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Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht and patented in 1867, it gained wide-scale use as a more powerful alternative to black powder. Today, dynamite is used in the mining, quarrying and demolition industries. Dynamite is still the product of choice for trenching applications, as a cost-effective alternative to cast boosters. Dynamite is used as an initiator or booster for AN and ANFO explosive charges. Dynamite was invented by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel in the 1860s and was the first safely manageable explosive stronger than black powder, invented in China in the 9th century. Alfred Nobel's father, Immanuel Nobel, was an industrialist and inventor, he founded Sweden's first rubber factory. His construction work inspired him to research new methods of blasting rock that were more effective than black powder. After some bad business deals in Sweden, in 1838 Immanuel moved his family to Saint Petersburg, where Alfred and his brothers were educated under Swedish and Russian tutors.

At age 17, Alfred was sent abroad for two years. It was in France that Nobel first encountered nitroglycerin, which Pelouze cautioned against using as a commercial explosive because of its great sensitivity to shock. In 1857, Nobel filed the first of several hundred patents concerning air pressure and fluid gauges, but remained fascinated with nitroglycerin's potential as an explosive. Nobel, along with his father and brother Emil, experimented with various combinations of nitroglycerin and black powder. Nobel came up with a solution of how to safely detonate nitroglycerin by inventing the detonator, or blasting cap, that allowed a controlled explosion set off from a distance using a fuse. In the summer of 1863, Nobel performed his first successful detonation of pure nitroglycerin, using a blasting cap made of a copper percussion cap and mercury fulminate. In 1864, Alfred Nobel filed patents for both the blasting cap and his method of synthesizing nitroglycerin, using sulfuric acid, nitric acid and glycerin.

On 3 September 1864, while experimenting with nitroglycerin and several others were killed in an explosion at the factory at Immanuel Nobel's estate at Heleneborg. After this, Alfred founded the company Nitroglycerin Aktiebolaget AB in Vinterviken to continue work in a more isolated area and the following year moved to Germany, where he founded another company, Dynamit Nobel. Despite the invention of the blasting cap, the volatility of nitroglycerin rendered it useless as a commercial explosive. To solve this problem, Nobel sought to combine it with another substance that would make it safe for transport and handling but yet would not reduce its effectiveness as an explosive, he tried combinations of cement and sawdust, but was unsuccessful. He tried diatomaceous earth, fossilized algae, that he brought from the Elbe River near his factory in Hamburg, which stabilized the nitroglycerin into a portable explosive. Nobel obtained patents for his inventions in England on 7 May 1867 and in Sweden on 19 October 1867.

After its introduction, dynamite gained wide-scale use as a safe alternative to black powder and nitroglycerin. Nobel controlled the patents, unlicensed duplicating companies were shut down. However, a few American businessmen got around the patent by using a different formula. Nobel sold dynamite as "Nobel's Blasting Powder" but decided to change the name to dynamite, from the Ancient Greek word dýnamis, meaning "power". Dynamite is sold in the form of cardboard cylinders about 20 cm long and about 3.2 cm in diameter, with a weight of about 190 grams. A stick of dynamite thus produced contains 1 MJ of energy. Other sizes exist, rated by either portion or by weight. Dynamite is rated by "weight strength" from 20% to 60%. For example, 40% dynamite is composed of 40% nitroglycerin and 60% "dope"; the maximum shelf life of nitroglycerin-based dynamite is recommended as one year from the date of manufacture under good storage conditions. Over time, regardless of the sorbent used, sticks of dynamite will "weep" or "sweat" nitroglycerin, which can pool in the bottom of the box or storage area.

For that reason, explosive manuals recommend the repeated turning over of boxes of dynamite in storage. Crystals will form on the outside of the sticks, causing them to be more sensitive to shock and temperature. Therefore, while the risk of an explosion without the use of a blasting cap is minimal for fresh dynamite, old dynamite is dangerous. Modern packaging helps eliminate this by placing the dynamite into sealed plastic bags, using wax-coated cardboard. Dynamite is moderately sensitive to shock. Shock resistance tests are carried out with a drop-hammer: about 100 mg of explosive is placed on an anvil, upon which a weight of between 0.5 and 10 kilograms is dropped from different heights until detonation is achieved. With a hammer of 2 kg, mercury fulminate detonates with a drop distance of 1 to 2 cm, nitroglycerin with 4 to 5 cm, dynamite with 15 to 30 cm, ammoniacal explosives with 40 to 50 cm. For several decades beginning in the 1940s, the largest producer o

Education in the Republic of Ireland

The levels of Ireland's education are primary and higher education. In recent years further education has grown immensely. Growth in the economy since the 1960s has driven much of the change in the education system. For universities there are student service fees, which students are required to pay on registration, to cover examinations and registration costs; the Department of Education and Skills, under the control of the Minister for Education and Skills, is in overall control of policy and direction, while other important organisations are the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland, the Higher Education Authority, on a local level the Education and Training Boards are the only comprehensive system of government organisation. There are many other statutory and non-statutory bodies that have a function in the education system; the current Minister for Education is Joe McHugh. The sixteenth century Tudor monarchs establishment of the first state funded Educational institutions in Ireland, with the first printing presses appearing under Henry, Queen Elizabeth establishing Trinity College Dublin, approving the printing of the first Irish language books, instructing Latin-free schools be established in each parish.

The seventeenth century Stuart monarchs saw the Education Act 1695 prohibiting Irish Catholics from seeking a popish education abroad, or running popish schools in Ireland, till its repeal in 1782. Instead they set up informal secret operations that met in private homes, called "hedge schools." Historians agree that they provided a kind of schooling at a high level, for up to 400,000 students, in 9000 schools, by the mid-1820s. J. R. R. Adams says the hedge schools testified "to the strong desire of ordinary Irish people to see their children receive some sort of education." Antonia McManus argues that there "can be little doubt that Irish parents set a high value on a hedge school education and made enormous sacrifices to secure it for their children.... One of their own"; the 1782 repeal of the 1695 penal laws had made the Hedge schools legal, although still not in receipt of funding from the Parliament of Ireland. Formal schools for Catholics under trained teachers began to appear after 1800.

Edmund Ignatius Rice founded two religious institutes of religious brothers: the Congregation of Christian Brothers and the Presentation Brothers. They opened numerous schools, which were visible and standardised. Discipline was notably strict. From 1811, the Society for the Promotion of the Education of the Poor of Ireland, started to established a nationwide network of non-profit, non-denominational schools, in part funded through the production and sale of textbooks. By 1831, they were operating 1,621 primary schools, educating 140,000 pupils. In 1831, the Stanley letter led to the establishment of the Board of National Education and the National School system using public money; the UK Government appointed the commissioner of national education whose task was to assist in funding primary school construction, teacher training, the producing of textbooks, funding of teachers. Hedge schools declined after 1831 as the Catholic bishops preferred this, as the new schools would be under the control of the Catholic Church and allow better control of the teaching of Catholic doctrine.

On Saturday 10 September 1966, the Fianna Fáil Education Minister, Donogh O’Malley, famously made his unauthorised speech announcing plans for free second-level education in Ireland. Free second-level education was introduced in September 1967, is now seen as a milestone in Irish history. Students must go to school from ages 6 to 16 or until they have completed three years of second-level of education. Under the Constitution of Ireland, parents are not obliged "in violation of their conscience and lawful preference to send their children to schools established by the State, or to any particular type of school designated by the State." However, the parental right to homeschool his/her child has met legal contests over minimum standards in the absence of constitutional provision for State-defined educational standards. In 1973, the Irish language requirement for a second-level certificate was abandoned. However, the Irish language remains a core subject taught in all public schools with exemptions given to individual pupils on grounds of significant periods lived abroad, or with learning difficulties etc.

While English is the primary medium of instruction at all levels in most schools across the state, Gaelscoileanna i.e. Irish-language schools, have become popular outside Gaeltacht regions where they have traditionally been. In these schools, Irish is the primary medium of instruction at all levels and English is taught as a second language. At third level, most university courses are conducted in English, with only a few Irish language options; some universities offer courses through French, German or Spanish. Ireland has one of the best education systems in the world with regard to higher education achievements. Education is compulsory for all children in Ireland from the ages of six to sixteen or until students have completed three years of second level education and including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination. Primary education starts at four to five years old. Children enroll in a Junior Infant class at age four or five depending on parental wishes; some schools enrollment policies have age four by a specific date minimum age requirements.

Most play schools in Ireland are in the private sector. Children of working parents, who are below school age.

Siege of Balkh (1370)

The battle of Balkh was a key success in Timur's rise to power, established him as the ruler of the western Chaghatai in Transoxiana. Twelve years earlier Timur had been a minor member of the Barlas tribe, one of many tribes in the western part of the Chagatai Khanate. Since the 1330s the Khanate had been split in two, between Mawarannahr in the west and Moghulistan in the east. Between 1347 and 1358 Mawarannahr was ruled by Amir Qazaghan, but in 1358 he was assassinated on the orders of Tughlugh Timur, Khan of Moghulistan; this was followed by an invasion from Moghulistan. Hajji Beg, ruler of the Barlas tribe, decided to flee, but Timur offered his services to the Moghuls, as a result becoming head of the tribe. During this period Timur formed an alliance with Amir Husayn of Balkh, a grandson of Qazaghan, marrying his sister. Timur's period as a Moghul vassal came to an end when Tughlugh Timur appointed his son Ilyas Khoja as governor of Mawarannahr. Timur and Husayn both rebelled. Over the next few years Timur survived as a bandit and a mercenary, it was during this period that he suffered the wounds that caused his famous lameness.

The two men were able to force the Moghuls out of Mawarannahr, but only for a short time. In 1365 Ilyas Khoja returned at the head of an army, defeating Timur and Husayn at the battle of Tashkent. Husayn's failure to support Timur during this battle played a part in the eventual end of their alliance, but for the moment the two men remained together. Ilyas Khoja was unable to take advantage of his victory, he advanced to besiege Samarkand, but was repulsed and forced to retreat back into Moghulistan, where in 1369 his family was overthrown. In the aftermath of this failed siege Timur and Husayn were able to seize control of Samarkand. Something of a'cold war' period seems to have followed, with the two men uniting against further Moghul threats, but fighting amongst themselves the rest of the time. Timur seems to have been more successful at building up support than Husayn maintaining a balance between the nomads who formed the core of his army and the more settled city dwellers. In contrast Husayn alienated many of the nomads by rebuilding the city and citadel of Balkh, at the south-western edge of the Chagatai Khanate.

This city had an ancient history and had been one of the jewels of the Islamic world before being destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1220. It was still uninhabited in 1333, Husayn's decision to rebuild will have worried his nomad supporters, who traditionally preferred their leaders to rely on the strength of their troops and not on fortifications. In 1370 Timur decided to attack Husayn at Balkh. After crossing the Amu Darya at Termez his army surrounded the reconstructed city. Husayn's army came out of the city to attack Timur's men suggesting that they were unhappy to find themselves being besieged; the same occurred on the second day of the battle, but this time Timur's men managed to get into the city. Husayn shut himself up inside the citadel. Realising that he could no long hope to win, Husayn offered to leave Mawarannahr and go on a pilgrimage to Mecca if Timur spared his life. Tamerlane agreed to these terms. After an unsuccessful attempt to hide from Timur's men Husayn was captured and handed over to Timur.

He kept to the letter of his promise - Husayn was killed by Kay-Khusrau, a chief who had a blood feud with him. The defeat of Husayn made Timur the main power in Mawarannahr and western Chagatai, but the laws laid down by Genghis Khan prevented him from become Khan in his own right. Instead a'puppet' khan descended from Ögedei, was installed. Timur increased his own legitimacy by marrying Husayn's widow Saray Mulk, a princess descended from Genghis Khan, she became his most important Queen, allowed Timur to call himself Temur Gurgan, or'son-in-law of the Great Khan'. This form of his name was used on his coins, in Friday prayers, at ceremonial officials for the rest of his life. Balkh was looted and the citadel and palace destroyed. Despite this Timur chose Balkh as the site for a ceremony in which the tribal leaders of the western Chagatai agreed to accept his rule. Timur spent most of the next decade securing his authority over the Chagatai as well as on campaigns in the east, before beginning his famous series of conquests during the 1380s.

The Timurid Dynasty René Grousset, L'empire des Steppes, versio francesa 1938 reedició 4ª 1965, i versió anglesa 1970. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9 Hodong Kim, "The Early History of the Moghul Nomads: The Legacy of the Chaghatai Khanate." The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy. Ed. Reuven Amitai-Preiss i David Morgan. Leiden: Brill, 1998. ISBN 90-04-11048-8 Beatrice Forbes Manz, The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1989. ISBN 0-521-63384-2 Mirza Muhammad Haidar; the Tarikh-i-Rashidi. Traduit per Edward Denison Ross, editat per N. Elias. Londres, 1895

Edens Edge

Edens Edge was an American country music group founded by Hannah Blaylock, Dean Berner, Cherrill Green. The band was signed to Big Machine Records, it included the singles "Amen" and "Too Good to Be True". In March 2013, Blaylock left the group. All three members of Edens Edge are natives of Arkansas, they won. They moved to Nashville in 2007; the group signed a record deal with Big Machine Records in April 2010, the trio's debut single, "Amen," was released in April 2011. It has become the group's first Top 20 hit, their self-titled debut album was released on June 12, 2012. "Too Good to Be True" was released as the album's second and final single on April 9, 2012. On November 12, 2012, they performed the National Anthem during the Monday Night Football game between the Kansas City Chiefs and the Pittsburgh Steelers. In March 2013, it was announced that Edens Edge had parted ways with Big Machine Records and that member Hannah Blaylock had left the band. H2O II: Wetter and Wilder World Tour With Brad Paisley, Darius Rucker, Blake Shelton, Jerrod Niemann, Sunny Sweeney, the JaneDear girls, Brent Anderson All The Women I Am Tour With Reba McEntire, The Band Perry, Steel Magnolia Own The Night Tour With Lady Antebellum, Josh Kelley Changed Tour With Rascal Flatts, Little Big Town, Eli Young Band

Regina (Dino Crisis)

Regina is a fictional character and designed by Shinji Mikami, in the Dino Crisis series of action-adventure video games by Capcom, serving as the main protagonist in the original Dino Crisis and the co-protagonist in Dino Crisis 2. "Regina" is just an alias of a female U. S. special forces operative. In the Dino Crisis series, Regina is the codename of a member of the Secret Operation Raid Team, a U. S. Army espionage and intelligence group. Regina operates as a weapons specialist, but undertakes other tasks as assigned, such as gathering intelligence. In the first Dino Crisis, taking place in 2009, S. O. R. T. is assigned a mission to infiltrate a "Third Energy" research facility on Ibis Island. Upon arriving at the facility, S. O. R. T. Discovers it infested with dinosaurs. Despite difficulties with the new inhabitants and the security systems of the facility and the surviving members of the team complete their mission and escaped the island. In Dino Crisis 2, set one year Regina is called back into service after Third Energy has caused an entire region to be transported to a different time, leaving a prehistoric jungle in its place.

Regina and a large contingent of Tactical Reconnoitering and Acquisition Team soldiers are sent to rescue any survivors and recover any useful data on Third Energy. The mission goes wrong from the start as the majority of the T. R. A. T. Forces are massacred in their base camp. Regina and the surviving soldiers attempt to complete the mission, but arrive too late to save the surviving civilians. Succeeding in recovering the Third Energy data, Regina uses a timegate to escape, leaving the last surviving T. R. A. T. Member, behind with a promise that she would return and rescue him as soon as she could. Regina has appeared in the tactical role-playing video game Namco × Capcom, beginning on a cruise ship from Gun Survivor 4, as a card in SNK vs. Capcom: Card Fighters Clash, a playable character in Puzzle Fighter. In Resident Evil 3: Nemesis, the player can unlock her outfit with a red wig as a bonus costume for Jill Valentine. Annie "cosplays" as Regina in Super Ultra Dead Rising 3 Arcade Remix Hyper Edition EX Plus Alpha, a downloadable content for Dead Rising 3.

A figure of her was released by Yujin in the Namco × Capcom series. The character has been well received by video game critics and bloggers compared with the likes of Jill Valentine from Capcom's own Resident Evil and Lara Croft from Tomb Raider. In 1999, British magazine Arcade spotlighted Regina in the "Virtual Fox" series of articles, noting that "strangely, for a post-Lara game girl, she's not so buxom" and instead she presents the same "kind of lithe class" as Jill, declaring that "one thing's certain - Capcom has created another female lead to die for." That same year, Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine commented: "Despite her best efforts, Regina can't dislodge her rival Jill Valentine from the number-one spot." Reviewing Dino Crisis in 2000, IGN staff found a strong point of the game "in the form of Regina, a strong-willed, red-haired leader of the elite task force that forms the foundation of the game," despite how they have "seen her type a million times over the last few years, the slack voice-acting."

Peter Olafson from The New York Times wrote an article to tell how he cared for the "sweet normal Regina" in the game because he felt she was "not a clone of Ms. Croft or the other armed fashion models that populate PC games. There flows from her a sense of relative normalcy, she is vulnerable. Her dimensions, are normal if her wardrobe, shamefully, is not." In 2001, Brazil's Supergamepower chose Regina as one of the twelve "muses" of console gaming, alongside Jill and Lara among others. Years Ryan Reynolds from XBLA Fans wrote about Regina's "hot biker chick" looks and costume: "Characters like Chris Redfield, Jill Valentine, Albert Wesker are loved now, but at the time of Resident Evil's release, they weren’t anything special. Regina on the other hand, is far from generic. In today’s world of gritty protagonists, Regina is a breath of fresh air." Retrospectively, GamesRadar's David Meikleham listed this "red-haired vixen comfortable looking hot in 32-bit leather chic" as one of the seven "kick-ass" 1990s game characters who have vanished since, opining that while her series did not repeat the success of Resident Evil, "Regina was a strong lead.

A T-rex-taming sensation, she made Jill Valentine and the rest of S. T. A. R. S. Look feeble." Meikleham included her "dino-luring lycra" combat uniform among gaming's most impractical outfits, while GamesRadar's Mikel Reparaz used her gameplay model to show that "3D games, as a rule, don’t age well." Game Informer featured her in their 2010 list of "20 Namco Vs Capcom Matches We'd Love To See", confronting her with Gon from Tekken. Geoff Cox from WhatCulture chose "Regina Is Awesome" as #1 reason to bring back Dino Crisis: "Instantly recognizable without being overly sexualized, Regina was a certified badass."

Elise Ansel

Elise Ansel translates Old Master Paintings into a contemporary pictorial language. She draws upon familiar compositions from throughout the history of art. Ansel's paintings are abstracted from Old Master paintings, modernising classical works. Ansel uses "an idiom of energetic gestural abstraction to mine art historical imagery for color and narrative structure and interrupting representational content, in order to excavate and transform meanings and messages embedded in the works from which paintings spring. Work deconstructs pictorial language and authorial agency in order to address the myriad subtle ways the gender and belief systems of the artist are embedded in the meaning of the work." Elise Ansel was raised in New York City. She received a BA in Comparative Literature from Brown University in 1984. While at Brown, she studied the Rhode Island School of Design, she worked in the film industry before deciding to make painting her first order medium. She earned her MFA in Visual Art from Southern Methodist University in 1993.

Since 1984, Ansel’s work has been featured in twenty-three solo exhibitions and over 50 group exhibitions in London and across the United States. Ansel has exhibited her work in Europe, her works are held in the permanent collections of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Krakow, the Bowdoin College Museum of Art and the Evansville Museum of Arts and Sciences. She is represented by Danese/Corey in New York City, Ellsworth Gallery in Santa Fe, Cadogan Contemporary in London. Most Ansel has had solo shows in New York, in Santa Fe, London. Ansel’s work appeared in the November 2013 Parrish Art Museum’s biennial exhibition, “Artists Choose Artists.”Elise Ansel was nominated for the Young Masters Art Prize in 2013 and 2014. Ansel's work was recognized among 300 applicants, her work was chosen for her appropriate use of and engagement with the history of art and classical painting in a modern context. Ansel has taught in France, her titles in the U. S. include Professor of Foundation at the Savannah College of Art and Design, Adjunct Professor of Art at Armstrong Atlantic State University, Visiting Artist at the University of Maine, visiting artist at Bowdoin College.

Ansel worked as a drawing instructor at the Pont Aven School of Contemporary Art in France. Ansel was an adjunct lecturer at Brown University from 2007 to 2014. Ansel works with watercolour, her works are abstract. Ansel’s work builds on the themes of “improvisation and transformation.”Bill Van Siclen describes the distinctiveness of Ansels work in her “use of Old Master painting as a stepping stone for her own visual improvisations.” Her work appropriates and engages with the history of art and puts classical painting in a modern context. The focus of her paintings is both secular, her 2013 show, The Invisible Thread, emphasized colour over subject matter with clear religious undertones. Ansel’s works draw upon secular masterpieces as well, her 2013 show, “Drawn from History,” was inspired by “Master works from the collections in London.”Elise Ansel has described her own work as “inspired by Renaissance and Baroque depictions of bacchanals and figure in the landscape... Re-vision Renaissance and Baroque paintings in order to explore their relevance to twenty-first century culture.”

January 2011: Van Siclen, Bill. “‘Opposites attract’ at Providence show,” The Providence Journal January/February 2011: Weisgall, Deboarh. “Elise Ansel,” Maine August 2013: Abatemarco, Michael. “A Renaissance renaissance: Elise Ansel reinterprets the masters,” Pasatiempo November 2013: Segal, Mark. “At the Parrish, ‘Artists Choose Artists.'” The East Hampton Street. October 2014: Cynthia Corbett Gallery interviewed Ansel about her Young Masters work. “Shortlisted Artist Elise Ansel on her Work“ December 2014: Saatchi Art, “Inside the Studio: Elise Ansel,” Saatchi Art Magazine September 2015: "Review of exhibition at The Ellsworth Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico ", American Art Collector magazine June 2015: Hastings, Chris. “Can you identify top art?”, Daily Mail February 2016: Anderson, Anthony. "Elise Ansel: Distant Mirrors", Cafe Des Artists February 2016: Daniel. "Elise Ansel gloriously revisits Calvaert’s ‘Annunciation’ at Bowdoin", Portland Press Herald March 2016: Fall and Rose, Virginia. "Elise Ansel’s Painterly Revelations", The Chart, Jacob Fall Reviews, Vol. 1, No. 6 March/Feb 2016: Herriman, Kat.

"Painter Elise Ansel storms the boys’ club, confronting Old Masters to create her wildly abstract paintings", Cultured Magazine April 2016: O'Hern, John. "Distant Mirrors Review", American Art Collector Magazine April 2016: Little, Carl. "Elise Ansel’s Ab-Ex Annunciation", HYPERALLERGIC March 2017: Adam, Mac Alfred. "Take It from the Masters: Elise Ansel Re-Reads and Reinterprets the Past at Danese/Corey", ARTnews