The Dymaxion House was developed by inventor and architect Buckminster Fuller to address several perceived shortcomings with existing homebuilding techniques. Fuller designed several versions of the house at different times — all of them factory manufactured kits, assembled on site, intended to be suitable for any site or environment and to use resources efficiently. A key design consideration of the design was ease of assembly; as he did when naming many of his inventions, Fuller combined the words dynamic and tension to arrive at the term Dymaxion. The Dymaxion House was completed in 1930 after two years of development, redesigned in 1945. Buckminster Fuller wanted to mass-produce a house, his first "Dymaxion" design was based on the design of a grain bin. During World War II, the U. S. Army commissioned Fuller to send these housing units to the Persian Gulf. In 1945, science-fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein placed an order for one to be delivered to Los Angeles, but the order was never filled.
The Siberian grain-silo house was the first system in which Fuller noted the "urban dust dome" effect: many installations have reported that a dome induces a local vertical heat-driven vortex that sucks cooler air downward into a dome, if the dome is vented properly - a single overhead vent, peripheral vents. Fuller adapted the units of the grain-silo house to use this effect; the final design of the Dymaxion house used a central vertical stainless-steel strut on a single foundation. Structures similar to the spokes of a bicycle-wheel hung down from this supporting the roof, while beams radiating out supported the floor. Wedge-shaped fans of sheet metal aluminum formed the roof and floor; each structure was assembled at ground level and winched up the strut. The Dymaxion house represented the first conscious effort to build an autonomous building in the 20th century, it was a prototype proposed to use a packaging toilet, water storage and a convection-driven ventilator built into the roof. It was designed for the stormy areas of the world: temperate oceanic islands, the Great Plains of North America, South America and Eurasia.
In most modern houses, laundry and commodes are the major water uses, with drinking and dish-washing consuming less than 20 liters per day. The Dymaxion house was intended to reduce water use by a greywater system, a packaging commode, a "fogger" to replace showers; the fogger was based on efficient compressed-air and water degreasers, but with much smaller water particles to make it comfortable. Two Dymaxion houses were prototyped -- one outdoor. No Dymaxion house built according to Fuller's intentions was constructed and lived in; the only two prototypes of the round, aluminum house were bought by investor William Graham, together with assorted unused prototyping elements as salvage after the venture failed. In 1948, Graham constructed a hybridized version of the Dymaxion House as his family's home. Graham built the round house on his lake front property, disabling the ventilator and other interior features, it was inhabited for about 30 years, although as an extension to an existing ranch house, rather than a standalone structure as intended by Fuller.
In 1990, the Graham family donated this house, all the component prototyping parts, to The Henry Ford Museum. A painstaking process was used to conserve as many original component parts and systems as possible and restore the rest using original documentation from the Fuller prototyping process, it was installed indoors in the Henry Ford Museum in 2001 with a full exhibit. Since there was no evidence of the crucial internal rain-gutter system, some elements of the rain collecting system were omitted from the restored exhibit; the roof was designed to wick water inside and drip into the rain-gutter and to the cistern, rather than have a difficult-to-fit waterproof roof. There was to be a waterless packaging toilet that deftly shrink-wrapped the waste for pickup for composting. During the prototyping process, the idea for the packaging toilet was replaced by a conventional septic system because the packaging plastic was not available. Other features worked as advertised, notably the heating, the passive air conditioning system, based on the "dome effect."
The inhabitants of the much-modified version of the house said that the bathroom was a particular delight. The bathroom consisted of two connected stamped copper bubbles, built as four nesting pieces; the bottom piece is plated in tin/antimony alloy and the top half is painted. Each bubble had a drain. No area had a radius of less than four inches; the commode, shower and sink were molded into the structural shell in one piece. One bubble contained a step-up ergonomic bathtub and shower, high enough to wash children without stooping, but just two steps up; the oval tub had the controls mounted on the inside left of the entrance to the oval tub. The other bubble was the bathroom proper with sink; the ventilation for the bathroom was a large silent fan under the main sink, which kept odors away from people's noses. All lighting was enclosed. To prevent fogging, the mirror faced into the medicine chest, ventilated by the fan. A plastic version of the bathroom was available intermittently until the 1980s.
The large wrap-around windows and lightweight structures were popular with the children, who crawled on the windowsill, twanged the bicycle-wheel-style main struts. Fuller designed a 10-story variant, to have been dropped in place by the Graf Zeppelin. Criticisms of the Dymaxion Houses include its supposed inflexible design which completel
Ernest Edward West was the organizer, head coach, player of Georgia Tech's first football team. West was born in Rome, Georgia in 1867 and graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1888. After graduation, he resigned his commission and practiced law in Georgia before becoming a professor at the Georgia school of Technology. In 1892, he organized Georgia Tech's first football team, acted as coach and captain, played halfback, it was only season he would play for the school. During the Spanish–American War, West served as a captain of marines. On June 14, 1914, during custody dispute over his nine-year-old daughter, West was found in a Chattanooga, Tennessee hotel room with a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head, he survived his injuries, but died of kidney failure in Rhea Springs, Tennessee on July 17, 1914. Ernest E. West at Find a Grave
Wynnewood station is a SEPTA Regional Rail station in Wynnewood, Pennsylvania. It is located at Wynnewood and Penn Roads in Philadelphia's western suburbs, is served by most Paoli/Thorndale Line trains with the exception of several express runs; the station was built in 1870 by the Wilson Brothers architectural firm for the Pennsylvania Railroad, is one of the historic station buildings on the line built before 1930. The station offers a small retail space, unused; the space was occupied by Main Line Baking Company, Pup's Cafe, Quaker Coffee, Irish Bake Shoppe. The ticket office at this station is open weekdays 6:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.. There are 239 daily and permit parking spaces at the station; this station is 7.4 track miles from Suburban Station. In 2003, the average total weekday boardings at this station was 659, the average total weekday alightings was 684; the Wynnewood Civic Association is a non-profit group of volunteers that maintains the landscaping and works to preserve and beautify the historic landmark.
The train station scene from the 1962 film David and Lisa was filmed at this station. Wynnewood has two low-level side platforms with pathways connecting the platforms to the inner tracks. Media related to Wynnewood station at Wikimedia Commons SEPTA - Wynnewood Station Penn Road entrance from Google Maps Street View Station House from Google Maps Street View
James J. Lenihan Dam is an earthen structure across the Los Gatos Creek creating the Lexington Reservoir in the Santa Cruz Mountains of Santa Clara County, California south of Los Gatos; the name was changed from Lexington Dam in 1996 for the retirement of James J. Lenihan, the Santa Clara Valley Water District's longest-serving director. List of dams and reservoirs in California Department of Water Resources. "Station Meta Data: James J. Lenihan Dam". California Data Exchange Center. State of California. Retrieved 2009-04-01. Department of Water Resources. "Dams Within the Jurisdiction of the State of California". State of California. Retrieved 2009-04-01. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: James J. Lenihan Dam https://web.archive.org/web/20100423163953/http://www.valleywater.org/Services/LexingtonReservoirAndLenihanDam.aspx http://www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/09.25.97/cover/naming1-9739.html
Portomaggiore is a town and comune in the province of Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy. In the Battle of Portomaggiore of 1395, mercenary troops of the Ferrara Regency Council, assisted by allies from Florence, Bologna and fighting in the name of the young Niccolò III d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara beat the rebel forces of his uncle, Azzo X d'Este, pretender to the Lordship of Ferrara. Azzo X d'Este was captured in the battle; the main attraction of the comune is the Delizia del Verginese, in the frazione of Gambulaga, a castle-residence built by Duke Alfonso I d'Este in the early 16th century. Davide Santon and Marcella Tonioli, an Italian compound archer, were born in Portamaggiore. Official website Portmaggiore net "Porto Maggiore". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Leiolopisma mauritiana, Didosaurus maurtianus, is a large, extinct species of skink. It was found only in Mauritius, but became extinct around 1600 due to introduced predators, it may have been somewhat fossorial in nature. This is speculative and based on a reconstruction; the Mauritian giant skink, became extinct by 1650. Only a semi - complete specimen is known in addition to some odd bones.. The remaining skeleton is missing the feet and digits, thus making it impossible for a SENI biometric analysis per se; the semi - complete skeleton does have a skull shaped similar to a blue-tongue skink. The restoration undertaken by the, if accurate, gives a SENI value of.06 which would indicate that this species could have been fossorial or saxicolous in lifestyle. This is further linked by the fact that the closest living relative of this species is the Round Island skink: Leiolopisma telfeirii; the Round Island skink gives a SENI value of.06. The Round Island skink is a species capable of caudal autotomy.
This skink is seen darting in the underbrush or between rocks. An undescribed extinct Leiolopisma from Réunion was related, whereas the Round Island skink is a more distantly related surviving species from Mauritius; the behavior of this animal is not well known or documented by any travelers to Mauritius when it was extant, however many things such as its diet and other aspects of its behavior can most be determined by extant skink species. It is likely that the Mauritian Giant Skink shared behavioral traits with many other ground based skinks such as the Blue Tongued Skink such as its diet and its overall temperament and speed; the Mauritian Giant Skink was most an opportunistic omnivore that fed on anything from small invertebrates, small lizards and fruits and plants. Its temperament was most very similar to that of modern ground skinks and was most a tame animal that had no fear of humans which might have played a part in its extinction. Austin, J. J. & Arnold, E. N.: Using ancient and recent DNA to explore relationships of extinct and endangered Leiolopisma skinks in the Mascarene islands.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39: 503–511. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.12.011 Concerning the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. "Leiolopisma mauritiana". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e. T11410A3277412. Doi:10.2305/IUCN. UK.1996. RLTS. T11410A3277412.en. Retrieved 9 January 2018. Database entry includes justification for. Schnirel, Brian L.. Seni biometric analysis on the extinct Scincidae species: Macroscincus coctei. Polyphemos, Volume 2, Issue 1, Florence, South Carolina, U. S. A. pp. 12–22. Painting of L. mauritiana and red rail by Julian Hume. www.extinct-species.com Bones to Bronze - Extinct species of the Mascarene Islands. Gallery Pangolin, London