click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

ECHELON

ECHELON a secret government code name, is a surveillance program operated by the United States with the aid of four other signatory states to the UKUSA Security Agreement: Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom known as the Five Eyes. The ECHELON program was created in the late 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War, it was formally established in 1971. By the end of the 20th century, the system referred to as "ECHELON" had evolved beyond its military and diplomatic origins into "a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications"; the European Parliament's Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System stated, "It seems in view of the evidence and the consistent pattern of statements from a wide range of individuals and organisations, including American sources, that its name is in fact ECHELON, although this is a minor detail". The US intelligence community uses many code names.

Former NSA employee Margaret Newsham claims that she worked on the configuration and installation of software that makes up the ECHELON system while employed at Lockheed Martin, from 1974 to 1984 in Sunnyvale, California, in the United States, in Menwith Hill, England, in the UK. At that time, according to Newsham, the code name ECHELON was NSA's term for the computer network itself. Lockheed called it P415; the software programs were called SILKWORTH and SIRE. A satellite named VORTEX intercepted communications. An image available on the internet of a fragment torn from a job description shows Echelon listed along with several other code names. Britain's The Guardian newspaper summarized the capabilities of the ECHELON system as follows: A global network of electronic spy stations that can eavesdrop on telephones and computers, it can track bank accounts. This information is stored in Echelon computers. However, Echelon doesn't exist. Documents leaked by the former NSA contractor Edward Snowden revealed that the ECHELON system's collection of satellite data is referred to as FORNSAT - an abbreviation for "Foreign Satellite Collection".

Former NSA analyst Perry Fellwock, under pseudonym Winslow Peck, first blew the whistle on ECHELON to Ramparts in 1972, where he gave commentary revealing a global network of listening posts and his experiences working there. Fellwock included revelations such as the existence of nuclear weapons in Israel in 1972, the widespread involvement of CIA and NSA personnel in drugs and human smuggling, CIA operatives leading Nationalist Chinese commandos in burning villages inside PRC borders. In 1982, James Bamford, investigative journalist and author wrote The Puzzle Palace, an in-depth look inside the workings of the NSA a super-secret agency, the massive eavesdropping operation under the codename "SHAMROCK"; the NSA has used many codenames, SHAMROCK was the code name used for ECHELON prior to 1975. In 1988, Margaret Newsham, a Lockheed employee under NSA contract, disclosed the ECHELON surveillance system to members of congress. Newsham told a member of the US Congress that the telephone calls of Strom Thurmond, a Republican US senator, were being collected by the NSA.

Congressional investigators determined that "targeting of US political figures would not occur by accident, but was designed into the system from the start."Also in 1988, an article titled "Somebody's Listening", written by investigative journalist Duncan Campbell in the New Statesman, described the signals intelligence gathering activities of a program code-named "ECHELON". James Bamford describes the system as the software controlling the collection and distribution of civilian telecommunications traffic conveyed using communication satellites, with the collection being undertaken by ground stations located in the footprint of the downlink leg. A detailed description of ECHELON was provided by the New Zealand journalist Nicky Hager in his 1996 book Secret Power: New Zealand's Role in the International Spy Network. Two years Hager's book was cited by the European Parliament in a report titled "An Appraisal of the Technology of Political Control". In March 1999, for the first time in history, the Australian government admitted that news reports about the top secret UKUSA Agreement were true.

Martin Brady, the director of Australia's Defence Signals Directorate told the Australian broadcasting channel Nine Network that the DSD "does co-operate with counterpart signals intelligence organisations overseas under the UKUSA relationship."In 2000, James Woolsey, the former Director of the US Central Intelligence Agency, confirmed that US intelligence uses interception systems and keyword searches to monitor European businesses. Lawmakers in the United States feared. According to The New York Times, the ECHELON system has been "shrouded in such secrecy that its existence has been difficult to prove." Critics said the ECHELON system emerged from the Cold War as a "Big Brother without a cause". The program's capabilities and political implications were investigated by a committee of the European Parliament during 2000 and 2001 with a report published in 2001. In July 2000, the Temporary Committee on the ECHELON Interception System was established by the European parliament to investigate the surveillance network.

It was chaired by the Portuguese politician Carlos Coelho, in charge of supervising investigations throughout 2000 and 2001. In M

Timeline of Bakersfield, California

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bakersfield, California, USA. 1873 – City of Bakersfield incorporated. 1888 – Bakersfield and Kern Electric Railway begins operating. 1889 July 7: Great Bakersfield Fire of 1889. Oil discovered. Bakersfield opens. 1904 – Beale Memorial Clock Tower built. 1907 – The Bakersfield Californian newspaper in publication. 1910 – Kern becomes part of Bakersfield. 1921 – Central Park established. 1928 – Kern County Chamber of Commerce Building and Padre Hotel constructed. 1929 – Hart Park opens. 1930 – Fox Theater in business. 1945 – Kern County Museum opens. 1952 – July 21 – The 7.3 Mw Kern County earthquake affected the southern San Joaquin Valley with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI, killing 12 and injuring hundreds in the region. August 22 – A 5.8 Mw aftershock affected Bakersfield with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII, killing two and causing an additional $10 million in damage. 1954 – Bakersfield City Hall built. 1955 – Memorial Stadium opens.

1961 – Sister city relationship established with Wakayama, Japan. 1962 – Bakersfield News Bulletin begins publication. 1963 – Crest Drive-In cinema in business. 1964 – Goodwill thrift shop in business. 1965 – Community Action Partnership of Kern established. 1976 – Bakersfield Department of Water Resources established. 1977 December: Great Bakersfield Dust Storm of 1977. Mesa Marin Raceway opens. 1980 – California Living Museum founded. 1983 – County Food Bank established. 1990 Hindu Temple of Kern County founded. Population: 174,820. 1996 – Buck Owens Crystal Palace opens. 2000 Bakersfield opens. Population: 247,057. 2001 – Harvey Hall becomes mayor. 2006 – River Walk Park opens. 2007 Kern Veterans Memorial unveiled. Kevin McCarthy becomes U. S. representative for California's 22nd congressional district. 2009 Mill Creek linear park opens. Bakersfield 16 Cinema in business. 2013 – Kern County Raceway Park opens. Bakersfield, California history Timeline of California Timelines of other cities in the Southern California area of California: Anaheim, Long Beach, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Ana "Kern County Local History Photograph Collection" – via Online Archive of California.

Items related to Bakersfield, various dates

Missing You Now

"Missing You Now" is a song recorded by Michael Bolton. It was the fourth single released from his 1991 album, Love & Tenderness; the song features saxophone player Kenny G. "Missing You Now" just missed the top 10 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, peaking at No. 12 in March 1992. The song did reach No. 1 on the adult contemporary chart for three weeks, Bolton's sixth song to do so and Kenny G's first. In addition, the song reached No. 28 on the UK Singles Chart, No. 27 on the Irish Singles Chart, topped the Canadian RPM Adult Contemporary chart. The music video for "Missing You Now" featured actress Teri Hatcher, whom Bolton was dating at the time. Michael Bolton: lead vocals, producer, arranger Diane Warren: songwriter Walter Afanasieff: songwriter, arranger, Moog bass, drums, percussion Louis Biancaniello: additional keyboards, drum programming Ren Klyce: Akai AX60 & Fairlight CMI & Synclavier programming Kenny G: soprano saxophone Michael Landau: guitars Claytoven Richardson, Jeanie Tracy, Kitty Beethoven, Sandy Griffith, Vicki Randle: background vocals Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Carlos Agassi

Amir Carlos Damaso Vahidi Agassi, popularly known as Carlos Agassi and Amir, is a Filipino actor, TV host, rap artist, model. He was launched as a member of ABS-CBN's Star Circle Batch 3 in 1993. Agassi is a member of ABS CBN's circle of homegrown talents named Star Magic, he was part of a male group dubbed as "The Hunks" together with Piolo Pascual, Jericho Rosales, Diether Ocampo, Bernard Palanca. During his tenure as part of The Hunks, he has been a primetime actor when he co-starred with Claudine Barretto in the hit teleserye Sa Dulo Ng Walang Hanggan which ran from 2001 to 2003. Aside from acting, he had hosting stints in the variety show ASAP and hosted a hidden camera practical joke television series entitled Victim, patterned on America's Punk'd. After an two-year hiatus from acting, Agassi returned on television via ABS-CBN's Agua Bendita in 2010 where he played as one of the primary antagonists. In 2014, Agassi appeared in GMA's Elemento. Agassi has been a victim of numerous death hoax claiming that he had died due to alleged anabolic steroid abuse and that prior to his rumored death, Agassi had undergone dialysis procedure with the reason being on a kidney failure.

The rumors had been proven false by Agassi himself. Agassi stated in an interview that his buff physique is a product of physical workout since the age of 16. Given the moniker "The Prince of Rap", Agassi was met with criticism by the likes of veteran rappers Loonie, D-Coy of Madd Poets and Krazykyle of Rapskallion, he filed a case against D-Coy and Krazykyle in 2006 and demanded the pulling of copies of the album United Freestyle v.2 where the lyrics of songs "Right Now" and "No Album Got Skills" contain the lines "Ang dapat sa'yo mag-disappear tulad ng showbiz na si Amir" and "I destroy emcees more than your eyes can see, don't battle me I'll make you look like Carlos Agassi" respectively. The case, was settled. In response to criticism, he together with award-winning rapper Gloc 9 and Mitchell Silonga released a single entitled "Alay Ko" in 2009, a song about Agassi's thoughts on destructive criticisms. Agassi went a hiatus in showbiz sometime in mid 2000s to finish his degree in Psychology at De La Salle University.

He ventured into the restaurant business and opened Brasas, a Latin-American inspired restaurant in Metro Manila. Agassi has his own recording studio called "Amir Carlos Agassi, Inc." where he releases his rap music and collaborates with other artists. Agassi's younger brother Michael is married to actress Cherry Lou, his other brother Aaron is both singer. Agassi was engaged to model and Pinoy Big Brother housemate Margo Midwinter; the couple called off the engagement in 2013. Agassi is now in a relationship with actress Gwen Garci. Carlos Agassi on IMDb

Pahela Baishakh

Pahela Baishakh or Bangla Noboborsho is the first day of Bengali Calendar. It is celebrated on 14 April as a national holiday in Bangladesh, on 14 or 15 April in the Indian states of West Bengal and parts of Assam by people of Bengali heritage, irrespective of their religious faith. Indian Bengalis use the term Poyla Boishakh for the festival; the festival date is set according to the lunisolar Bengali calendar as the first day of its first month Boishakh. It therefore always falls on or about 14 April every year on the Gregorian calendar; the same day is observed elsewhere as the traditional solar new year and a harvest festival, is known by other names such as Vaisakhi in central and north India, Vishu in Kerala and Puthandu in Tamil Nadu. The festival is celebrated with processions and family time; the traditional greeting for Bengali New Year is শুভ নববর্ষ "Shubho Noboborsho", "Happy New Year". The festive Mangal Shobhajatra is organized in Bangladesh. In 2016, the UNESCO declared this festivity organized by the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka as a cultural heritage of humanity.

In Bengali, the word Pohela means'first' and Boishakh is the first month of the Bengali calendar. Bengali New Year is referred to in Bengali as Noboborsho'. During the Mughal rule, land taxes were collected from Bengali people according to the Islamic Hijri calendar; this calendar was a lunar calendar, its new year did not coincide with the solar agricultural cycles. According to some sources, the festival was a tradition introduced in Bengal during the rule of Mughal Emperor Akbar to time the tax year to the harvest, the Bangla year was therewith called Bangabda. Akbar asked the royal astronomer Fathullah Shirazi to create a new calendar by combining the lunar Islamic calendar and solar Hindu calendar in use, this was known as Fawsholi shawn. According to some historians, this started the Bengali calendar. According to the Bangladeshi academic and foklorist Shamsuzzaman Khan, it could be Nawab Murshid Quli Khan, a Mughal governor, who first used the tradition of Punyaho as "a day for ceremonial land tax collection", used Akbar's fiscal policy to start the Bangla calendar.

According to Shamsuzzaman Khan, Nitish Sengupta, the origin of the Bengali calendar is unclear. According to Shamsuzzaman, "it is called Bangla shawn or shaal, which are Arabic and Parsian words suggests that it was introduced by a Muslim king or sultan." In contrast, according to Sengupta, its traditional name is Bangabda. Some historians attribute the Bengali calendar to the 7th century king Shashanka; the term Bangabda is found too in two Shiva temples many centuries older than Akbar era, suggesting that Bengali calendar existed before Akbar's time. It is unclear, whether it was adopted by Hussain Shah or Akbar; the tradition to use the Bengali calendar may have been started by Hussain Shah before Akbar. Regardless of who adopted the Bengali calendar and the new year, states Sengupta, it helped collect land taxes after the spring harvest based on traditional Bengali calendar, because the Islamic Hijri calendar created administrative difficulties in setting the collection date. In rural Bengali communities of India, the Bengali calendar is credited to "Bikromaditto", like many other parts of India and Nepal.

However, unlike these regions where it starts in 57 BCE, the Bengali calendar starts from 593 CE suggesting that the starting reference year was adjusted at some point. The current Bengali calendar in use in the Indian states is based on the Sanskrit text Surya Siddhanta, it retains the historic Sanskrit names of the months, with the first month as Boishakh. Their calendar remains tied to the Hindu calendar system and is used to set the various Bengali Hindu festivals. For Bengalis of West Bengal and other Indian states, the festival falls either on 14 or 15 April every year. In Bangladesh however, the old Bengali calendar was modified in 1966 by a committee headed by Muhammad Shahidullah, making the first five months 31 days long, rest 30 days each, with the month of Falgun adjusted to 31 days in every leap year; this was adopted by Bangladesh in 1987. Since the national calendar starts with and the new year festival always falls on 14 April in Bangladesh; the Bengali New Year is observed as a public holiday in Bangladesh.

It is celebrated across religious boundaries by Hindu minority. According to Willem van Schendel and Henk Schulte Nordholt, the festival became a popular means of expressing cultural pride and heritage among the Bangladeshi as they resisted Pakistani rule in the 1950s and 1960s; the day is marked with singing and fairs. Traditionally, businesses start this day with a new ledger. Singers perform traditional songs welcoming the new year. People enjoy classical jatra plays. People wear festive dress with women desking their hair with flowers. White-red color combinations are popular. People of Bangladesh enjoy varieties of traditional festive foods on Pohela Boishakh; these include ilish bhaji and lots of special bhartas. The celebrations start in Dhaka at dawn with a rendition of Rabindranath Tagore's song "Esho he Boishakh" by Chhayanaut under the banyan tree at Ramna. An integral part of the festivities is the Mangal Shobhajatra, a traditional colourful procession organised by the students of the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka.

According to the history, the rudimentar

Anita Blanch

Anita Blanch was a Spanish-born, Mexican actress, who worked in the Golden Age of Mexican cinema. She was nominated for an Ariel Award from the Mexican Academy of Film three times and won the Best Supporting Actress Award from Diosa de Plata in 1963. Ana María Blanch Ruiz was born on 26 July 1910 in Valencia. Ana, who went by the name of "Anita" and her sister, actress Isabelita Blanch, who both had interest in the theater, arrived in Mexico in the 1920s. Blanch specialized in comedic plays and her theatrical debut was in a performance of “La cabalgata de los reyes”. Blanch was the first star of the prestigious "Ideal Theater" in Mexico City, she and her sister founded the Compañía de Teatro Anita Blanch, hiring artists like Ángel Garasa, Rafael Banquells, Jose Cibrian, among others. Throughout her career, she had several successful theatrical runs, including works such as: "Quien te quiere a ti", "El sexo débil", "Don Juan Tenorio", "Arsénico y encaje" and "El escándalo". Anita's film debut in the film "Luponini de Chicago" was made in 1935.

After terrible reviews, she did not make movies for the next 6 years, but studied her craft on stage with such productions as: “No hables mal de os gitanos” by Enrique Bohorques. She returned to film in 1941 with "¡Ay, que tiempos, señor don Simón!" and made several successful films: "¿Quién te quiere a ti?", "El conde de Montecristo", "Alejandra", "El abanico de Lady Windermere" and "La barraca". "La barraca" was completed in 1945 and Blanch was nominated for a best actress award from the Ariel Awards. Despite this success, she was blackballed by the film industry in a labor dispute between the two actor's unions, STPC and STIC, she returned to the stage and in 1945 performed the first presentation held at the Teatro Xicohténcatl, in Tlaxcala, with the comedy "Siete mujeres de Navarro y Torrado". In 1951, she performed in the play "Mamá nos quita los novios" Finally in 1951, the labor dispute ended and she and other actresses who had returned to the theater, began filming again, her first film after her return was "Te sigo esperando" in 1951.

She made movies until the early 1980s. Her most successful films in this last period were "Tlayucan" in 1963 for which she won a best supporting actress award from the Diosa de Plata. Beginning in 1960 with the telenovela "El Otro" her career turned toward television; the latter half of her acting career focused on telenovelas. Two of her most popular were "Mamá campanita" and "En busca del paraíso". Around this time, Blanch met her life partner, the novelist and film and television screenwriter, Josefina Vicens, with whom she lived until her death. In 1970 Blanch, along with Socorro Avelar, Dolores del Rio, Irma Dorantes, Gloria Marín, Carmen Montejo, Silvia Pinal, Amparo Rivelles joined to form a group called “Rosa Mexicano” with the intent of protecting actresses and their children; the project had been the brain child of Fanny Schiller, who pushed the National Association of Actors to form nurseries for actress's children. The idea was that by establishing a nursery, actresses could continue working, by establishing a Montessori education system, their children would receive a strong educational foundation.

After operating in temporary spaces, the first stones for the formal location were laid on 30 April 1972. Blanch died on 23 April 1983 in Mexico City. 1947, "La barraca", best actress, nominated for Ariel 1963, "Tlayucan", best supporting actress, Won Diosa de Plata Award 1973, "Los días del amor", best actress co-performance, nominated for Ariel 1975, "Presagio", best actress co-performance, nominated for Ariel