Not to be confused with the secondary tympanic membrane of the round windowIn the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear, to the oval window in the fluid-filled cochlea. Hence, it converts and amplifies vibration in air to vibration in fluid; the malleus bone bridges the gap between the eardrum and the other ossicles. Rupture or perforation of the eardrum can lead to conductive hearing loss. Collapse or retraction of the eardrum can cause cholesteatoma; the tympanic membrane is oriented obliquely in the anteroposterior and superoinferior planes. Its superoposterior end lies lateral to its anteroinferior end. Anatomically, it relates superiorly to the middle cranial fossa, posteriorly to the ossicles and facial nerve, inferiorly to the parotid gland, anteriorly to the temporomandibular joint.
The eardrum is divided into two general regions: the pars tensa. The fragile pars flaccida lies above the lateral process of the malleus between the notch of Rivinus and the anterior and posterior malleal folds. Consisting of two layers and appearing pinkish in hue, it is associated with Eustachian tube dysfunction and cholesteatomas; the larger pars tensa consists of three layers: skin, fibrous tissue, mucosa. Its thick periphery forms a fibrocartilaginous ring called the annulus tympanicus or Gerlach's ligament. While the central umbo tents inward at the level of the tip of malleus; the middle fibrous layer, containing radial and parabolic fibers, encloses the handle of malleus. Though comparatively robust, the pars tensa is the region more associated with perforations; the manubrium of the malleus is attached to the medial surface of the membrane as far as its center, drawing it toward the tympanic cavity. The lateral surface of the membrane is thus concave; the most depressed aspect of this concavity is termed the umbo.
Sensory innervation of the external surface of the tympanic membrane is supplied by the auriculotemporal nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve, with contributions from the auricular branch of the vagus nerve, the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve. The inner surface of the tympanic membrane is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve; when the eardrum is illuminated during a medical examination, a cone of light radiates from the tip of the malleus to the periphery in the anteroinferior quadrant, this is what is known clinically as 5 o'clock. Unintentional perforation has been described in blast injuries and air travel in patients experiencing upper respiratory congestion that prevents equalization of pressure in the middle ear, it is known to occur in swimming and martial arts. Patients suffering from tympanic membrane rupture may experience bleeding, hearing loss, or disequilibrium. However, they require medical intervention, as between 80 and 95 percent of ruptures recover within two to four weeks.
The prognosis becomes more guarded as the force of injury increases. The pressure of fluid in an infected middle ear onto the eardrum may cause it to rupture; this consists of a small hole, which allows fluid to drain out. If this does not occur a myringotomy can be performed. A myringotomy is a surgical procedure in which a tiny incision is created in the eardrum to relieve pressure caused by excessive buildup of fluid, or to drain pus from the middle ear; the fluid or pus comes from a middle ear infection, a common problem in children. A tympanostomy tube is inserted into the eardrum to keep the middle ear aerated for a prolonged time and to prevent reaccumulation of fluid. Without the insertion of a tube, the incision heals spontaneously in two to three weeks. Depending on the type, the tube is either extruded in 6 to 12 months or removed during a minor procedure; those requiring myringotomy have an obstructed or dysfunctional eustachian tube, unable to perform drainage or ventilation in its usual fashion.
Before the invention of antibiotics, myringotomy without tube placement was used as a major treatment of severe acute otitis media. In some cases the pressure of fluid in an infected middle ear is great enough to cause the eardrum to rupture naturally; this consists of a small hole, from which fluid can drain. The Bajau people of the Pacific intentionally rupture their eardrums at an early age to facilitate diving and hunting at sea. Many older Bajau therefore have difficulties hearing. Middle ear Valsalva maneuver to equalize pressure across the eardrum This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1039 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Diagram at Georgia State University drtbalu's otolaryngology online
Edwina Findley known as Edwina Findley Dickerson, is an American actress. In 2014, Findley began starring as one of lead characters in the Oprah Winfrey Network drama series, If Loving You Is Wrong. Findley is known for her recurring roles in the HBO television dramas The Wire and Treme, for her performance in the 2012 independent film Middle of Nowhere. In 2016, she received an Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Female nomination for her performance in Free in Deed. Findley was born in Washington, D. C. and attended Duke Ellington School of the Arts as a musical theater major. She graduated from New York University's Tisch School of the Arts in New York, she began her acting career in theatre. In 2003, she made her television debut in the recurring role of HBO drama series The Wire, she guest-starred on Law & Order, Law & Order: Trial by Jury, New Amsterdam, had a recurring role in the ABC daytime soap opera, One Life to Live in 2005. In 2011, she appeared in the recurring role of ABC series, Brothers & Sisters.
In 2012, Findley married Kelvin Dickerson. She is a former roommate of actress Viola Davis. Findley had a recurring role of Davina Lambreaux in the HBO drama series, from 2010 to 2013, she co-starred opposite Emayatzy Corinealdi and Lorraine Toussaint in the 2012 independent film Middle of Nowhere written and directed by Ava DuVernay. She appeared in Sympathetic Details, Red Tails and Insidious: Chapter 2. In 2015, Findley played the lead in the independent film Free in Deed, Kevin Hart's character wife in Get Hard, a comedy film directed by Etan Cohen. In 2014, she was cast as one of leads in the Oprah Winfrey Network prime time soap opera, If Loving You Is Wrong alongside Zulay Henao, Heather Hemmens, April Parker Jones, Amanda Clayton. In 2016, she was cast in the Fox event series Shots Fired starring Sanaa Lathan and created by Gina Prince-Bythewood. In 2017, she was cast in AMC's Fear The CW's Black Lightning. Edwina Findley on IMDb Edwina Findley on Twitter
Arthur Lawrence Liman was a partner at the New York law firm Paul, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, was well known for his public service. Arthur Liman was born on November 5, 1932, in Far Rockaway and spent most of his childhood in Lawrence, Long Island. Liman's grandparent were settled in New York City. Liman's mother was valedictorian of her high school class, Phi Beta Kappa at Hunter College, taught Latin, his father graduated from City College of New York and taught history in public schools before joining his father's dressmaking business. Liman's older sister Gladys, a graduate of Smith College, was a poet. Liman attended Harvard University, where he studied political science and graduated in 1954. Liman wrote in his memoir that he decided to become a lawyer after observing a day of hearings by the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations, known colloquially as the "McCarthy Hearings." Liman decided to attend the hearings because he had chosen to write his senior thesis on "the threat that McCarthy-style congressional investigations posed to our concepts of civil liberties and limited government."
Liman recalled that "y the time the spectacle ended, I was shaken to the core."Liman pursued his law degree from Yale Law School, graduated in 1957. He wrote that, due to Yale's teaching of legal realism, it "was the ideal place for a young man wary of orthodoxy." Against the backdrop of the civil rights movement and Brown v. Board of Education, "Yale taught me, above all, that lawyers could make a difference in the type of society that we had." Upon graduation, Liman joined the New York City law firm of Paul, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, where he became a partner and where he worked for most of his career. Liman became a trial lawyer, "I never looked back." Liman's practice focused on corporate criminal defense. Clients included media conglomerate Time Warner. Throughout, Liman devoted large portions of his time to public service, he served as an Assistant United States attorney under Robert Morgenthau from 1961-1963. There, he focused on securities fraud and took on drug prosecutions in order to gain trial experience.
Liman's experience as a prosecutor—and his exposure to the mandatory minimum sentences faced by the defendants he prosecuted—later informed his support for criminal justice reform. In 1971, Liman became involved at the center of a national controversy regarding Attica Correctional Facility, a maximum security prison in Attica, New York. On September 9, 1971, a series of small scuffles between prisoners and staff escalated into large-scale violence, as a group of prisoners passed through a broken gate and took control of parts of the facility. Within several hours, 1,281 prisoners had gathered in the recreation yard, along with 42 staff members, held as hostages. A leadership group of about fifty prisoners emerged to state the prisoners' demands, which reflected long-standing disputes with the administration and focused on improving the quality of basic necessitates, increasing opportunities for rehabilitation, curtailing the use of segregation and other punitive measures. Negotiations—conducted through intermediaries chosen by the prisoners—broke down when the Governor Rockefeller refused to grant amnesty to all prisoners involved in the rebellion.
On September 13, Governor Rockefeller ordered in the State Police to take back the prison, 39 people – 29 prisoners and 9 hostages – were killed in the span of minutes. One more hostage died of gunshot wounds. At Governor Rockefeller's request, Liman was appointed to serve as chief counsel of the New York State Special Commission on the Attica Prison uprising. Liman led the investigation, "the main purpose of, to dispel the long-persisting doubts about what happened." He and his staff spent months speaking to all parties involved. Liman took special care to develop trust with the prisoners and described joining 500 prisoners for their supper on Christmas Day in 1971; the commission's final report was published as a paperback in 1972 and was nominated for a National Book Award. The report observed that "ave for the Wounded Knee massacre, the assault at Attica was the bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since the Civil War." It examined "state rules and procedures, prison politics, the changing nature of the inmate population, festering racism – a volatile mix," and recommended a broad set of reforms to prosecutorial and correctional practices because "Attica is every prison.
The report concluded "he only way to salvage meaning out of the otherwise senseless killings at Attica is to learn from this experience that our Atticas are failures. The crucial issues remain unresolved. Liman is well remembered for his role as chief counsel for the Senate's investigation of the Iran-Contra Affair, known as the United States Senate Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition; the Washington Post described incident as follows: The Iran-Contra scandal burst upon the scene in November 1986 when it was first reported in a Lebanese newspaper that President Ronald Reagan had approved the sale of missiles to Iran in exchange for American hostages in Lebanon. Justice Department lawyers found evidence that proceeds from the arms sales had been diverted to illegally fund the contra anticommunist guerrillas in Nicaragua in circumvention of the Boland Amendment banning U. S. aid to the rebels. It wa
Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branches. The name is used by a number of countries, including member-states of the Commonwealth of Nations and other countries, it is used by their sub-national divisions, such as the Indian states and union territories, Australian states and Canadian provinces. Legislative assemblies in modern-day Commonwealth countries, either as national or sub-national parliaments, are in most cases an evolution of one of the legislative chambers of the previous colonial parliaments, whether the full legislature or a lower house. In a number of jurisdictions, the name House of Assembly is used instead, it is one of the main names used in everyday speech for parliament in many countries. In India, the lower house or only house of each constituent state legislature is called the State Legislative Assembly, or Vidhan Sabha; the same name is used for the only house of the legislatures for three of the Union territories, Delhi and Kashmir and Puducherry.
The upper house in the six states with a bicameral legislature is called the State Legislative Council, or Vidhan Parishad. Members of the former are called MLAs, those of the latter MLCs; the lower houses of the parliaments of the Australian states of New South Wales and Western Australia are called the legislative assemblies. In contrast, the state of Queensland has abolished the former upper house of its parliament, leaving the legislative assembly as the sole chamber; the sole house of parliament in the Australian Capital Territory is the legislative assembly. In Canada, seven of the ten provinces and all three of the territories style their legislatures as legislative assembly. All are unicameral. In Malaysia, the unicameral parliaments of the 13 individual states are known as Dewan Undangan Negeri. In Quebec, the legislative assembly was renamed the National Assembly, as part of the abolition of the legislative council on December 31, 1968. In Mauritius, the unicameral Parliament was known as the legislative assembly until 1992, following the establishment of a republic, it was renamed the National Assembly.
Legislative Assembly is the name given to the national legislatures of the sovereign nations of Bolivia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Samoa and Tonga, the non-sovereign nations of Macao and Puerto Rico. The legislatures of the States of Brazil are called "legislative assembly"; the legislatures of the two autonomous regions of Portugal and Madeira, are called "legislative assembly" the Legislative Assembly of the Azores and the Legislative Assembly of Madeira. When Kyrgyzstan experimented with bicameralism between 1991 and 2007, the Upper House established was styled the Legislative Assembly, with the Lower House being the Assembly of People's Representatives. Council Legislative council House of Assembly
Greek frigate Elli is the lead ship of the Greek Elli class of frigates and the third Hellenic Navy ship by that name. The class is based on the Royal Netherlands Navy's Kortenaer class and was built in a Dutch shipyard; the Elli was built at the Koninklijke Maatschappij de Schelde in Vlissingen, along with the frigate Limnos as part of a commission for the two ships from the Greek government. Her maiden voyage was on October 1981 under her first captain, Grigoris Demestihas, she arrived in Greece on November 15 of that year. The Elli took part in the Persian Gulf War from 1990–91, enforcing the UN resolution on Iraq in the neighborhood of the Red Sea. Official Hellenic Navy page for Standard Class Frigates
ALCAN Systems GmbH is a telecommunications company based in Darmstadt, Germany. The company is focusing on developing a low-cost smart antenna system for cellular and satellite communication. ALCAN Systems plans to produce smart antennas which are flat and able to steer their beam electronically without any moving parts; this allows mounting them inconspicuously on moving vehicles to track different types of satellites as well as 5G cellular networks. ALCAN’s technology is based on liquid crystal based phased-arrays that are capable of operating in the millimeter and microwave band of the RF spectrum. ALCAN Systems’ technology is based on original research initiated at the Institute for Microwave Engineering and Photonics at Technische Universität Darmstadt. Prof. Rolf Jakoby, director of the IMP and co-founder of ALCAN Systems, started his research on liquid crystal in radio-frequency applications in 1999, he is considered the father of LC RF applications. Onur H. Karabey joined Jakoby’s research team as a research assistant and started to work on his PhD thesis in 2009.
Dr. Karabey finished his PhD research in 2012 and published his results under the name “Electronic Beam Steering and Polarization Agile Planar Antennas in Liquid Crystal Technology” in 2014. In 2014 ALCAN, which stands for “Adaptive Liquid Crystal Antenna”, started as a research project at TU Darmstadt. Seed funding of €650,000 for the project was provided by the EXIST funding program of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. In 2016 the project team became an independent company. ALCAN Systems GmbH was founded by A. Burak Olcen, Esat M. Sibay and Rolf Jakoby. At the end of 2016 ALCAN raised €7.5 million in a Series A funding round. The investment was made by a consortium consisting of Merck, SES and SPC. ALCAN’s beam steering capability is implemented using a liquid crystal layer inside a phased-array antenna; the liquid crystal is controlled by an electric field which changes the direction of the received or transmitted beam without the antenna physically turning at all, so that there are no moving parts.
The antennas will consist of separate receiving and transmitting apertures operating at Ku or Ka band. The switching time of the antenna between two satellites will be under 50ms, which enables the antenna to meet the requirements of MEO and LEO constellation satellites. In 2018 ALCAN field tested the world’s first liquid crystal based phased array antenna for satellite communication. In April 2018 ALCAN was announced as a technical partner of SES Networks. ALCAN will develop an antenna for SES’s new O3b mPower satellites. ALCAN’s focus is to develop antennas based on requirements provided by satellite operators and service providers. ALCAN is targeting long-term a price range of under $1.000 for the consumer segment and under $10.000 for the enterprise segment. These targets can be achieved by using existing LCD production lines to produce the required liquid crystal phase shifter panels that go into the antenna. Furthermore, ALCAN plans to produce smaller consumer antennas for land mobile and home broadband market that will develop due to the start of LEO/MEO satellites and 5G roll out