Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Digital signage is a sub-segment of electronic signage. Digital displays use technologies such as LCD, LED, projection and e-paper to display digital images, web pages, weather data, restaurant menus, or text, they can be found in public spaces, transportation systems, stadiums, retail stores, hotels and corporate buildings etc. to provide wayfinding, exhibitions and outdoor advertising. They are used as a network of electronic displays that are centrally managed and individually addressable for the display of text, animated or video messages for advertising, information and merchandising to targeted audiences; the many different uses of digital signage allow a business to accomplish a variety of goals. Some of the most common applications include: Public information – news, weather and local information, such as building directory with a map, fire exits and traveler information. Internal information - corporate messages, such as health & safety items, news and so forth. Product information – pricing, raw materials or ingredients, suggested applications and other product information - useful in food marketing where signage may include nutritional facts or suggested uses or recipes.
Information to enhance the customer service experience - interpretive signage in museums, zoos and gardens, exhibitions and cultural attractions. Advertising and Promotion – promoting products or services, may be related to the location of the sign or using the screen's audience reach for general advertising. Brand building – in-store digital sign to promote the brand and build a brand identity. Influencing customer behavior – navigation, directing customers to different areas, increasing the "dwell time" on the store premises and a wide range of other uses in service of such influence. Influencing product or brand decision-making - Signage at the point of sale designed to influence choice e.g. Signage to help shoppers to choose dresses inside a fashion store or devices that on a computerized shopping trolley helping the customer locate products, check prices, access product information and manage shopping lists. Enhancing customer experience – applications include the reduction of perceived wait time in the waiting areas of restaurants and other retail operations, bank queues, similar circumstances, as well as demonstrations, such as those of recipes in food stores, among other examples.
Navigation – with interactive screens or with other means of "dynamic wayfinding". Reservations – small, interactive screens on walls or desks that allow employees to reserve the space for a limited time and integrate with a room and resource scheduling platform. Over 200 different companies worldwide market digital signage solutions and the number is still growing. With the influx of digital signage providers, the digital signage market is expected to grow upward to $21.92 Billion USD by 2020, with a CAGR of 8.04% from 2015 to 2020. The reason for the rise is due to the growing demand by companies for the development of digital signage solutions, advertisement displays and paper wastage reduction. Presently, North America dominates the digital signage market and will be expected to continue dominating the market until 2020, with the US occupying a majority of the market share; the Asia Pacific and European region has shown promise, with Germany and UK in Europe, Japan and South Korea in the Asia Pacific region.
These four countries are expected to have the highest rate of growth by 2020. The predominant market users of digital signage are restaurants, office buildings, regional state and local planning authorities, public transport services, various industries. Digital signage is used in restaurants through an interactive menu screen that rotates promotional offers. Restaurants use digital signage both indoors and outdoors, with the latter needing a form of weather protection depending on the components of the hardware. Outdoor usage of digital signage is most prevalent in drive-through that allows the customer to browse through the entire menu at a glance while placing their order with an interactive touchscreen. Indoor digital signage is used for the display of menus. Prior to the integration of digital signage, restaurants manually updated the cafeteria menu, in itself a full-time job if the menu is updated daily. With digital signage, restaurants do not have to manually update the menu feed, with live menu feed from digital signage solutions.
According to a survey conducted by quick-service restaurants and casual restaurant operators, over 20% of restaurant operators experience a 5% sales lift after incorporating digital signage in their service sectors. Digital signage is used in shopping malls as a form of directory or map display. Uses of digital signage include a wayfinding kiosk, enabling the customer to find their path through an interactive touchscreen. Recent digital signage have begun combining interactive advertisement with wayfinding application; this will offer shoppers who interact with the advertisement of the tenant in the shopping mall to the store. Another usage is disseminating relevant information such as the schedule of an campaign. Digital signage is used during exhibitions or marketing events to entice passersby. Digital signage aims to attract crowds to events and enhance visitor experience by making the experience memorable. Exhibitions use digital signage to create branding experiences. A recent campaign promoting the release of The Emoji Movie used a digital signage kiosk to allow guests to interact with various emoji characters via the windows outside and inside of the par
Esquire is an American men's magazine, published by the Hearst Corporation in the United States. Founded in 1933, it flourished during the Great Depression under the guidance of founders Arnold Gingrich, David A. Smart and Henry L. Jackson. Esquire was first issued in October 1933; the magazine was first headquartered in Chicago and in New York City. It was edited by David A. Smart, Henry L. Jackson and Arnold Gingrich. Jackson died in the crash of United Airlines Flight 624 in 1948, while Gingrich led the magazine until his own death in 1976. Smart died in 1952, although he left Esquire in 1936 to found a different magazine, Coronet; the founders all had different focuses. Additionally, Jackson's Republican political viewpoints contrasted with the liberal Democratic views of Smart, which allowed for the magazine to publish debates between the two; this grew heated in 1943 when the Democratic United States Postmaster General Frank Comerford Walker brought charges against the magazine on behalf of the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
The administration alleged that Esquire had used the US Postal Service to promote "lewd images". Republicans opposed the lawsuit and in 1946 the United States Supreme Court found in Esquire v. Walker that Esquire's right to use the Postal Service was protected by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. Esquire started in 1933 as a quarterly press run of a hundred thousand copies, it cost fifty cents per copy. It transformed itself into a more refined periodical with an emphasis on men's fashion and contributions by Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Alberto Moravia, André Gide, Julian Huxley. In the 1940s, the popularity of the Petty Girls and Vargas Girls provided a circulation boost. In the 1960s, Esquire helped pioneer the trend of New Journalism by publishing such writers as Norman Mailer, Tim O'Brien, John Sack, Gay Talese, Tom Wolfe, Terry Southern. In the mid 1960s, Esquire partnered with Verve Records to release a series of "Sound Tour" vinyl LPs that provided advice and music for traveling abroad.
In August 1969, Esquire published Normand Poirier's piece, "An American Atrocity", one of the first reports of American atrocities committed against Vietnamese civilians. Under Harold Hayes, who ran it from 1961 to 1973, it became as distinctive as its oversized pages; the magazine shrank to the conventional 8½×11 inches in 1971. The magazine was sold by the original owners to Clay Felker in 1977, who reinvented the magazine as a fortnightly in 1978, under the title of Esquire Fortnightly. However, the fortnightly experiment proved to be a failure, by the end of that year, the magazine lost US$5 million. Felker sold Esquire in 1979 to the 13-30 Corporation, a Tennessee publisher, whose owners refocused the magazine into a monthly. During this time, New York Woman magazine was launched as something of a spinoff version of Esquire aimed at female audience. 13-30 split up in 1986, Esquire was sold to Hearst at the end of the year, with New York Woman going its separate way to American Express Publishing.
David M. Granger was named editor-in-chief of the magazine in June 1997. Since his arrival, the magazine has received numerous awards, including multiple National Magazine Awards. Prior to becoming editor-in-chief at Esquire, Granger was the executive editor at GQ for nearly six years, its award-winning staff writers include Tom Chiarella, Scott Raab, Mike Sager, Chris Jones, John H. Richardson, Cal Fussman, Lisa Taddeo, Tom Junod. Famous photographers have worked for the magazine, among which fashion photographer Gleb Derujinsky, Richard Avedon. In January 2009 Esquire launched a new blog—the Daily Endorsement Blog; each morning the editors of the magazine recommend one thing for readers' immediate enjoyment: "not a political candidate or position or party, but a breakthrough idea or product or Web site." The concept of the "Daily Endorsement Blog" was said to have emerged from Esquire's November 2008 issue called the "Endorsement Issue", in which, after 75 years, Esquire publicly endorsed a presidential candidate for the first time.
The Daily Endorsement Blog was discontinued on April 2011. From 1969 to 1976, Gordon Lish served as fiction editor for Esquire and became known as "Captain Fiction" because of the authors whose careers he assisted. Lish helped establish the career of writer Raymond Carver by publishing his short stories in Esquire over the objections of Hayes. Lish is noted for publishing the short stories of Richard Ford. Using the influential publication as a vehicle to introduce new fiction by emerging authors, he promoted the work of such writers as T. Coraghessan Boyle, Barry Hannah, Cynthia Ozick and Reynolds Price. In February 1977, Esquire published "For Rupert – with no promises" as an unsigned work of fiction: this was the first time it had published a work without identifying the author. Readers speculated that it was the work of J. D. Salinger, the reclusive author best known for The Catcher in the Rye. Told in first-person, the story features events and Glass family names from the story "For Esmé – with Love and Squalor".
Gordon Lish is quoted as saying, "I tried to borrow Salinger's voice and the psychological circumstances of his life, as I imagine them to be now. And I tried to use those things to elaborate on certain circumstances and events in his fiction to deepen them and add complexity."Other authors appearing in Esquire at that time included William F. Buckley, Truman Capote, Murray Kempton, Malcolm Muggeridge, Ron Rosenbaum, Andrew Vachss and Ga
Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. Ltd. trading as Foxconn Technology Group and better known as Foxconn, is a Taiwanese multinational electronics contract manufacturing company with its headquarters in Tucheng, New Taipei, Taiwan. Today, it is the world's largest provider of electronics manufacturing services and the fourth-largest information technology company by revenue; the company is one of the largest employers worldwide. Its founder and chairman is Terry Gou. Foxconn manufactures electronic products for major American, Chinese and Japanese companies. Notable products manufactured by Foxconn include the BlackBerry, iPad, iPhone, iPod, Nintendo 3DS, Nokia devices, Xiaomi devices, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Wii U, Xbox 360, Xbox One, the TR4 CPU socket on some motherboards; as of 2012, Foxconn factories manufactured an estimated 40% of all consumer electronics sold worldwide. Foxconn has been involved in several controversies. In 2010, following a series of employee suicides at its factory in Shenzhen, Foxconn was criticized by labour activists, who accused the company of providing low wages and allowing employees to work past legal overtime limits.
Terry Gou established Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. Ltd. as an electrical components manufacturer in 1974. Foxconn's first manufacturing plant in China opened in Longhua Town, Shenzhen, in 1988. One of the important milestones for Foxconn occurred in 2001 when Intel tapped the company to manufacture its Intel-branded motherboards instead of Asus. By November 2007, Foxconn further expanded with an announced plan to build a new US$500 million plant in Huizhou, Southern China. In January 2012, Foxconn named Tien Chong Cheng chief executive of its subsidiary FIH Mobile Limited, he resigned the same year. At this time, Foxconn made up forty percent of worldwide consumer electronics production. Expansion was further pursued after a March 2012 acquisition of a 10-percent stake in the Japanese electronics company Sharp Corporation for US$806 million and to purchase up to 50 percent of the LCDs produced at Sharp's plant in Sakai, Japan. In September 2012, Foxconn announced plans to invest US$494 million in the construction of five new factories in Itu, creating 10,000 jobs.
In 2014, the company purchased Asia Pacific Telecom and won some spectrum licenses at an auction, which allowed it to operate 4G telecommunications equipment in Taiwan. In February 25, 2016, Sharp accepted a ¥700 billion takeover bid from Foxconn to acquire over 66 percent of Sharp's voting stock. However, hours the deal was put on hold after "contingent liabilities... worth billions of dollars" were discovered. A month on March 30, 2016, the deal was announced as finalized in a joint press statement, but at a lower price than before. In 2016, together with Tencent and luxury-car dealer Harmony New Energy Auto, founded Future Mobility, a car start up that aims to sell all-electric autonomous premium cars by 2020. A Foxconn unit, Foxconn Interconnect Technology, announced its intent to acquire Belkin International for $866m on March 26, 2018; the majority of Foxconn's factories are located in Asia, with others in Brazil and Mexico. Foxconn has 12 factories in nine Chinese cities—more than in any other country.
The largest Foxconn factory is located in Longhua Town, where hundreds of thousands of workers are employed at the Longhua Science & Technology Park, a walled campus sometimes referred to as "Foxconn City". The park produces the bulk of Apple's iPhone line. Covering about 1.16 square miles, the park includes 15 factories, worker dormitories, 4 swimming pools, a fire brigade, its own television network, a city centre with a grocery store, restaurants, book store and hospital. While some workers live in surrounding towns and villages, others work inside the complex. Another Foxconn factory "city" is located at Zhengzhou Technology Park in Zhengzhou, Henan province, where a reported 120,000 workers are employed as of 2012. Foxconn's future expansion include sites at Wuhan in Hubei province, Kunshan in Jiangsu province, Tianjin and Guangzhou in Guangdong province, China. A Foxconn branch that manufactures Apple products is Hongfujin. On May 25, 2016, the BBC reported that Foxconn fired 60,000 employees because it had automated "many of the manufacturing tasks associated with their operations".
The organization confirmed those claims. All company facilities in South America are located in Brazil, these include mobile phone factories in Manaus and Indaiatuba as well as production bases in Jundiaí, Santa Rita do Sapucaí; the company is considering more investments in Brazil. Foxconn has factories in Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Foxconn factories are strategically located in Europe, it is the second-largest exporter in the Czech Republic. The Turkey facility is located 100 km west of Istanbul within European Free Trade Zone in the Corlu district, it was established in 2010. It covers 14,300 sq. meters. Foxconn had an operational unit starting in 2006 in the Special Economic Zone of Chennai, Tamil Nadu; this unit closed on December 2014, affecting 25,000 employees. As of mid-2015, Foxconn was in talks to manufacture Apple's iPhone in India. In 2015, Foxconn announced that it would be setting up twelve factories in India and would create around one million jobs, it discussed its intent to work with the Adani group for expansion in the country.
However, as of Decemb
The Kobo eReader is an e-reader produced by Toronto-based Kobo Inc. The company's name is an anagram of "book"; the original version was released in May 2010 and was marketed as a minimalist alternative to the more expensive e-book readers available at the time. Like most e-readers, the Kobo uses an electronic ink screen. All Kobo e-readers share a unique pagination system giving users the option to count and reference pages separately within each chapter as opposed to the book as a whole, although the latter is user selectable as an alternative. All Kobo readers require connection to the Internet during the initial setup phase and will not work until it has connected to Kobo's servers. Kobo e-readers support viewing Epub, Adobe PDF, plain text, HTML, unprotected Mobipocket e-books, it supports many other formats unofficially such as ZIM. The Clara HD was released on June 5, 2018, it has a 6 inch screen. The Kobo Aura One was released on 6 September 2016 and it is the first e-reader with a 7.8-inch E Ink Carta HD waterproof touchscreen display with a 300 ppi screen.
The Aura One weighs 252 grams and measures 195 by 138.5 by 6. 9 mm. It has Wi-Fi, 8 GB internal storage, 512 MB RAM; the Aura One is lit by nine white LEDs and eight RGB LEDs around the frame. The additional RGB LEDs allow the device to have a night reading mode that limits the blue light that comes from white LEDs, it was the first Kobo eReader with built-in OverDrive support. The Kobo Aura Edition 2 was released with the Kobo Aura One in September 2016 as "a refreshed version of a beloved classic", it has a 6-inch E Ink Carta display with a resolution of 1024×768 at 212 ppi. The exterior styling is similar to the Kobo Aura One. Unlike the original Kobo Aura, there is no MicroSD slot; the specifications are otherwise similar to the original Kobo Aura. The Kobo Aura H₂O Edition 2 was released in May 2017, it has a 6.8-inch E Ink HD Carta waterproof IPX8 display at 265 ppi. Its LED light, called the "ComfortLight PRO", can automatically reduce blue-light exposure during the night to lower the screen's effect on sleep.
Kobo Inc. announced its first e-reader on 24 March 2010, at the CTIA show. It was released on 1 May 2010, it had expandable memory, holding an additional 4 GB via an SD slot and limited wireless connectivity via Bluetooth to select Blackberry wireless devices. It came preloaded with 100 public domain books, it was manufactured by Netronix Inc. a Taiwan based company with factories in China. The pricing strategy of the original Kobo, at USD$149, was to rival the Amazon Kindle, USD$110 more expensive. However, in June 2010, just after the Kobo was released, Amazon dropped the price of the Kindle to USD$189, its pricing strategy in Australia was aggressive where it was available for A$199, again A$100 less than the Kindle. Borders Australia said that they hoped to sell high volumes of the Kobo to drive up sales at their e-content store; the original Kobo received a mediocre review from CNET, which said that, while the Kobo was compact and affordable, the lack of Wi-Fi or 3G made it outdated when there were priced eReaders available with those features.
In December 2010, the original Kobo's feature set was updated with a firmware update to more match the Wifi model. A new model with Wi-Fi capability was released on 15 October 2010, it included an improved processor and new colour choices. The SD expansion had been improved to claim a capacity for up to 10,000 books with a 32GB SD card. Other improvements included a built-in dictionary; as with the original model, the Wi-Fi model came pre-loaded with 100 public domain books. The Kobo Touch was released in June 2011, it introduced an infrared 6-inch touchscreen interface. Other improvements compared to the Kobo Wi-Fi included an E Ink Pearl screen, a faster processor capable of smooth PDF panning, 802.11n capability, reduced size and weight. The Kobo Glo is an e-reader released on 6 September 2012, it is a touch-based E Ink reader. The Kobo Glo supports most ebook standards, including EPUB, it has a 6-inch touchscreen, 1024×758 resolution, 213 ppi, 6.53 oz, 2 GB of storage, supports microSD. The Kobo Mini is smaller, 5-inch, lighter than standard ebook readers and was released on 6 September 2012.
It has Wi-Fi. The 5" E Ink Vizplex screen has a resolution of 800x600 with 200 ppi; the Kobo Aura is the baseline e-reader with a 6-inch E Ink ClarityScreen display with 1024×768 resolution, 16-level grey scale and a built-in LED front-light. It weighs 173g, has 2 months of battery life, a Freescale i. MX507 1 GHz processor, a microSD expansion slot, it was released in September 2013. The Aura HD was a limited-edition device, released on 25 April 2013, with a 6.8-inch E Ink display, with a high resolution of 1440×1080 with 265 ppi. It is a microSD expansion slot. Other improvements compared to the Kobo Touch include a built-in "ComfortLight" LED light, a faster processor, twice the onboard storage and a claimed twice the battery life; the Aura H₂O, released on 1 October 2014, is the first commercial waterproof e-reader and has an upgraded version of the Aura HD's 6.8-inch E Ink Carta display with a resolution of 1440×1080 with 265 ppi. While its screen is improved over the Aura HD, it contains the same processor, on-board storage, software as the Aura HD, has dust/waterproofing – certified to be immersed for up to 30 minutes in up to 1 meter of water with its port cover closed.
The Kobo Glo HD
Plastic Logic Germany develops and manufactures electrophoretic displays, based on organic thin-film transistor technology, in Dresden, Germany. A spin-off company from the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, the company was founded in 2000 by Richard Friend, Henning Sirringhaus and Stuart Evans and specialised in polymer transistors and plastic electronics. In February 2015, the company announced that the technology development and manufacturing parts of Plastic Logic would be separated and would go forward as independent companies, in order to generate focus while addressing a range of opportunities available in identified markets. FlexEnable was created from Plastic Logic's people and its technology assets in Cambridge, UK; the manufacturing plant in Dresden, which develops and sells a range of flexible EPD, operates independently under the name Plastic Logic Germany. Plastic Logic opened the first mini-fabrication plant on November 11, 2003 in Cambridge, UK. A factory for the mass-production of the display units was opened on September 17, 2008 in Dresden, Germany.
Plastic Logic announced its first plastic screen device on November 30, 2004, to be used by Siemens Communications in their mobile devices. This was followed by the announcement of an ereader called the QUE proReader. However, by August 2010, they had cancelled the QUE proReader. In September 2011 the company announced Plastic Logic 100 aimed to bring e-textbooks to Russian schools. In January 2011 the company received $280m in venture capital: $230m into the equity of Plastic Logic from Rusnano and $50m from Oak Investment Partners, a multi-stage venture capital firm. In May 2012 Plastic Logic revealed a ‘Plastic Inside’ strategy – selling its plastic back-planes and tags for customers to incorporate into other products. On May 17, 2012, Plastic Logic announced that they were abandoning plans to manufacture their own e-reader devices, shutting down their US office in Mountain View and reducing staff elsewhere. In July 2012, Plastic Logic demonstrated a flexible display, 130 µm thick, as well as the first flexible plastic display that can play colour video animation content at 12 frames per second, driven by OTFTs.
Plastic Logic demonstrated several product concepts including an ultra-thin e-paper companion device for a smartphone. The 10.7” touchscreen pane for viewing of webpages and documents was designed for easier reading of content than on the screen of a smartphone. BBC Click featured Plastic Logic's technology in a report on "going paperless" in July 2012. Plastic Logic Germany licenses technology from FlexEnable Ltd's technology platform based on organic thin film transistors, enabling electronics to be manufactured on flexible or plastic sheets, to make flexible plastic electrophoretic displays in a full range of sizes; these daylight readable displays are designed to be lightweight and robust with low battery consumption. The company claims they have lifetimes of more than 10 million page updates; the same technology can be used for non-display applications. One example is the world's first flexible image sensor on plastic, jointly developed by ISORG and Plastic Logic and showcased at LOPE-C in June 2013.
In January 2013, the company won the FlexTech Alliance's "FLEXI 2013 R&D Award" for innovation in flexible display manufacturing. This was in recognition for the development of a scalable manufacturing process for integrating a colour filter array on a flexible plastic display. Other companies recognised by the FlexTech Alliance included Corning, Inc. and American Semiconductor. Plastic Logic Germany develops and manufactures flexible plastic displays for third party end-devices; because the displays are made of plastic, they are resistant to breaking and are designed for use in robust mobile devices. In March 2013, the readers of the German electronic products magazine Elektronik voted Plastic Logic's flexible colour display "Optoelectronic Product of the Year 2013". At the International CES in Las Vegas at the beginning of January 2013, the company announced the tablet computer product PaperTab, the result of a collaboration between Intel, Plastic Logic and the Human Media Lab of Queen's University.
Powered by an Intel Core i5 Processor, the PaperTab incorporates a flexible 10.7” plastic display developed and manufactured by Plastic Logic. The interface is gesture-controlled, allowing the user to change a view or action a command by bending a screen corner or tapping one screen on another. Multiple PaperTabs can be used to display data side-by-side as a virtual desktop, displaying media such as emails and larger images simultaneously. Plastic Logic Germany supplies larger displays, which can be used as e-paper or a companion device for a smartphone. Further uses include enabling a large form-factor and lightweight eReader. In March 2013 Toppan Printing Co. Ltd and Plastic Logic demonstrated the first large-area, flexible electrophoretic digital signage prototype at RETAILTECH in Tokyo, Japan; the 42" prototype consisted of 16 10.7" Plastic Logic monochrome flexible plastic displays, tiled together, in a 4x4 configuration for use in applications with close viewing distances. The power consumption of the displays was demonstrated for disaster-ready applications in areas prone to natural disasters, such as the post-earthquake society of Japan.
Plastic Logic Germany has shown concept designs enabled by its smaller displays, such as wearable computers for use in sports and medical applications. The QUE proReader was a first generation e-reader product from Plastic Logic; the final version of the product
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow