Clay County, Florida
Clay County is a county located in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 190,895, its county seat is Green Cove Springs. Clay County is included in FL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Clay County was created on December 1858, from a section of Duval County, its name is in honor of Henry Clay, a famous American statesman, member of the United States Senate from Kentucky, United States Secretary of State in the 19th century. Clay County was once a popular destination for tourists visiting from the northern states; the therapeutic, warm springs and mild climate were major draws for visitors. Steamboats brought them to various hotels in Green Cove Springs - the St. Elmo and the Oakland. President Grover Cleveland was the most prominent of such tourists. Clay County's popularity among tourists peaked during the last three decades of the 19th century, it was eclipsed by Henry Flagler's extension of the Florida East Coast Railway to points south such as Palm Beach and Miami.
The military has played an important role in Clay County history. In 1939, Camp Blanding opened on Kingsley Lake in southwest Clay County; the Florida National Guard developed this 28,000 acres complex. During World War II, it trained over 90,000 troops and became the fourth largest "city" in the state. In Green Cove Springs, Lee Field was a flight training center. After World War II, Lee Field became a base for the mothball fleet. Although Lee Field closed in the early 1960s, Camp Blanding continues to operate today as a base for military training. Clay County is a popular choice of residence for military personnel stationed on bases in nearby Duval County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 644 square miles, of which 604 square miles is land and 39 square miles is water. Alachua County, Florida - southwest Duval County, Florida - north St. Johns County, Florida - east Putnam County, Florida - south Bradford County, Florida - west Baker County, Florida - northwest Keystone Heights Airport US 17 US 301 SR 16 SR 21 SR 23 SR 100 As of the census of 2010, there were 190,865 people, 65,356 households, 39,390 families residing in the county.
The majority of Clay County's population is located in the northeastern part where large suburban communities have been built. Orange Park and the surrounding area share the majority of the population. Green Cove Springs area has the lower population spread west and south, along with the small city of Keystone Heights, which lies at the southwestern end of the county. Although the population of Clay County is high, the majority of the county is still rural and consists of many farms and county roads less maintained; the population density was 234 people per square mile. There were 73,208 housing units at an average density of 89 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.8% White, 9.9% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. 7.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino, with Puerto Ricans being the majority of the Hispanic population. There were 50,243 households, out of which 39.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.80% were married couples living together, 10.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.60% were non-families.
16.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.11. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,854, the median income for a family was $53,814. Males had a median income of $36,683 versus $25,488 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,868. About 5.10% of families and 6.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.90% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. According to the Florida Times-Union, in October 2004, there were 106,114 registered voters in Clay County. According to the Secretary of State's office, Republicans account for a majority of registered voters in Clay County.
Clay County is one of the most reliably Republican counties in the state during presidential elections outside of the Panhandle, although it does support conservative Democrats for local and state offices. Clay County Historical and Railroad Museum, Green Cove Springs. Middleburg Historical Museum, Middleburg. Black Heritage Museum, Middleburg. Camp Blanding Museum, Camp Blanding; the Clay County School District operates 42 public schools. There are 28 elementary schools, six junior high schools and eight high schools; the Clay County Public Library System consists of five branches: Green Cove Springs Library Headquarters Library Keystone Heights Library Middleburg-Clay Hill Library Orange Park LibraryThe first public library in Clay County was made up of a small collection established by the Village Improvement Association within the county. Other small libraries were established by other organizations within Clay County. In 1961, representatives from different women’s organizations in the county started a movement to establish a library system within the county, resulted in the Clay County Board of County Commissioners
European colonization of the Americas
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Western Europe. Systematic European colonization began in 1492, when a Spanish expedition headed by the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sailed west to find a new trade route to the Far East but inadvertently landed in what came to be known to Europeans as the "New World", he ran aground on the northern part of Hispaniola on 5 December 1492, which the Taino people had inhabited since the 9th century. Western European conquest, large-scale exploration and colonization soon followed. Columbus's first two voyages reached the Bahamas and various Caribbean islands, including Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Cuba. In 1497, Italian explorer John Cabot, on behalf of England, landed on the North American coast, a year Columbus's third voyage reached the South American coast; as the sponsor of Christopher Columbus's voyages, Spain was the first European power to settle and colonize the largest areas, from North America and the Caribbean to the southern tip of South America.
The Spaniards began building their American empire in the Caribbean, using islands such as Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola as bases. The North and South American mainland fell to the conquistadors, with an estimated 8,000,000 deaths of indigenous populations, argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era. Florida fell to Juan Ponce de León after 1513. From 1519 to 1521, Hernán Cortés waged a campaign against the Aztec Empire, ruled by Moctezuma II; the Aztec capital, became Mexico City, the chief city of what the Spanish were now calling "New Spain". More than 240,000 Aztecs died during the siege of Tenochtitlan. Of these, 100,000 died in combat. Between 500 and 1,000 of the Spaniards engaged in the conquest died; the areas that are today California, New Mexico, Texas, Missouri and Alabama were taken over by other conquistadors, such as Hernando de Soto, Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Farther to the south, Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire during the 1530s.
The de Soto expedition was the first major encounter of Europeans with North American Indians in the eastern half of the United States. The expedition journeyed from Florida through present-day Georgia and the Carolinas west across the Mississippi and into Texas. De Soto fought his biggest battle at the walled town of Mabila in present-day Alabama on October 18, 1540. Spanish losses were 148 wounded; the Spaniards claimed. If true, Mabila was the bloodiest battle fought between red men and white in the present-day United States; the centuries of continuous conflicts between the North American Indians and the Anglo-Americans were secondary to the devastation wrought on the densely populated Meso-American and Caribbean heartlands. Other powers such as France founded colonies in the Americas: in eastern North America, a number of Caribbean islands and small coastal parts of South America. Portugal colonized Brazil, tried colonizing the eastern coasts of present-day Canada and settled for extended periods northwest of the River Plate.
The Age of Exploration was the beginning of territorial expansion for several European countries. Europe had been preoccupied with internal wars and was recovering from the loss of population caused by the Black Death. Most of the Western Hemisphere came under the control of Western European governments, leading to changes to its landscape and plant and animal life. In the 19th century over 50 million people left Western Europe for the Americas; the post-1492 era is known as the period of the Columbian Exchange, a widespread exchange of animals, culture, human populations and communicable disease between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following Columbus's voyages to the Americas. Henry F. Dobyns estimates that before European colonization of the Americas there were between 90 and 112 million people in the Americas. Norse journeys to Greenland and Canada are supported by archaeological evidence. A Norse colony in Greenland was established in the late 10th century, lasted until the mid 15th century, with court and parliament assemblies taking place at Brattahlíð and a bishop located at Garðar.
The remains of a Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, were discovered in 1960 and were dated to around the year 1000. L'Anse aux Meadows is the only site accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact, it was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978. It is notable for its possible connection with the attempted colony of Vinland, established by Leif Erikson around the same period or, more broadly, with the Norse colonization of the Americas. Early explorations and conquests were made by the Spanish and the Portuguese following their own final reconquest of Iberia in 1492. In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, ratified by the Pope, these two kingdoms divided the entire non-European world into two areas of exploration and colonization, with a north to south boundary that cut through the Atlantic Ocean and the eastern part of present-day Brazil. Based on this treaty and on early claims by Spanish explorer Vasco Núñez de Balboa, discoverer of the Pacific Ocean in 1513, the Spanish conquered large territories in
Atlantic Beach, Florida
Atlantic Beach is a city in Duval County, United States and part of the Jacksonville Beaches communities. When the majority of communities in Duval County consolidated with Jacksonville in 1968, Atlantic Beach, along with Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, Baldwin, remained quasi-independent. Like the other towns, it maintains its own municipal government, but its residents vote in the Jacksonville mayoral election and have representation on the Jacksonville city council; the population was 12,655 at the 2010 census. In 1900 Henry Flagler built the Mayport branch of the railroad and erected a station north of where the Adele Grage Cultural Center is located. Soon afterwords Flagler built a large hotel called the Continental Hotel on the railroad line between Pablo Beach and Mayport; the hotel was a summer resort with 250 guest rooms. There was a dance pavilion, tennis courts and a fishing pier. In 1913 the railroad sold most of the land to the Atlantic Beach Corporation which began paving streets, installing lights, water and sewer lines.
In that same year the Continental Hotel changed its name to the Atlantic Beach Hotel. However, during World War I people were afraid to come to the coast and the Atlantic Beach Corporation went bankrupt. To make matters worse the Atlantic Beach Hotel burned down on September 20, 1919. After the war land began to sell again and settlement grew; the Town of Atlantic Beach was incorporated in 1926 and the first charter was adopted in 1929. The first town hall burned down in 1932, so a new one was built that year; the newly established Mayport Naval Station and the construction of the Mathews Bridge led to further development of the town. The boundaries of Atlantic Beach were extended in 1987 with the annexation of Seminole Beach and again in 1996 by extending the westerly boundary to the Intracoastal Waterway. Atlantic Beach is located at 30°20′05″N 81°24′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.0 square miles, of which 3.5 square miles is land and 9.5 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 13,368 people, 5,623 households, 3,643 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,584.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,003 housing units at an average density of 1,609.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 82.23% White, 12.69% African American, 0.26% Native American, 2.09% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.12% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.18% of the population. There were 5,623 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $48,353, the median income for a family was $53,854. Males had a median income of $37,438 versus $27,321 for females; the per capita income for the city was $28,618. About 5.7% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.3% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Jacksonville Beaches Duval County, Florida Greater Jacksonville Official website Geographic data related to Atlantic Beach, Florida at OpenStreetMap
St. Johns County, Florida
St. Johns County is a county of the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 United States Census, the county's population was 190,039; the county seat and largest incorporated city is St. Augustine. St. Johns County is part of the Jacksonville metropolitan area; the county was established in 1821. It is one of the two original counties established after Florida was ceded to the United States, at the start of the Florida Territorial period, corresponded with the former colonial province of East Florida, it was named for the St. Johns River. Today, St. Johns County is made up of residential bedroom communities for those who commute to Jacksonville. Tourism associated with St. Augustine and the many golf courses in the area, is the chief economic industry. St. Johns County’s history begins in 1821, when Colonel Robert Butler received Spanish East Florida from Captain-General Colonel José M. Coppinger. Butler represented Major General Andrew Jackson, federal military commissioner for the Florida provinces with the powers of governor, exercising the powers of the Captain General and the Intendants of the Island of Cuba and the Governors of the said provinces who ordained that all of that country lying east of the river Suwannee should be designated as the County of St. Johns.
St. Johns was established, along with Escambia County, on July 21, 1821, just eleven days after Butler received Florida for the United States, only five days from the date that the city of St. Augustine was incorporated; the name Saint John's was derived from the Spanish mission San Juan del Puerto or Saint John of the Harbor. The apostrophe was dropped in 1932 by the U. S. Department of the Interior because an apostrophe implied ownership, it was a huge county, encompassing more than 39,000 square miles. Much of the land was uninhabited. Saint Augustine was the oldest permanent European settlement, there were Native Americans in the county as well. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 822 square miles, of which 601 square miles is land and 221 square miles is water. Duval County, Florida – north Flagler County, Florida – south Putnam County, Florida – southwest Clay County, Florida – west Castillo de San Marcos National Monument Fort Matanzas National Monument Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserve As of the census of 2000, there were 123,135 people, 49,614 households, 34,084 families residing in the county.
The population density was 202 people per square mile. There were 58,008 housing units at an average density of 95 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.92% White, 6.29% African American, 0.26% American Indian, 0.95% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.8% of the population. There is a Jewish community. There were 49,614 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.80% were married couples living together, 8.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.30% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.90. The age of the population was spread out with 23.10% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 26.40% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $50,099, the median income for a family was $59,153. Males had a median income of $40,783 versus $27,240 for females; the per capita income for the county was $28,674. About 5.10% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.30% of those under age 18 and 6.20% of those age 65 or over. The St. Johns County Board of County Commissioners is an elected five-member commission, which appoints a county administrator; the main environmental and agricultural body is the St. Johns County Soil and Water Conservation District, which works with other area agencies. In 2016 Donald Trump received 88,684 votes. Voter Registration Statistics as of 2/24/19 St. Johns County Animal Control operates the St. Johns County Pet Adoption and Holding Center at 130 North Stratton Road. Public schools are run by the St. Johns County School District, headed by the St. Johns County School Board, an elected five-member board which appoints a superintendent to administer schools' operations.
The system has grown since 2000 to accommodate the county's rapid population growth. It is Florida's top performing school district in Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test scores, the state's standardized test for public schools. In addition, the district received 2011 Energy Star Top Performer and Leader from the EPAFor the 2014–2015 school year the district comprised: 18 elementary schools 3 K-8 school 7 middle schools 7 high schools 1 alternative center 6 charter schools 1 virtual schoolThe St. Johns County School District has a robust special education department serving the needs of students with autism, cerebral palsy, cognitive disabilities. Additionally, the Florida School for the Deaf and Blind is a residential school for deaf and blind students and operated by the state of Florida; the Catholic Diocese of
The Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve is a U. S. National Preserve in Jacksonville, Florida, it comprises 46,000 acres of wetlands and other habitats in northeastern Duval County. Managed by the National Park Service in cooperation with the City of Jacksonville and Florida State Parks, it includes natural and historic areas such as the Fort Caroline National Memorial and the Kingsley Plantation; the preserve was expanded in 1999 by Preservation Project Jacksonville. The Fort Caroline National Memorial is located in the Timucuan Preserve, as is the Kingsley Plantation, the oldest standing plantation in the state; the Preserve is maintained through cooperation by the National Park Service, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the City of Jacksonville Department of Parks and Recreation. It is named for the Timucua Indians who had 35 chiefdoms throughout northern Florida and south Georgia at the time of Spanish colonization. Archeological excavation by a University of North Florida team has revealed more information about indigenous peoples in the area.
On Black Hammock Island, they have discovered remnants of the second-oldest pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BCE. They have excavated more recent artifacts contemporary with the Mocama chiefdom. In the last 25 years, these Native American people have been recognized as distinct from the Timucua, although they spoke a Timucuan dialect, their chiefdom extended from the St. Johns River to Georgia. Archeologists believe. San Juan del Puerto, one of the oldest Spanish missions in Florida, was established here during the 16th century. Franciscan brothers were missionaries to the Timucua and Guale Indians along the coast, whose territory included the Sea Islands in Georgia and up to the Savannah River. Media related to Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve at Wikimedia Commons Timucuan Preserve travel guide from Wikivoyage Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, National Park Service Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, at U. S. Department of State International Information Programs UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SERVICE: Timucuan Ecological and Historical Preserve: Water Resources Management Plan
William Pope Duval
William Pope Duval was the first civilian governor of Florida Territory, succeeding Andrew Jackson, military governor. In his twelve-year governorship, from 1822 to 1834, he divided Florida into four territories, established the local court system, chose Tallahassee as the territory's capital because of its central location. Duval County, where Jacksonville is located, Duval Street in Key West, Duval Street in Tallahassee, Florida are named for him. William Duval was born to Major William Ann Pope in "Mansfield," Henrico County, Virginia. At the age of 14, he struck out on his own, settling in Bardstown, Kentucky, he began to study law and was admitted to the bar at age 19, in 1804. On October 3, 1804, he married daughter of Colonel Andrew Hynes, in Bardstown. During an outbreak of Indian hostilities in 1812, Duval was given command of a company of mounted volunteers; this service and his law experience helped to win him election to the 13th Congress of the United States in 1812. He served as a representative from the Democratic-Republican Party in the new 10th Congressional District of Kentucky until 1815, when he did not seek re-election.
He continued to practice law. In 1821, Florida became a U. S. territory. Duval was named U. S. Judge for the East Florida district on May 18, 1821. On April 17, 1822, President James Monroe appointed him as the first non-military governor of the territory, succeeding Gen. Andrew Jackson, he was reappointed by Presidents John Quincy Andrew Jackson. During his twelve-year administration, he selected the small Indian village of Tallahassee as the site for the territory's capital, on account of its central location, he was known for his peaceful dealings with the Native Americans. He signed the first act of legislation in the Territory of Florida, dividing it into four sections and establishing the local court system. Duval continued practicing law, his former mansion burned in 1905, the site now houses the Carnegie Library at FAMU. He moved to Texas in 1848, he and his wife had eight children. All three of his sons were distinguished Texans: Burr Harrison Duval, Thomas Howard DuVal, John Crittenden Duval.
William Pope Duval died in Washington, D. C.. Duval County, was named for him. Duval County, was named for his son, Captain Burr H. Duval. There are many roads in Florida named after him, the most well-known being Duval Street in Key West, Florida. Official Governor's portrait and biography from the State of Florida Territorial Governor Duval's Message to Legislative Council, 1822 The message is in Duval's own handwriting. Allen, William B.. A History of Kentucky: Embracing Gleanings, Antiquities, Natural Curiosities and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers, Jurists, Statesmen, Mechanics, Farmers and Other Leading Men, of All Occupations and Pursuits. Bradley & Gilbert. Pp. 272–273. Retrieved 2008-11-10. United States Congress. "William Pope Duval". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Pope Duval in the Handbook of Texas Online William Pope Duval at Find a Grave
Government of Jacksonville
The government of Jacksonville is organized under the city charter and provides for a "strong" mayor–council system. The most notable feature of the government in Jacksonville, Florida, is that it is consolidated with Duval County, an arrangement brought about in the 1968 Jacksonville Consolidation; the Mayor of Jacksonville is elected to four-year terms and serves as the head of the government's executive branch. The Jacksonville City Council comprises nineteen members, fourteen representing electoral districts and five more in at-large seats; the mayor oversees most city departments, though some are quasi-independent. Law enforcement is provided by the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office, headed by an elected sheriff, public schools are overseen by Duval County Public Schools, several services are provided by independent authorities; the most noteworthy feature of Jacksonville's government is its consolidated nature. The 1968 Duval County-Jacksonville consolidation eliminated any type of separate county executive or legislature, supplanted these positions with the Mayor of Jacksonville and the City Council of the City of Jacksonville, respectively.
Because of this, voters who live outside of the city limits of Jacksonville, but inside of Duval County, are allowed not only to vote in elections for these positions, but to run for them as well. In fact, in 1995, John Delaney, a resident of Neptune Beach, was elected mayor of the City of Jacksonville. In 1968, the small municipalities of Baldwin, Neptune Beach, Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville Beach voted not to join the consolidated government; the four separate communities, which comprise only 6% of the total county population, provide their own municipal services, while maintaining the right to contract with the consolidated government to provide services. In December 2005, the city council of Baldwin in the far western portion of Duval County voted to eliminate their police department. In March 2006, the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office assumed policing responsibilities for the one-square mile town. Jacksonville uses the Mayor-Council form of city government called the Strong-Mayor form, in which a mayor serves as the city's Chief Executive and Administrative officer.
The mayor holds veto power over all resolutions and ordinances made by the city council, has the power to hire and fire the head of various city departments. The current mayor is Lenny Curry, he began his first term on July 1, 2015. Jacksonville and Duval County maintained separate police agencies: the Jacksonville Police Department and Duval County Sheriff's Office; as part of consolidation in 1968, the two merged. The JSO is headed by the elected Sheriff of Duval County Mike Williams, is responsible for law enforcement and corrections in the county; the Jacksonville Fire and Rescue Department is responsible for all fire protection and rescue service in Duval County with exceptions. Jacksonville Beach has its own department, while Atlantic Beach provides a fire station facility, staffed and equipped by JFRD. Baldwin has a volunteer fire department and Neptune Beach relies on Atlantic Beach for fire protection; the current JFRD Director/Fire Chief is Kurt Wilson. This position is appointed by the Mayor.
Some government services remained - as they had been prior to consolidation – independent of both city and county authority. In accordance with Florida law, the Duval County School Board continues to exist with nearly complete autonomy. Jacksonville has several quasi-independent government agencies which only nominally answer to the consolidated authority, including JEA, Jacksonville Port Authority, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville Housing Authority and Jacksonville Aviation Authority; the main environmental and agricultural body is the Duval County Soil and Water Conservation District, which works with other area and state agencies. The Office of the General Counsel led by Jason R. Gabriel, includes 39 attorneys, making it one of the largest and diverse law firms in Jacksonville, it operates just like a private firm because "clients" are billed in detail for legal services provided. Clients include the public utility provider, the school district, Seaport and Housing Authorities, constitutional officers, 10 departments, 19 City Council members, 40+ boards and agencies.
Due to this unusual client list, the General Counsel's website states that they offer support for areas that include commercial, personal injury, constitutional & civil rights litigation, real estate, land use, environmental law and employment law, education law, workers' compensation, eminent domain, evictions, torts, municipal finance, contract negotiation and drafting, as well as a variety of economic development and transactional areas. The 1967 Charter that created Jacksonville's consolidated form of government included a provision for the Office of General Counsel. Under the Charter, the OGC represents all Jacksonville government entities and the office has developed the expertise to advise clients on municipal law and Jacksonville's Charter and consolidated form of government; the Charter states that any legal opinion rendered by the General Counsel is binding on the entire consolidated government. Since 1968, General Counsels have issued over 370 binding legal opinions. In the early years of consolidation, legal opinions were critical to the successful establishment Jacksonville's consolidated government and the elimination of litigation between entities.
The city council has nineteen