Dutch people or the Dutch are a Germanic ethnic group and nation native to the Netherlands. They share a common ancestry and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Aruba, Guyana, Curaçao, Brazil, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, the United States; the Low Countries were situated around the border of France and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a part of their respective peripheries, the various territories of which they consisted had become autonomous by the 13th century. Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic; the high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a early date. During the Republic the first series of large-scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place; the Dutch people are seen as the pioneers of capitalism, their emphasis on a modern economy, a free market has been hugely influential worldwide.
The traditional arts and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of traditional music, architectural styles and clothing, some of which are globally recognizable. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt and Van Gogh are held in high regard; the dominant religion of the Dutch was Christianity, although in modern times the majority are no longer religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism, atheism or individual spirituality; as with all ethnic groups, the ethnogenesis of the Dutch has been a complex process. Though the majority of the defining characteristics of the Dutch ethnic group have accumulated over the ages, it is difficult to pinpoint the exact emergence of the Dutch people; the text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group. For Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire. In the first centuries CE, the Germanic tribes formed tribal societies with no apparent form of autocracy, beliefs based Germanic paganism and speaking a dialect still resembling Common Germanic.
Following the end of the migration period in the West around 500, with large federations settling the decaying Roman Empire, a series of monumental changes took place within these Germanic societies. Among the most important of these are their conversion from Germanic paganism to Christianity, the emergence of a new political system, centered on kings, a continuing process of emerging mutual unintelligibility of their various dialects; the general situation described above is applicable to most if not all modern European ethnic groups with origins among the Germanic tribes, such as the Frisians, Germans and the North-Germanic peoples. In the Low Countries, this phase began when the Franks, themselves a union of multiple smaller tribes, began to incur the northwestern provinces of the Roman Empire. In 358, the Salian Franks, one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance settled the area's Southern lands as foederati. Linguistically Old Frankish or Low Franconian evolved into Old Dutch, first attested in the 6th century, whereas religiously the Franks converted to Christianity from around 500 to 700.
On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism and founded a number of kingdoms culminating in the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne. However, the population make-up of the Frankish Empire, or early Frankish kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia, was not dominated by Franks. Though the Frankish leaders controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part of the Empire; the Franks in Northern France were assimilated by the general Gallo-Roman population, took over their dialects, whereas the Franks in the Low Countries retained their language, which would evolve into Dutch. The current Dutch-French language border has remained identical since, could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks; the medieval cities of the Low Countries, which experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century, were instrumental in breaking down the relatively loose local form of feudalism. As they became powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility.
During the early 14th century, beginning in and inspired by the County of Flanders, the cities in the Low Countries gained huge autonomy and dominated or influenced the various political affairs of the fief, including marriage succession. While the cities were of great political importance, they formed catalysts for medieval Dutch culture. Trade flourished, population numbers increased and education was no longer limited to the clergy.
Assaf Inbari is an Israeli novelist and journalist. He teaches at Alma College in Tel Aviv. Assaf Inbari was born and raised on Kibbutz Afikim, the oldest of three children, lived there until the age of 20, he studied Hebrew literature and comparative literature at the Adi Lautman Interdisciplinary Programme for Outstanding Students of Tel Aviv University. In 2008 he completed his Ph. D. on the poetry of Hayim Nahman Bialik at Bar-Ilan University. In 2005, he married Naomi, he lives on Kibbutz Degania B. In 2009 he published his first novel Home, it relates the history of Afikim over three generations, from its founding in the Jordan Valley in the early 1930s by members of the socialist–Zionist youth movement Hashomer Hatzair, through its growth and development, to its present form, beset by privatization and individualism. The novel was awarded the 2010 Israel Book Publishers Association's Platinum Prize and was on the shortlist of finalists for the Sapir Prize for Literature. Home. "The Kibbutz Novel as Erotic Melodrama", Vol. 31, No. 1 Journal of Israeli History, pp. 129–146.
"The Spectacles of Isaiah Berlin", Azure, pp. 82–112. "Towards A Hebrew Literature", Azure, pp. 99–154. "Zionism's New Challenge", Azure, pp. 81–109. "The Age of Post-Nostalgia", Haaretz, 15 September 2012. "The End of the Secular Majority", Haaretz, 3 February 2012. "The Finishing Touch", Eretz acheret, 17 September 2009. "New Age: The Fall of the Secular State", September 1999. Israeli literature Assaf Inbari's website
Kinto Sol is a Latin hip hop group based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The group consists of three brothers: El Chivo and Skribe, they rap in Spanish, blending traditional Mexican music with hip hop style beats, giving them their unique sound. They own their own independent record label, Virus Enterprises LLC, which specializes in Latin hip hop; the group's name is a phonetic spelling of "quinto sol", is taken from an Aztec legend in which the Fifth Sun will be the last one to set in this lifetime. Los Hijos Del Maiz was awarded the best Latin Hip Hop album of the year for its content and best sales history. El Chivo has released two independent solo albums, his latest album, Cicatrices reached number 5 on the Latin Billboard charts "Latin Rhythm Album" and it was an independent release with no backing of a major record label. El Ultimo Suspiro is the sixth studio album by Kinto Sol released on October 19, 2010 on Machete Music; the album debuted #1 in the Latin Billboard Charts Latin Rhythm. Kinto Sol began when three brothers, “Skribe”, “DJ Payback Garcia” and “El Chivo,” set out to pursue their passion in music.
Skribe, the executive producerus Enterprises, moved from Mexico to Chicago to Texas. DJ Payback Garcia & El Chivo moved from Mexico to Milwaukee, DJ Payback at age 15 and El Chivo at 7. Skribe began his musical career as a DJ in 1990. Kinto Sol Del Norte Al Sur Hecho En Mexico La Sangre Nunca Muere Los Hijos del Maiz 15 Rayos Carcel de Sueños El Último Suspiro Familia, Fe y Patria La Tumba del Alma Protegiendo el Penacho Lo Ke No Se Olvida Somos Once Lengua Universal The Shield: Music from the Streets Official website Kinto Sol at AllMusic Kinto Sol at Yahoo! Music Kinto Sol at Univision Music Group