Eadred was King of the English from 946 until his death. He was the son of Edward the Elder and his third wife Eadgifu of Kent, a grandson of Alfred the Great. Eadred came to the throne following the assassination of his older brother, Edmund I; the chief achievement of his reign was to bring the Kingdom of Northumbria under total English control, which occurred with the defeat and expulsion of Eric Bloodaxe in 954. Eadred died at the age of 32 having never married, was succeeded by his 15-year-old nephew, Eadwig. Eadred was a son of Edward the Elder by his third marriage, to Eadgifu, daughter of Sigehelm, ealdorman of Kent, he succeeded his elder brother King Edmund I, stabbed to death at Pucklechurch, on St Augustine's Day, 26 May 946. The same year, on 16 August, Eadred was consecrated by Archbishop Oda of Canterbury at Kingston upon Thames, where he appears to have received the submission of Welsh rulers and northern earls; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year 946 records that Eadred "reduced all the land of Northumbria to his control.
Eadred soon faced a number of political challenges to the West-Saxon hegemony in the north. There are some notorious difficulties with the chronology of the events described in the historical sources, but it is clear that there were two Scandinavian princes who set themselves up as kings of Northumbria. Óláf Sihtricson, otherwise known as Amlaíb Cuarán, had been king of Northumbria in the early 940s when he became Edmund's godson and client king, but he was driven out. He succeeded his cousin as King of Dublin, but after a heavy defeat in battle in 947, he was once again forced to try his luck elsewhere. Shortly thereafter, Olaf was back in business. What Eadred thought of the matter or how much sympathy he bore for his brother's godson can only be guessed at, but it seems that he at least tolerated Olaf's presence. In any event, Olaf was ousted from the kingship a second time by the Northumbrians, this time in favour of Eric son of Harald, according to MS E of the Chronicle; the other player in the game was Eric Bloodaxe King of Norway from 930 to 934.
After a number of successful operations elsewhere, he came to Northumbria and appears at some point to have set himself up as king. King Eadred responded harshly to the northern defectors by launching a destructive raid on Northumbria, which notably included burning the Ripon monastery founded by St. Wilfrid. Although his forces sustained heavy losses in the Battle of Castleford, Eadred managed to check his rival by promising the latter's supporters greater havoc if they did not desert the foreign prince; the Northumbrians paid compensation. The Historia Regum suggests that the threat of an independent Northumbrian king had come to an end in 952, when earls took over the helm. Towards the end of his life, Eadred suffered from a digestive malady which would prove fatal.'Author B', the biographer and former apprentice of St Dunstan, described with vivid memory how the king sucked out the juices of his food, chewed on what was left and spat it out. Eadred died at the age of 32 on 23 November, 955, at Frome, was buried in the Old Minster at Winchester.
He died a bachelor, was succeeded by Edmund's son Eadwig. Primary sources Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. Edition available online. Historia Regum, ed. T. Arnold, Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia. 2 vols: 2. London, 1885. John of Worcester, Chronicon ex Chronicis, ed. Benjamin Thorpe, Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. 2 vols: vol 1. London, 1848–9. Charters: Sawyer no. 1515. Text available from Anglo-Saxons.net. Like his grandfather King Alfred, Eadred left a written record of his will. Anglo-Saxon Charters, Sawyer nos. 515–580, 1211–2, 1511. Secondary sources Williams, Ann. "Eadred". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Primary sources Chronicle of Æthelweard, ed. and tr. Alistair Campbell, The Chronicle of Æthelweard. London, 1961. Vita S. Dunstani, ed. W. Stubbs, Memorials of St Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury. Rolls Series. London, 1874. 3-52. Available as PDF from Google Books and from Gallica. Vita S. Æthelwoldi, ed. and tr. Michael Lapidge and Michael Winterbottom, Wulfstan of Winchester.
The Life of St Æthelwold. OMT. Oxford, 1991. Secondary sources Gough, Harold. "Eadred's Charter of AD 949 and the Extent of the Monastic Estate of Reculver, Kent." St Dunstan: His Life and Cult, ed. Nigel Ramsay and Margaret Sparks. Woodbridge and Rochester, NY: Boydell, 1992. 89–10. Keynes, Simon. "The'Dunstan B' Charters". Anglo-Saxon England. 23: 165–93. Doi:10.1017/s026367510000452x. Sawyer, P. "The last Scandinavian rulers of York." Northern History 31: 39–44. Stafford, Pauline. Unification and Conquest. A Political and Social History of England in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. London. Stenton, Frank Merry. Anglo-Saxon England. 3d ed. Oxford, 1971. 360–3. Eadred 16 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England Coins issued by King Eadred at Early Medieval Corpus of Coin Finds More images are available on the web, such as here and here
The Music Room is a 2014 album composed by the Indian singer-songwriter Sonu Nigam and tabla percussionist Bickram Ghosh. The album was released on 16 December 2014 on the Times Music label; the album, over four years in the making, is in a style the duo calls Muddy Electronica, according to an interview that appeared in the Mumbai Mirror. The album features all in the voice of Sonu; the lyrics of all the songs have been penned by Sonu Nigam except the Gujarati language song Walida, the lyrics of which are written by Shruti Pathak. When interviewed by Radioandmusic.com about the presence of that song on the album, Ghosh said, "It is music. We come across people who listen to many other languages." The album consists of a song titled Khamakha, notable for being set to nine beats. In less than 24 hrs of release The Music Room had reached no.1 position on Indipop Charts on iTunes. The composer duo celebrated the success of the album ‘The Music Room’ along with their friends in the industry by throwing a lavish party in Mumbai.
The Chennai, India-based'New Indian Express' calls the album "An Iconic collaboration that introduces music lovers to a new and original Genre". The Pune, India-based'Sakal Times' called the songs "Very fresh in terms of Music." The Kolkata, India-based online news portal called the album "Superb" and recognized singer Sonu Nigam as "The Finest Voice of Music". The Milliblog'100 Word Blog' provided a favorable review - "In this album they soar and produce a whopper!" The Album has received favorable reviews on Amazon's India site
Sigma Phi Delta is an international professional-social fraternity of engineers. As "The Premier International Fraternity of Engineers", the organization is the only fraternity of its kind that draws its membership from male engineering students at ABET-accredited colleges and universities, as other similar organizations are co-ed or admit students not in traditional engineering programs. Sigma Phi Delta was founded at University of Southern California on April 11, 1924 and has 25 active chapters; the Alpha chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on April 11, 1924 in the third attempt to establish an engineering fraternity at the University, the other two having been terminated into general fraternities. Unlike many fraternities at USC, the Alpha chapter owns its historic house; the chapter house served as a foreign government consulate. The Delta chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on January 25, 1928 by a group of students that included a brother of an Alpha chapter Founder and an Alpha chapter Alumnus in graduate school.
Delta chapter has produced 5 Grand Presidents who have guided the fraternity 46 of its 80+ years of existence. The only two members who have been named Grand Old Men of Sigma Phi Delta Fraternity were Delta Alumni; the Epsilon chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on May 21, 1928. They have the annual Peddle-for-Pets Philanthropy in the fall semester, they are involved in a local initiative called "Tech Boyz" that hosts weekly Engineering related information based session for different age groups, depending on grade. The Eta chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on May 23, 1931 when a local Marquette Engineering Fraternity, Omega Sigma Phi, merged with the National Fraternity. Eta chapter has the largest number of registered alumni in the entire Sigma Phi Delta Organization, with over 900 living alumni worldwide, is Marquette University's oldest active fraternity; the Theta chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on April 24, 1932. Once under the IFC, it is now under the EUS of UBC's Engineering Department.
The Kappa chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on May 25, 1947. The Kappa chapter is located at Trine University located in Indiana; this chapter was established during an engineering undergraduate boom at Tri-State College following WWII and the G. I. Bill; the Rho chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on Dec 18, 1965. After deactivating, the Rho chapter was rechartered on April 18, 2015; the Phi chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on May 4, 1991. The Psi chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on April 11, 1999. Psi chapter is located at the University of Delaware in Newark. Psi chapter has been active in helping start new chapters on the east coast, including Omega, Beta-Iota, Beta-Kappa; the Beta-Gamma chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on May 17, 2003. The Beta-Delta chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on December 3, 2005. Beta-Delta has been involved in Lego League and the Virginia Tech wide service projects known as Big Event and Relay for Life, participate in philanthropies such as Cinco de Chi-O and their own Engineering Games, whose proceeds benefit FIRST Robotics.
The Beta-Epsilon chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on March 28, 2009. The Beta-Zeta chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on August 14, 2010; the Beta-Eta chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on February 4, 2012. The Beta-Theta chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on February 11, 2012; the Beta-Iota chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded at the University of Maryland on February 25, 2012. Its country committee, the first of any fraternity nationwide, was founded on May 2, 2018 on US Route 158 South of the Virginia-North Carolina border by brothers Anthony Mahshigian and Thomas Casey; the Beta-Kappa chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on March 23, 2013. Based in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the P. C. Rossin College of Engineering and Applied Sciences. San Diego State University's chapter, founded April 20, 2012; the Beta-Mu chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on October 19, 2013. The Beta-Nu chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on April 19, 2014; the Beta-Xi chapter of the Sigma Phi Delta Fraternity was founded on December 6, 2014 in Morgantown, West Virginia.
The Beta Omicron chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on December 13, 2014 in Columbia, Missouri with a Charter Class of 30 members. The Beta-Pi chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on May 2, 2015; the Beta-Rho chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on April 9, 2016. The Beta-Sigma chapter of Sigma Phi Delta was founded on May 17, 2018 in Washington D. C; the Beta-Sigma chapter has been recognized as being the first Historically Black College and University chapter of the Fraternity. Gules, a pall or, between, in chief two retorts crossed argent, in dexter base a quill sable surmounting a key in saltire, of the third, in sinister base a hammer fesswise of the fourth debruising a compass, points downward, of the third. Crest, over a duke's helmet and a torse of the colors, a dexter cubit arm, grasping a thunderbolt, winged orMantling: Gules doubled, orSupporters: Two lions, proper Motto: Sigma Phi Delta, in upper and lower case Greek letters The Name of the Fraternity is represented by the capital form of the Greek letters Sigma, Delta which stand for Science and Duty.
The Pledge Pin is described as: "A red triangular background on, a black Castle, the whole bordered in gold". The Membership Badge is described as: "A triangle having concave corners on which are superimposed three smaller triangles having concave sides and having their v