Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany was a peerage title, bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and the British royal family in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor. The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title was the first Dukedom created in Scotland, it passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch. The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483, his son John Stewart was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old; the fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death.
That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns; the title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown; the cities of New York and Albany, New York, were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; the title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings. The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria.
Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward, was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. His grandson, Ernst Leopold, only son of Charles Edward's eldest son Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, sometimes used the title "Duke of Albany", although the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 stipulates that any successor of a suspended peer shall be restored to the peerage only by direction of the sovereign, the successor's petition for restoration having been submitted for and obtained a satisfactory review of the appropriate Privy Council committee. Other titles: Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan, Earl of Atholl Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, third son of Robert IIOther titles: Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, eldest son of the 1st Duke was attainted and his honours forfeit in 1425 Other titles: Earl of March, Earl of Mar and Earl of Garioch Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482 forfeited them again in 1483Other titles: Earl of March John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515.
The honours became extinct upon his death without issue Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville's play Gorboduc includes Fergus, the Duke of Albany, who tries to claim the British throne after Gorboduc's death through his royal descent. William Shakespeare's King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, husband to Lear's daughter Goneril. In the movie Kate & Leopold, Leopold is the Duke of Albany meant to be the same person as the historic Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, who would have held the title at that time, as the fictitious character comments that his surname is Mountbatten. Duchess of Albany Duke of York Duke of York and Albany Alba Albany
Clan MacDuff or Clan Duff is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan does not have a chief and is therefore considered an Armigerous clan, registered with the Lyon Court; the early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the original Earls of Fife, although this title went to the Stewarts of Albany in the late fourteenth century. The title returned to the MacDuff chief when William Duff was made Earl Fife in 1759, his descendant Alexander Duff was made Duke of Fife in 1889. The Clan Duff claims descent from the original Royal Scoto-Pictish line of which Queen Gruoch of Scotland, wife of Macbeth, King of Scotland was the senior representative. After the death of MacBeth, Malcolm III of Scotland seized the Crown and his son, married the daughter of Queen Gruoch. Aedh was created abbot of Abernethy; the early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of Fife. Sir Iain Moncreiffe wrote. Today, the Earls of Wemyss are thought to be the descendants in the male line of Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife, thought to be one of the first Clan MacDuff chiefs.
Gille-michael MacDuff was one of the witnesses to the great charter of David I of Scotland to Dunfermline Abbey. In 1306 during the Wars of Scottish Independence, Duncan MacDuff, Earl of Fife was as a minor, held by Edward I of England at the coronation of Robert the Bruce as his ward while Duncan's sister, Isabella MacDuff, placed the golden circlet upon King Robert's head; as a result, when she fell into the hands of King Edward's army, she was imprisoned in a cage, suspended from the walls of Berwick Castle. Duncan MacDuff married Mary, the niece of King Edward, threw in his lot against the Bruce. However, he was captured and imprisoned in Kildrummy Castle where he died in 1336; the Earldom fell into the hands of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, although the MacDuff family lost their rank, they continued to prosper. In 1384, the earl of Fife was described as capitalis legis de Clenmcduffe, meaning chief of the law of Clan MacDuff. In 1404, David Duff received a charter from Robert III of Scotland for lands in Banffshire.
In 1626, John Duff sold the lands in Bannfshire which his ancestor had acquired in 1404. The title of The Fife returned with William Duff, 1st Earl Fife and Viscount Macduff in 1759; the 1st Earl of Fife's cousin, Captain Robert Duff of the Royal Navy supported the British-Hanoverian Government during the Jacobite rising of 1745 and was involved in the Skirmish of Arisaig. James Duff, 4th Earl of Fife fought with distinction in the Peninsular War where he was wounded at the Battle of Talavera in 1809 and was made a Knight of the Order of St Ferdinand of Spain. Alexander Duff, 6th Earl of Fife married Louise, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Edward VII. Alexander was advanced to the rank of Duke of Fife in July 1889. With the death of the 1st Duke of Fife, the Clan MacDuff had its last Chief; as of 2014, the representative that should succeed to its Headship is, according to thepeerage.com, James Richard Valentine Duff, born on 19 October 1941. Clan Macduff was the first Scottish clan to be recognized as a clan by the Scottish Parliament, by legislation dated November 1384.
The Earl of Fife and the Abbot of Abernethy were both "Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff". The law protected all murderers within ninth degree of kin to the Earl of Fife, as they could claim sanctuary at the Cross of MacDuff near Abernethy, could find remission by paying compensation to the victim's family; the chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of Scone. When the Stone of Scone was taken to England by Edward I of England, Robert I of Scotland had himself crowned King of Scots a second time, in order to be crowned by a member of clan MacDuff, in that case the Earl of Fife's sister. In 1425, the last Earl of Fife, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was beheaded; the Clan MacDuff's hereditary right of bearing the Crown of Scotland passed to the Lord Abernethy. The current Lord Abernethy, bearer of the Scottish Crown, is Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 16th Duke of Hamilton. Macduff's Castle in East Wemyss, Fife is now a ruinous castle, once held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife.
The property went to the Clan Wemyss who built the present castle. Airdit House in Leuchers, Fife was held by the MacDuffs but went to the Clan Stewart who held it in 1425 when Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was executed. Barnslee Castle near Markinch, Fife was held by the Clan MacDuff. One story is that an underground tunnel led from it to Maiden Castle, about three miles away. Castle Hill in North Berwick in East Lothian was held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife who had a ferry from North Berwick to Earlsferry in Fife. Cupar Castle in Cupar, was held by the Clan MacDuff. Falkland Palace in Falkland, there was a castle here, held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife although it was destroyed by the English in 1337, it was re-built in 1371 and passed to Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, also Earl of Fife. Fernie Castle in Cupar, Fife was once held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife. Maiden Castle near Methil, Fife was once held by the Clan MacDuff. One story is that an underground tunnel led from it to Barnslee Castle, about three miles away.
Earl Fife Earl of Fife Duke of Fife Clan MacDuff Society of America The Scottish Studies Foundation
Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles
Donald, Lord of the Isles, was the son and successor of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and chief of Clan Donald. The Lordship of the Isles was based in and around the Scottish west-coast island of Islay, but under Donald's father had come to include many of the other islands off the west coast of Scotland, as well as Morvern, Lochaber and Knapdale on the mainland. Donald was the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland and first cousin of King Robert III. While it is customary to portray the Lords of the Isles as divorced from the mainstream of Scottish political life, as representatives of a brand of lordship distinct from the rest of Scotland, this view obscures the fact that Donald was only one of many magnates who held large lordships with little interference from the crown in late 14th and early 15th century Scotland; the Douglas kindred of southern Scotland and the Albany Stewarts had similar roles as Donald. Donald spent some of his first years as Lord of the Isles suppressing a revolt by his brother John Mór.
John was Donald's younger brother, resented his meagre inheritance. Although he was recognised as heir-apparent, he only received patches of land in Islay; the rebellion started in 1387 and went on into the 1390s, John obtained the support of the MacLean kindred. However and the MacLeans were forced to submit to Donald, by 1395 John Mór had been forced into Ireland. There he entered the service of King Richard II of England and established a MacDonald lordship in Antrim. Suppression of the revolt enabled Donald to turn his attention eastwards. Most of the area to the north and east of the Lordship, Skye, Ross and Urquhart, was under the control of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, famously known as the "Wolf of Badenoch"; the Stewarts had been building up their power in the central Highlands and north of Scotland since the death of John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray in 1346. Alexander had acquired control of the lordship of Badenoch, the earldom of Buchan and the Justiciarship of Scotia, he had been appointed "Lieutenant of the North", giving him the flexibility to exercise total control over most of Scotland north of the mounth.
Alexander was at once the de facto ruler of northern Scotland as well as the means by which the crown itself exercised control. However, there had been complaints over the activities of his caterans. More Alexander's position had become threatening not only to the crown, but to the Euphemia I, Countess of Ross, her son Alexander and the titular Dunbar Earl of Moray. Late in 1388, soon after becoming Guardian of the Kingdom, Robert Stewart, Earl of Fife deprived Alexander of the Justiciarship; the assault of Alexander's position continued into the 1390s. Donald and his brother Alexander of Lochaber were in a perfect position to benefit. In 1394, the latter entered a 17-year agreement with the Earl of Moray, taking over Alexander Stewart's role as "protector" of the wealthy comital and episcopal lands in the Moray lowlands; the MacDonalds were in possession of Urquhart Castle by the end of 1395, had given control of the Duart Castle to Maclean of Duart. The Guardian soon turned his hostility against his family.
Alexander of Lochaber had been using his role as "protector" to further his own lordship, including granting episcopal lands to his military followers. In 1398, Robert Stewart was called upon to take action, but the well-prepared expedition in the end came to nothing. Lochaber continued his activities, in a raid of 1402 burned the burgh of Elgin along with the manses of the canons belonging to Elgin Cathedral. For this he was excommunicated by bishop of Moray. In the year Alexander visited Spynie to seek forgiveness and was thereafter absolved. Donald himself was causing still further concern when in the same year, following the death of Alexander Leslie, Earl of Ross, Donald pressed the claims of Mariota, Alexander Leslie's sister and Donald's wife, to the possession of Ross. Donald attempted to gain control of the earldom. Sometime after 1405 but before 1411, Donald gained control of Dingwall Castle, the chief seat of the earldom. In the year after the death of the nominal king, Robert III, Donald sent emissaries to England, to make contact with the heir of the Scottish throne, the captive James Stewart.
King Henry IV of England sent his own emissaries to Donald in the following year to negotiate an alliance against Albany. With control over the principal seat of the earldom of Ross and support of the exiled heir to the Scottish throne, in 1411 Donald felt strong enough to march against Albany's main northern ally, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar. At the Battle of Harlaw, Donald failed to inflict a decisive victory, withdrew back to the western highlands. In the aftermath, Albany was able to seize control of Easter Ross. In 1415, the heir of Alexander Leslie, Euphemia II, resigned the earldom to Albany. Donald prepared for war and proclaimed himself "Lord of Ross". Although Albany appointed his own son John Stewart to the earldom, Donald's wife continued to regard herself as the rightful Countess. Donald died in 1423 in Islay, he was succeeded by his son Alexander. He married Mary Countess of Ross, they had at least three children: Alexander Macdonald, 10th Earl of Ross who died on 7 May 1449 Angus Macdonald Anna Macdonald who married Duncan Maclagmayn Boardman, The Early Stewart Kings: Robert II and Robert III, 1371–1406, Michael, James I, McNeill, Peter G. B..
Fife Council is the local authority for the Fife area of Scotland and is the third largest Scottish council, with 75 elected council members. Councillors are elected every five years. At the 2012 election there were 78 councillors elected, but this was reduced to 75 by the time of the 2017 election, after a review by the Boundary commission for Scotland; the number of wards was reduced from 23 to 22. Councillors make decisions at its regular Council meetings, or those of its nine other general committees and three planning committees. Following the May 2017 council elections no party was in overall control, resulting in a Power Sharing Agreement being drawn up between the Scottish National Party and the Labour group to share control equally. David Alexander and David Ross were agreed as co-leaders of the council. A Provost of Fife is elected every five years, who chairs the full council meetings and acts in a ceremonial capacity on behalf of the council; the current Provost is former football manager Jim Leishman MBE, first elected in May 2012.
Following the May 2017 election, the council was composed of the following parties: The Conservatives made significant gains and, while the SNP lost its leader on the council, Neale Hanvey, it ended up as the largest party. The SNP and Labour agreed to govern with joint council leaders. Following the May 2012 election, the council was composed as follows: Labour ran a minority administration. Fife Council web site
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England. After his father died in 1420, while the future King James I of Scotland was himself held captive in England, Stewart served as Governor of Scotland until 1424, when James was ransomed and returned to Scotland. However, in 1425, soon after James's coronation, Stewart was arrested, found guilty of treason, executed, along with two of his sons, his only surviving heir was James the Fat, who escaped to Antrim, where he died in 1429. Stewart's wife Isabella of Lennox survived the destruction of her family, she lived to see the restoration of her title and estates. Stewart was born in 1362, the only son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and his wife Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith.
Duke Robert was a leading Scottish nobleman, Regent of Scotland at various stages during the reigns of three kings. In addition, Duke Robert held the titles of Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan and Earl of Atholl. In addition to exercising considerable power and wealth, the Albany Stewarts were potential heirs to the throne. Murdoch Stewart was raised in a large family, having eight sisters: Janet Stewart Mary Stewart Margaret Stewart Joan Stewart Beatrice Stewart Isabella Stewart Lady Marjorie Stewart Lady Elizabeth Stewart His mother Margaret died in 1380, his father Duke Robert married a second time, to Muriella de Keith, with whom he had four children, the elder of whom was John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan. In 1389, at around age 27, Murdoch was appointed Justiciar North of the Forth. Father and son would now work together to expand their family interest, bringing them into violent confrontation with other members of the nobility, such as Donald McDonald, 2nd Lord of the Isles.
Stewart served in Scottish military actions against the English in the early 15th century and was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill, which took place on 14 September 1402 in Northumberland, England. Led by Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, the Scottish army had invaded England bent on plunder, in part to avenge the killing and capture of Scottish nobles in the Battle of Nesbit Moor on 22 June 1402. While returning to Scotland, they were intercepted by English forces led by Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland; the result was a decisive defeat of the Scottish army. William Shakespeare wrote, in his play Henry IV, part 1: Ten thousand bold Scots and twenty knights, Balk’d in their own blood did Sir Walter see On Holmedon’s plains. Of prisoners, Hotspur tookMordake the Earl of Fife, eldest son To beaten Douglas. A gallant prize? ha, cousin, is it not? ---Shakespeare, Henry IV, part 1, act 1, scene 1. Murdoch Stewart was held as a prisoner in England for the next twelve years. Murdoch Stewart's captivity in England did not prevent his father from ruthlessly pursuing the family interest through violent means.
In 1402 the Duke of Albany's nephew, David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, died in Falkland Palace while under his uncle's protection. King Robert III of Scotland, fearful that his younger son Prince James, the heir to the throne of Scotland, would suffer the same fate, sent him out of the kingdom to escape Albany's clutches. In 1406 James boarded the Maryenknyght, a ship from Danzig, bound for France, but on 22 March 1406, the ship was taken by English pirates off Flamborough Head and James was delivered as a prisoner to King Henry IV of England. Soon afterwards, on 4 April 1406 King Robert III died. Prince James, now the heir to the throne of Scotland and just 12 years old, would endure 18 years of detention in England. In his absence the Albany Stewarts took the reins of power, Murdoch's father, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, became Governor of Scotland, king in all but name; the English price of returning James to Scotland was English overlordship of Scotland, something that few Scots were prepared to accept.
At this time Murdoch Stewart was still a prisoner in England, but in 1416 he was exchanged for Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, he returned to Scotland. The Albany Stewarts took James's lands under their own control, depriving the king of income and any of the regalia of his position. James was referred to in the official records as merely'the son of the late king'. In 1420, on his father's death, now aged 58 inherited the Dukedom of Albany, he inherited the Earldom of Fife and the Earldom of Menteith, at last became Governor of Scotland in his own right. He would hold this position from 1420 to 1424. Few serious attempts appear to ha
Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib, is still known as the Kingdom of Fife within Scotland. Fife is one of the six local authorities part of the South East Scotland city region, it is a lieutenancy area, was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents and maps compiled by English cartographers and authors. A person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a local government region divided into three districts: Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the district councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotland's third largest local authority area by population, it has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes.
The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife. It is well known for the University of St Andrews, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf. Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay and to the south by the Firth of Forth, is a natural peninsula whose political boundaries have changed little over the ages; the Pictish king list and De Situ Albanie documents of the Poppleton manuscript mention the division of the Pictish realm into seven sub-kingdoms or provinces, one being Fife, though this is now regarded as a medieval invention. The earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife; the notion of a kingdom may derive from a misinterpretation of an extract from Wyntoun. The name is recorded as Fib in A. D. 1150 and Fif in 1165. It was associated with Fothriff; the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig, near Newburgh, was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD.
Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, as the leaders of Scotland moved southwards away from their ancient strongholds around Scone. Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey; the Abbey replaced Iona as the final resting place of Scotland's royal elite, with Robert I amongst those to be buried there. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, was reserved the right of crowning the nation's monarchs, reflecting the prestige of the area. A new royal palace was constructed at Falkland the stronghold of Clan MacDuff, was used by successive monarchs of the House of Stuart, who favoured Fife for its rich hunting grounds. King James VI of Scotland described Fife as a "beggar's mantle fringed wi gowd", the golden fringe being the coast and its chain of little ports with their thriving fishing fleets and rich trading links with the Low Countries.
Wool, linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past; the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the thatched roofs. In 1598, King James VI employed a group of 12 men from Fife, who became known as the Fife adventurers, to colonise the Isle of Lewis in an attempt to begin the "civilisation" and de-gaelicisation of the region; this endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the native population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie, the clan chief of the Mackenzies. Fife became a centre of heavy industry in the 19th century. Coal had been mined in the area since at least the 12th century, but the number of pits increased ten-fold as demand for coal grew in the Victorian period. Rural villages such as Cowdenbeath swelled into towns as thousands moved to Fife to find work in its mines; the opening of the Forth and Tay rail bridges linked Fife with Dundee and Edinburgh and allowed the rapid transport of goods.
Modern ports were constructed at Methil and Rosyth. Kirkcaldy became the world centre for the production of linoleum. Postwar Fife saw the development of Glenrothes. To be based around a coal mine, the town attracted a high number of modern Silicon Glen companies to the region. Fife Council and Fife Constabulary centre their operations in Glenrothes. There are numerous notable historical buildings in Fife, some of which are managed by the National Trust for Scotland or Historic Scotland, they include Dunfermline Abbey, the palace in Culross, Ravenscraig Castle in Kirkcaldy, Dysart Harbour area, Balgonie Castle near Coaltown of Balgonie, Falkland Palace, Kellie Castle near Pittenweem, Hill of Tarvit, St. Andrews Castle, St. Andrews Cathedral and St. Rule's Tower. Fife is represented by five constituency members of the Scottish Parliament and four members of the United Kingdom parliament who are sent to Holyrood and the British Parliament respectively. Following the 2015 General Election, all four of the MPs constituencies were held by the Scottish National Party.
In the 2017 General Election Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath was regained by Labour. At the same election, the seat of North East Fife became the closest seat in the country with the SNP holding a majority of 2 over the Liberal Democrats Three of
Kenneth III of Scotland
Cináed mac Duib anglicised as Kenneth III, nicknamed An Donn, "the Chief" or "the Brown", was King of Scots from 997 to 1005. He was the son of Dub. Many of the Scots sources refer to him as Giric son of Kenneth son of Dub, taken to be an error. An alternate explanation is that Kenneth had a son, who ruled jointly with his father The primary sources concerning the life and "reign" of Giric include chronicle entries dating to the years 1251 and 1317, they can be found in The Chronicles of the Scots of William Forbes Skene. The chronicle of John of Fordun mentions Giric as "Grim" or "Gryme", reporting him killed by Malcolm II of Scotland. Charles Cawley, a modern genealogist, cautions about the late date of these sources. Giric is not mentioned by earlier sources. John Bannerman theorised that mac Duib, the Gaelic patronymic of Kenneth III, evolved to the surnames Duff and MacDuff, that Kenneth III could be a direct ancestor to Clan MacDuff, which produced all Mormaers and Earls of Fife from the 11th to the mid-14th century, noting that Giric could be the actual founder of the house, following a pattern of several Scottish clans founded by grandsons of their eponym.
The only event reported in Kenneth's reign is the killing of Dúngal mac Cináeda by Gille Coemgáin mac Cináeda, by the Annals of the Four Masters s.a. 999. It is not certain that this refers to events in Scotland, whether one or both were sons of this Kenneth, or of Kenneth II of Scotland, or some other person or persons, is not known. A "Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed" appears in the Annals of Ulster. An entry from the year 1035 reports that his unnamed granddaughter and her husband Cathal, son of Amalgaid, were both killed by Cellach, son of Dúnchad; this Cathal was king to the Western Laigin connected to the Kings of Leinster. The context is unclear but it is that this is the same Gille Coemgáin, connected to Kenneth III. Kenneth III was killed in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn by Malcolm II, which took place about 25 March 1005. Whether Boite mac Cináeda was a son of this Kenneth, or of Kenneth II, is uncertain, although most propose this Kenneth. A son, or grandson of Boite, was reported to be killed by Malcolm II in 1032 in the Annals of Ulster.
The relevant entry has been translated as: "The grandson of Baete son of Cinaed was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed."Kenneth's granddaughter, Gruoch daughter of Boite — William Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth — was wife firstly of Gille Coemgáin, Mormaer of Moray, secondly of King Macbeth. The meic Uilleim, descendants of William fitz Duncan by his first marriage, were descended from Kenneth; the theory that Clan MacDuff were descendants of Kenneth III was based on their close connection to royalty. Andrew of Wyntoun reported that Malcolm III of Scotland had granted to a "MacDuff, thane of Fife" the privilege of enthroning the kings of Scots at their inauguration. While John of Fordun has Malcolm III promise this same unnamed MacDuff that he will be the first man of the kingdom, second only to the king; this unnamed MacDuff appears in stories connected to the rise of Malcolm III to the throne, was immortalised in the Shakespearean character Macduff. The status of the successive heads of this clan as the "senior inaugural official" seems confirmed by records of the inauguration ceremonies of Alexander II and Alexander III.
While earlier heads of this house "witnessed royal documents far more more frequently" than other members of the nobility. Their names listed first among the lay witnesses, ahead of both the native Scottish nobility and the Anglo-Norman nobles. A number of 12th-century heads of house served as Justiciars of Scotia, their leaders were named Donnchadh, Mael-Coluim, Causantin, names shared by the royal family. Making a close relation to the reigning royal house likely. Bannerman suggests that the MacDuffs had their legitimate claim to the Scottish throne. A claim which they declined to pursue, compensated with privileges by Malcolm III and his descendants. During the 10th century, there were dynastic conflicts in Scotland between two rival lines of royalty. John of Fordun claims that Kenneth II of Scotland attempted to establish new succession rules, which would limit the right to the throne to his own descendants, excluding all other claimants. While Constantine III of Scotland did manage to rise to the throne, he was the last known descendant of Áed.
With his death, the rivalry between descendants of Causantin and Áed gave way to a rivalry between two new royal lines, both descended from Causantin. One line descended from Kenneth II and was represented by his son Malcolm II; the other line descended from his brother Dub, King of Scotland and was represented by Kenneth III. Neither Constantine III, nor Kenneth III were able to extend their control to Cumbria, which served as a stronghold and powerbase for Malcolm II, he was the legitimate heir according to the succession rules of Kenneth II. When Malcolm II managed to kill Kenneth III, it signified the triumph of his line, he continued to rule to 1034, enjoying a long reign and managed to lea