Juliana.

She retired to Het Loo Palace, where she died in 1962. Princess Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, was born on 31 August 1880 at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, she was his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Her childhood was characterised by a close relationship with her parents with her father, 63 years old when she was born. King William III had had three sons with his first wife, Sophie of Württemberg, but two of them had died before Wilhelmina's birth, the third brother died before she turned four. None of them had married; the only other surviving male member of the House of Orange was the King's uncle, Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, but he had no son either, only daughters, he died in 1881 when Wilhelmina was one year old. By 1887, the King, now seventy years of age abandoned hope of a son with his young wife, made the pragmatic decision to settle the throne upon his only daughter. Under the Semi-Salic system of inheritance, in place in the Netherlands until 1887, she was third in line to the throne from birth.

When Prince Frederick died a year in 1881, she became second in line. When Wilhelmina was four, Alexander died and the young girl became heir presumptive. King William III died on 23 November 1890. Although ten-year-old Wilhelmina became queen of the Netherlands her mother, was named regent. In 1895, Queen Wilhelmina visited Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who penned an evaluation in her diary: The young Queen... still has her hair hanging loose. She is slender and graceful, makes an impression as a intelligent and cute girl, she knows how to behave with charming manners. Wilhelmina was sworn-in and inaugurated at the Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam on 6 September 1898. On 7 February 1901 in The Hague, she married Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Nine months on 9 November, Wilhelmina suffered a miscarriage, on 4 May 1902 she gave birth to a premature stillborn son, her next pregnancy ended in miscarriage on 23 July 1906. During this time period, Wilhelmina's heir presumptive was her first cousin once removed William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, next in line was his aunt Princess Marie Alexandrine of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.

As it was assumed that the former would renounce his claim to the Dutch throne, that the latter was too elderly and sickly to become Queen, Marie Alexandrine's eldest son Prince Heinrich XXXII Reuss of Köstritz stood in line to succeed Wilhelmina, assuming she had no surviving children. Heinrich was a German prince with close associations with the military; the birth of Juliana, on 30 April 1909, was met with great relief after eight years of childless marriage. Wilhelmina suffered two further miscarriages on 23 January and 20 October 1912. Wilhelmina was well aware what was expected of her by the Dutch people and their elected representatives. At the same time, she was a forceful personality who spoke and acted her mind; these qualities showed up early in her reign when, at the age of 20, Queen Wilhelmina ordered a Dutch warship, HNLMS Gelderland, to South Africa to evacuate Paul Kruger, the embattled President of the Transvaal. Wilhelmina had a stern dislike of the United Kingdom as a result of the annexation of the republics of Transvaal and Orange Free State in the Boer War.

The Boers were descendants of early Dutch colonists, to whom Wilhelmina and the people of the Netherlands felt closely linked. In conversation with her former governess Elisabeth Saxton Winter, she once teasingly referred to the Boer soldiers as "excellent shots", she was not amused to hear that a Dutch medical relief team was planning to accommodate the needs of both Boer and British wounded soldiers. In 1940, King George VI sent the warship HMS Hereward, to rescue Wilhelmina, her family and her Government and bring them to safety to the United Kingdom, which offered the Netherlands facilities including broadcasting time on the BBC. Queen Wilhelmina had a keen understanding of business matters and her investments made her the world's richest w

Paul Girvan

Paul Girvan is a Northern Irish politician. Since 2017, he has been the Member of Parliament for South Antrim; as a member of the Democratic Unionist Party, he was elected to Newtownabbey Borough Council in 1997, from 2002–04 served as its mayor. He is the Chair of the council's Development Committee. In 2003, he was elected to the Northern Ireland Assembly, he was deselected by the DUP in South Antrim in 2007, but returned to the Assembly in 2010 when he was selected to replace William McCrea following his resignation. In the 2017 general election, he was elected as the Member of Parliament for South Antrim, having defeated the incumbent Ulster Unionist Member, Danny Kinahan. In March 2019, Girvan was one of 21 MPs who voted against LGBT inclusive sex and relationship education in English schools. Link to NIA profile

Sud Ouest (newspaper)

Sud Ouest is a daily French newspaper, the third largest regional daily in France in terms of circulation. It was created in Bordeaux, on August 29, 1944, by Jacques Lemoine, as a successor to La Petite Gironde. In 1949, the Sunday edition, Sud Ouest Dimanche was launched. Sud Ouest covers the Gironde, the Charente, the Charente-Maritime, the Dordogne, the Pyrénées Atlantiques and the Lot et Garonne départements, it is owned by the Groupe Sud Ouest, directed by Jacques Lemoine from 1944 to 1968, by his son Jean-François Lemoine from 1968 to 2001. The president of the group since February 2008 has been Pierre Jeantet. 80% of the group belongs to the Lemoine family, 10% to the journalists, the remaining 10% to the staff. The paper circulation is around 300,000 copies. Besides Sud Ouest, the group has progressively broadened and now owns La Charente Libre, La Dordogne Libre, La République des Pyrénées and L’Eclair des Pyrénées-Pays de l’Adour. In 2007, the Groupe Sud Ouest bought Le Midi Libre, L’Indépendant, Centre Presse and Montpellier Plus from the group Le Monde, forced to sell these titles because of its crushing debt.

These local papers of the Languedoc-Roussillon region, allow Groupe Sud Ouest to extend outside the Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes regions. Besides the dailies, the Groupe Sud Ouest owns the weekly magazines Le Résistant, Haute Saintonge, Haute Gironde, l’Hebdo de Charente Maritime, La Semaine du Pays Basque, La Dépêche du Bassin and Le Journal du Médoc; the weeklies La Semaine du Roussillon, le Journal de Millau, l’Aveyronnais, le Catalan Judiciaire, Terre de Vins and Terres Catalanes, all published in Languedoc-Roussillon, were sold by Le Monde to Groupe Sud Ouest in 2007. Groupe Sud Ouest publishes various surf magazines, including Surf Session', Bodyboard and Surfer's Journal. A publishing house, éditions Sud Ouest, specializes in local history and food and owns the local TV station, TV7 Bordeaux; the revenue of the group was 325 million euros in 2006, after the absorption of the Languedoc-Roussillon papers, it expected a 555 million Euro revenue. The newspaper Sud Ouest distinguishes itself by a coverage more thorough than usual for a French local daily of the national and international news.

Politically, the paper is rather neutral although it has once compared Bruno Mégret with Philippe Henriot after a meeting of the Front National in Bordeaux in the 1990s. It features an editorial cartoonist, Michel Iturria, a regular opinion column signed by Franck de Bondt. Sud Ouest newspaper The Sud Ouest group