Special education is the practice of educating students in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings; these interventions are designed to help individuals with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and in their community which may not be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Special education includes learning disabilities, communication disorders and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, developmental disabilities and many other disabilities. Students with these kinds of disabilities are to benefit from additional educational services such as different approaches to teaching, the use of technology, a adapted teaching area, or a resource room. Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can benefit from specialized teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is used to indicate instruction of students with disabilities.
Gifted education is handled separately. Whereas special education is designed for students with learning disabilities, remedial education can be designed for any students, with or without special needs. For example people of high intelligence can be under-prepared if their education was disrupted, for example, by internal displacement during civil disorder or a war. In most developed countries, educators modify teaching methods and environments so that the maximum number of students are served in general education environments. Therefore, special education in developed countries is regarded as a service rather than a place. Integration can improve academic achievement for many students; the opposite of special education is general education. General education is the standard curriculum supports. Students receiving special education services can sometimes enroll in a General education setting to learn along with students without disabilities; some children are identified as candidates for special needs due to their medical history.
For example, they may have been diagnosed with a genetic condition, associated with intellectual disability, may have various forms of brain damage, may have a developmental disorder, may have visual or hearing disabilities, or other disabilities. On the other hand, for students with less obvious disabilities, such as those who have learning difficulties, two primary methods have been used for identifying them: the discrepancy model and the response to intervention model; the discrepancy model depends on the teacher noticing that the students' achievements are noticeably below what is expected. At which the teacher may make the decision for the student to receive support from a special education specialist. Before doing so, the teacher must show documentation of low academic achievement; the response to intervention model advocates earlier intervention. In the discrepancy model, a student receives special education services for a specific learning difficulty if the student has at least normal intelligence and the student's academic achievement is below what is expected of a student with his or her IQ.
Although the discrepancy model has dominated the school system for many years, there has been substantial criticism of this approach among researchers. One reason for criticism is that diagnosing SLDs on the basis of the discrepancy between achievement and IQ does not predict the effectiveness of treatment. Low academic achievers who have low IQ appear to benefit from treatment just as much as low academic achievers who have normal or high intelligence; the alternative approach, response to intervention, identifies children who are having difficulties in school in their first or second year after starting school. They receive additional assistance such as participating in a reading remediation program; the response of the children to this intervention determines whether they are designated as having a learning disability. Those few who still have trouble may receive designation and further assistance. Sternberg has argued that early remediation can reduce the number of children meeting diagnostic criteria for learning disabilities.
He has suggested that the focus on learning disabilities and the provision of accommodations in school fails to acknowledge that people have a range of strengths and weaknesses and places undue emphasis on academics by insisting that students should be supported in this arena and not in music or sports. A special education program should be customized to address each individual student's unique needs. Special educators provide a continuum of services, in which students with various disabilities receive multiple degrees of support based on their individual needs, it is crucial for special education programs to be individualized so that they address the unique combination of needs in a given student. In the United States and the UK, educational professionals use a student's Individualized Education Program. Another name for a student's Individualized Education Plan is a student's Individual Learning Pl
Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, or the FCAT/FCAT 2.0, was the standardized test used in the primary and secondary public schools of Florida. First administered statewide in 1998, it replaced the State Student Assessment Test and the High School Competency Test; as of the 2014-2015 school year FCAT was replaced in the state of Florida. The Florida Department of Education implemented the Florida Standards Assessments for English Language Arts, Mathematics and a Writing or typing test. A Comprehensive science test is still used for grades 5 and 8; the FCAT was administered annually, in late February and early to mid-March as well as April, to all public school students in grades three through eleven. Students in grades three through ten are required to take the math portion every year. Private and parochial school students are not required to take the FCAT. FCAT Science is administered annually to public school students in the fifth and eleventh grades. In the fourth and tenth grades, public school students take the FCAT Writes exam.
Students' results from the FCAT are compiled to generate a grade for each public school. Under this plan, public schools receive a grade from A to F, based on what percentage of students pass the exams and what percentage of both the entire student body and the bottom 25% of the school demonstrate adequate growth on the exam over their previous year's performance. If a school improves a letter grade, or maintains an A, the state direct-deposits "reward money" to the school in the amount of $75 per student enrolled; this money is not collectively funneled through the recipient school's district. Schools can use the money for staff bonuses, educational equipment, materials related to boosting student performance, or to hire temporary personnel to assist in improving student performance. Most of the money goes toward teacher bonuses, however; as of the 2010-2011 school year it has been called the "FCAT 2.0" On actual test material it is labeled "FCAT 2.0 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards."
As of the 2014-2015 school year, many grades do not take the FCAT, it has now been formally replaced with the Florida Standards Assessments. When introduced, students in fourth grade were required to pass the reading portion of the test in order to be promoted to the fifth grade. After passage of the No Child Left Behind Act by the United States Congress in 2001, the mandatory passage was moved from fourth grade down to third grade, so as to align Florida with federal statutory requirements. In addition to the third grade requirement, public school students in Florida must pass the tenth grade FCAT, not only in reading, but in mathematics, in order to be eligible to receive a high school diploma. Grade 3 and graduation are the only two instances in which federal or state statute require passage of the FCAT. However, many counties in the state have adopted other promotional requirements tied to the FCAT, but these are at the discretion of each individual county school board. Exceptional education students were able to waive the FCAT requirement to get a Standard High School Diploma.
Those ESE students wishing to obtain a regular high school diploma must score a passing grade on the FCAT or receive a waiver for the FCAT. In order to get the waiver, ESE students must prove that they have taken several steps to try to pass the FCAT and must show that they have improved every time they have taken the test. A student failing the tenth grade test—that is, the test required for graduation—is allowed five additional opportunities to pass it prior to graduation. Students were given four more chances to pass the test after failing it in 10th grade—in October and March of both their junior and senior years in high school. However, starting in 2006, students were provided an additional test administration during the summer between school years. Students, may not retake the Grade 10 FCAT during the summer between their sophomore and junior year because additional time is needed for remediation. If students do not pass the FCAT prior to their scheduled graduation, they may continue to retake it until they pass it to earn a standard high school diploma.
If a student completes the minimum number of credits for high school graduation, but does not pass the FCAT, he or she may still be allowed to graduate with a certificate of completion. Students may substitute the appropriate subject-area score from either the ACT or SAT. A score of 19 on either the Reading or Mathematics sections of the ACT or a 280 on the Reading and a 370 on the Mathematics sections of the SAT can be used to waive the FCAT requirement after the student has failed the 10th grade test at least three times. Students may earn the concordant passing score prior to taking the FCAT Retake Reading or Mathematics examination three times, but they cannot substitute it in lieu of the passing FCAT score until they have taken the FCAT Retake Reading or Mathematics examination three times. In any case, students will receive a Certificate of Completion that allows for admittance in any state comm
Paxon School for Advanced Studies
Paxon School for Advanced Studies is one of four International Baccalaureate senior high schools in Duval County, Florida. According to the College Board's Advanced Placement Report, Paxon has one of the strongest math and science Advanced Placement programs in the state of Florida; because of this accomplishment, Paxon is one of a select group of Florida schools invited to apply for the Siemens Advanced Placement High School Award. Only ten to fifteen schools per state are invited to apply; some valedictorians have been accepted to the United States Naval Academy and different Ivy League schools. Paxon High School was named Paxon Field Junior-Senior High School when it was built in 1954, it included 7th through 12 grades until 1957. In 1996, Paxon became a college preparatory school and an International Baccalaureate school, took on its present-day name. Today, Paxon considers its chief rival to be Stanton College Preparatory School, another Jacksonville IB school. In 2008, Paxon School for Advanced Studies was ranked number 8 of the 100 best high schools in the nation by Newsweek magazine.
The site where the school was built was Paxon Air Field, where Bessie Coleman was killed in a plane accident in 1926. Coleman was the first African American to become an airplane pilot, the first American of any race or gender to hold an international pilot license. Paxon Field was Jacksonville's first airfield, with the exception of the beaches; the Navy used the airfield for training during World War II, but declared the site excess in January 1947. The Paxon School faculty consists of over 100 teachers whose awards include district Teacher of the Year and National Board Certification; the 88-acre campus includes athletic facilities, a swimming pool, a professional grade television production studio, science labs, a theater. Sports teams include football, basketball, lacrosse and diving, wrestling, weightlifting and bowling, many of which have competed and placed at district and regional levels. Social clubs include the National Honor Society, Mu Alpha Theta, Youth Leadership for Change. Since becoming an academic magnet, Paxon SAS has seen 3 principals, Dr. James A. Williams 1996-2006, Mrs. Carol H. Daniels 2006-2009, Dr. Royce Turner 2009–present.
The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program was formed in 1968. Paxon established an IB program in 1995, was approved in 1997, had its first graduating IB class in 2000; the four-year program consists of two parts: Pre-IB and IB. Pre-IB prepares students for the rigorous two year, pre-university liberal arts course of study. Army JROTC Detachment: Golden Eagle Battalion, a recipient of the "Honor Unit with Distinction" recognition Which was terminated in 2009 due to lack of funds, but reinstated the same year; the Golden Eagle Battalion is now stronger than and still carries the "Honor Unit with Distinction" recognition. The battalion is led by Senior Army Instructor Major Kenneth De Voe, Army Instructor Command Sergeant Major Cecilio Archbold, Army Instructor Chief Warrant Officer Dweise Harris; the Cadet Chain of Command for the current school year is as follow: Battalion Commander Cadet Lieutenant Colonel Aysia Washington Battalion Executive Officer Cadet Major Dante Gregson Battalion Command Sergeant Major Cadet Command Sergeant Major Jalynn GreinerThe Cadet Staff is as follows Battalion Adjutant Officer Reece Hardy Battalion Intelligence Officer Wilkens Verger Battalion Operations and Training Officer Ke'Trin Mobley Battalion Supply and Logistics Officer Jyothik Addala Battalion Communications Officer Tyana Hagans Battalion Special Events Officer Sydney HeslaThe Cadet Command is as follows: Headquarters Company Commander Executive Officer First Sergeant Alpha Company Commander Executive Officer First Sergeant Bravo Company Commander Executive Officer First Sergeant Charlie Company Commander Executive Officer First Sergeant Delta Company Commander Executive Officer First Sergeant Echo Company Commander Executive Officer First SergeantDrill Team The Golden Eagle Battalion Drill Team comprises Armed, Unarmed and Color Guard drill.
Area 1 Drill Champions 2015, 2016 The school has an outdoor pool, used by the athletic teams. It becomes a free public pool operated by the City of Jacksonville Parks & Recreation Department during the summer months. Basketball, Football,Flag football, Bowling, Cross Country and Field, Cheerleading, Tennis, Golf and Dive, Wrestling Ranked as the #35 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2013 Ranked as the #23 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2012 Ranked as the #170 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2011 Ranked as the #6 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2009 Ranked as the #8 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2008 2008 Gold Medal winner, ranked as 30th best High School is the US by US News & World Report Ranked as the #29 public school in the United States by U. S. News Magazine in 2007 Ranked as the #17 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2007 Ranked as the #28 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2006 Ranked as the #7 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2005 Ranked as the #3 public school in the United States by Newsweek Magazine in 2003 P.
S. 75 of Duval County Public Schools N
Duval County, Florida
Duval County is a county in the State of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 864,263, with a 2017 estimate at 937,934, the seventh most populous in Florida, its county seat is Jacksonville, with which the Duval County government has been consolidated since 1968. Duval County was established in 1822, is named for William Pope Duval, Governor of Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834. Duval County is included in FL Metropolitan Statistical Area; this area had been settled by varying cultures of indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European contact. Within the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve in Jacksonville, archeologists have excavated remains of some of the oldest pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BCE. Prior to European contact, the area was inhabited by the Mocama, a Timucuan-speaking group who lived throughout the coastal areas of northern Florida. At the time Europeans arrived, much of what is now Duval County was controlled by the Saturiwa, one of the region's most powerful tribes.
The area that became Duval County was home to the 16th-century French colony of Fort Caroline, saw increased European settlement in the 18th century with the establishment of Cowford renamed Jacksonville. Duval County was created in 1822 from St. Johns County, it was named for William Pope Duval, Governor of Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834. When Duval County was created, it covered a massive area, from the Suwannee River on the west to the Atlantic Ocean on the east, north of a line from the mouth of the Suwannee River to Jacksonville on the St. Johns River. Alachua and Nassau counties were created out of parts of Duval County in 1824. Clay County was created from part of Duval County in 1858. Part of St. Johns County south and east of the lower reaches of the St. Johns River was transferred to Duval County in the 1840s. On October 1, 1968, the government of Duval County was consolidated with the government of the city of Jacksonville; the Duval County cities of Atlantic Beach, Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, the town of Baldwin are not included in the corporate limits of Jacksonville, maintain their own municipal governments.
The city of Jacksonville provides all services that a county government would provide. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 918 square miles, of which 762 square miles is land and 156 square miles is water; the topography is coastal plain. Fort Caroline National Memorial Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve Nassau County - north St. Johns County - southeast Clay County - southwest Baker County - west U. S. Census Bureau 2010 Ethnic/Race Demographics: White: 56.6% Black: 28.9% Hispanic or Latino of any race: 7.6% Asian: 4.2% Two or more races: 2.9% American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.4% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1% Other Races: 2.1% In 2010, 6.7% of the population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry There were 342,450 households out of which 28.68% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.92% were married couples living together, 16.74% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.27% were non-families.
24.85% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.05% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.8 years. For every 100 females there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,463, the median income for a family was $60,114. Males had a median income of $42,752 versus $34,512 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,854. About 10.4% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those aged 65 or over. In 2010, 9.0% of the county's population was foreign born, with 49.5% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 38.2% were born in Latin America, 35.6% born in Asia, 17.9% were born in Europe, 5.8% born in Africa, 2.0% in North America, 0.5% were born in Oceania.
The racial makeup of the county is 65.80% White 27.83% African American or Black, 0.33% Native American, 2.71% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.31% from other races, 1.96% from two or more races. 4.10 % of the population are Latino of any race. There were 303,747 households out of which 33.30% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size is 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30%
Duncan U. Fletcher High School
Duncan U. Fletcher High School is a public high school in the Duval County School District, located in Neptune Beach, Florida. Former Jacksonville Mayor and U. S. Senator Duncan U. Fletcher obtained a federal grant to build the school, it opened September 20, 1937 for grades 7-12. The school's nickname, Senators comes from their namesake; the original building was located in Jacksonville Beach and contained 10 classrooms and began with 269 students from the area east of the ditch, south of Mayport and north of Ponte Vedra Beach. The principal was Frank Doggett and there were 13 teachers. In 1964, the school was split into two schools, with Fletcher Junior High grades 7-8 staying in the original building and Fletcher Senior High grades 9-12 moving to its current location on Seagate Avenue in Neptune Beach, Florida; the Fall 1969 freshman class was the last 9th Grade class to attend the Senior High for over 20 years, as, beginning in Fall 1970, Fletcher Junior High retained the 9th Grade class along with grades 7-8.
Fletcher was one of the first schools in Duval County to be integrated, doing so after the new building opened. In 1991, the 9th grade was moved back from Junior High Schools to county-wide. Sixth grade was moved from Elementary Schools to Junior High Schools, which were renamed "Middle Schools". In 1997, Fletcher became a full service school. In 2007, Fletcher tied with Lee High School as the most crowded in Duval County; the high school obtained a new science lab in 2008, a critical addition after a 2007 protest by parents about the high school's inadequate science facilities for its 2600 students. In 2008, a new master plan for the school proposed the construction of a new wing to replace the school's portable classrooms; as of 2016, the school has a "B" on the Florida School Accountability Grading Scale. Fletcher High School offers the Advanced International Certificate of Education program along with Advanced Placement; the Duncan U Fletcher Band program is esteemed in Northeast Florida and Duval County.
The Flecther High school Wind Symphony has performed at New York's Carnegie Hall in 2015. The Fletcher High School Marching Band placed 4th in Class AAA at the FMBC State Finals competition on November 12, 2016; the marching band is known for its skill at visual arts. Alongside this marching band is an award-winning colorguard/winterguard; the Fletcher High School Colorguard / Winterguard is a Regional Class AA / AAA state competitive team. The team placed 10th overall with a score of 70.56 in the FFCC Championships performing their show Scattered Pictures in 2015. In 2016 the winterguard competed in Class AAA and placed 2nd awarding them the silver medal and promotion to AA in 2017 Fletcher winterguard Competed in Class AA which they placed 2nd awarding them the silver medal and promotion to Scholastic A. Ephesians Bartley, NFL football Player Jason Bartley, actor, NFL football Player Carey Cavanaugh, 1973, professor and former American ambassador. Charles T. Meide, 1989, maritime archaeologist and Director of LAMP Andre Cooper, 1992, former Florida State University and NFL player.
Cold, Rock band Ciatrick Fason, 2002, former University of Florida running back, 2004 First Team All-SEC. Former NFL and CFL player. Noah Jackson, NFL player— Michael D. Reynolds, 1972, State of Florida Teacher of the Year, 1986. Tom Sullivan, NFL Football Player Eric Summers, Founded Dr. Seltzer's Hangover Helper Whitney Thompson, winner of Cycle 10 of America's Next Top Model. Sean Mattison c/o Professional Surfer, 5 Time East Coast Champion. David Sharpe, NFL offensive tackle for the Oakland Raiders. Khalid Abdullah, former NFL linebacker Rahim Abdullah former NFL linebacker for the Clevland Browns and Canadian Football League Duncan U. Fletcher High School website Duncan U. Fletcher High School Reunions website
William M. Raines High School
William Marion Raines Senior High School is a black high school in Jacksonville, United States. The school is located off Moncrief Road in Jacksonville, Florida's northside at the corner Raines Avenue in northwest Jacksonville. Raines serves 1000 students; the school is 97 percent African-American, 1 percent Hispanic, 1 percent Mixed and 1 percent Caucasian. The campus was improved in 1990 & 2002 to include a new science wing, field house and administrative wing; the school was named in honor of William Marion Raines, a prominent black educator in Jacksonville and principal at Matthew Gilbert High School from 1938 until his death in 1950. In 1964, with an increase in Jacksonville's African American population, Duval County School Board decided to send African American students to Jean Ribault High School, but the all-white faculty and students rejected the idea; the school board decided to build a new facility, costing two million dollars. School No. 165 opened its doors at 3663 Clarkson Avenue on January 25, 1965.
The opening of the school brought about the reassignment of 1,305 black high school students in grades nine through twelve from Northwestern Junior-Senior High School to the new school. The 2000 student capacity high school was a $2 million project and duplicated the new Fletcher High School in the Beaches community; the school opened unnamed and was referred to as School No. 165. On June 10, 1965 at a school board meeting the school was renamed William Marion Raines Senior High School. Dr. Andrew A. Robinson was appointed principal of the new school. Robinson, a 35-year-old African-American and Jacksonville native, held a Bachelor of Science degree from FAMU and a doctorate in education from Columbia U. Raines remained an all-African American school until the Mims vs The Duval County Schools decision in 1971. Raines was accredited in 1968, it was the first school in Duval County to achieve accreditation. Raines was re-accredited in 1978, 1988, 1998 and 2008 and was given glowing compliments from the visiting boards.
Raines has been under the leadership of 12 principals: Dr. Andrew A. Robinson, Dr. Ezekial W. Bryant, Kernaa McFarlin, Ike James, Jimmie Johnson, Dr. Milton H. Threadcraft, Dr. Roy I. Mitchell, Carol H. Daniels, Nongongoma Majova-Seane, George E. Maxey, Ms. Shateena Brown & the 12th and current principal Vincent Hall. Vincent Hall is the first Raines graduate to serve as principal. Raines became the county’s science and engineering magnet school in 1990; this new focus supported by the addition of the Andrew A. Robinson Science wing in that same year. Raines received its first ninth grade students as a part of the magnet program and additional personnel and programs have been added to help these students make the adjustment to high school; the varsity boys’ basketball team won the state championship in 1991, 2003 & 2004. The boys' track and football teams have won state championships; the school have won three championships in boys' track the last achievement in 1997 and their first in FHSAA Football was in 1998.
The varsity football team is the first public high school in Duval County to earn a FHSAA State Championship in football. The varsity football team earned "back to back" state championships in 2017 & 2018. No other public school in Duval County have won consecutive football championships. Most the girls' track team won "back to back" state championships in 2008 and 2009, the first state titles for a female sport at Raines. Raines was one of 11 schools nationwide selected by the College Board for inclusion in the EXCELerator School Improvement Model program beginning the 2006–2007 school year; the project was funded by Melinda Gates Foundation. Principal George E. Maxey implemented several initiatives in the 2009-2010 school year to improve the school: after school tutoring, Saturday school, gender based courses & strict dress code policies; the result of those additions saw the schools grade improve. William M. Raines High School's grade improved to a "D" when the state released the school grades in October 2010.
Alumnus Brian Dawkins donated $100,000 to refurbish the weight room and other areas of the schools field house, which afterward was named for him. Words By Deloris Mangram & the French Classes of 1965 Music By Dr. Julian E. White Dear William Raines, The school we all adore: We thine alone will be for evermore. Dear William Raines and free. Dear William Raines, We pledge our love to thee. Derrick Alexander- Class of 1991, played from 1995 to 1999, in the National Football League Gary Alexander- Class of 1987, played from 1993 to 1994, in the National Basketball Association Ken Burrough - Class of 1966, played from 1970 to 1981 in the National Football League Harold Carmichael - Class of 1967, played from 1971 to 1984 in the National Football League Thornton Chandler - Class of 1980, played from 1986-1989 in the National Football League Greg Coleman- Class of 1972, played from 1977-1988 in the National Football League Vince Coleman - Class of 1979 played from 1985-1997 in Major League Baseball Brian Dawkins- Class of 1992, played from 1996 to 2011 in the National Football League Jackie Flowers - Class of 1976, played from 1983-1985 in the United States Football League Derrick Gaffney- Class of 1973, played for eight seasons in the National Football League Jabar Gaffney- Class of 1999, plays in the National Football League Rod Gardner Class of 1996, played fro
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education. The exact ages vary by country. In the United States, elementary schools have 6 grades with pupils aged between 6 and 13 years old, but the age can be up to 10 or 14 years old as well. In Japan, the age of pupils in elementary school ranges from 6 to 12, after which the pupils enter junior high school. Elementary school is only one part of compulsory education in Western countries. Elementary school were first established in 1870. Most of these schools were converted into Primary schools during the late 1940s. Elementary school: were first promoted in 1647 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Today, there are approximately 92,858 elementary schools Elementary schools in Japan were first established by 1875. National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics Educational stage Primary school Grammar school Virtual reality in primary education