Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany was a peerage title that has occasionally been bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and the British royal family, particularly in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor. The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, Albany was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth, roughly the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title was the first Dukedom created in Scotland and it passed to Roberts son Murdoch Stewart, and was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch. The title was created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483. His son John Stewart, was restored to the creation in 1515. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany and that creation merged with the Scottish crown upon Jamess ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI.
Upon Charless ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns, the title was next granted in 1660 to Charles Is son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his brother to the throne in 1685. The cities of New York and Albany, New York were thus named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte, the title Duke of York and Albany was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings. The title of Albany alone was granted for the time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold. Prince Leopolds son, Prince Charles Edward, was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. Under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, the lineal male heir of the 1st Duke of Albany was allowed to petition the British Crown for the restoration of the peerages. Because subsequent descendants have married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, the last person eligible to do so was Friedrich Josias, Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who died in 1998.
So prior to 2013, the marriages of the descendants of the 2nd Duke were invalid in the UK. However the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 specified otherwise in section 3 and she was created a Lady of the Order of the Thistle by her father on 30 November 1784. Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackvilles Gorboduc includes Fergus, the Duke of Albany, william Shakespeares King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, who is husband to Lears daughter, Goneril
Clan MacDuff or Clan Duff is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan does not currently have a chief and is considered an Armigerous clan. The early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the original Earls of Fife, the title returned to the MacDuff chief when William Duff was made Earl Fife in 1759. His descendant Alexander Duff was made Duke of Fife in 1889, the Clan Duff claims descent from the original Royal Scoto-Pictish line of which Queen Gruoch of Scotland, wife of Macbeth, King of Scotland was the senior representative. After the death of MacBeth, Malcolm III of Scotland seized the Crown and his son, Aedh was created Earl of Fife and abbot of Abernethy. The early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of Fife, sir Iain Moncreiffe wrote that the Clan MacDuff was the premier clan among the Scottish Gaels. Today, the Earls of Wemyss are thought to be the descendants in the line of Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife. Gille-michael MacDuff was one of the witnesses to the charter of David I of Scotland to Dunfermline Abbey.
As a result, when she fell into the hands of King Edwards army, duncan MacDuff married Mary, the niece of King Edward, and threw in his lot against the Bruce. However, he was captured and imprisoned in Kildrummy Castle where he died in 1336, the Earldom fell into the hands of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, although the MacDuff family lost, their rank they continued to prosper. In 1384, the earl of Fife was described as capitalis legis de Clenmcduffe, in 1404, David Duff received a charter from Robert III of Scotland for lands in Banffshire. In 1626, John Duff sold the lands in Bannfshire which his ancestor had acquired in 1404, the title of The Fife returned with William Duff, 1st Earl Fife and Viscount Macduff in 1759. The 1st Earl of Fifes cousin, Captain Robert Duff of the Royal Navy supported the British-Hanoverian Government during the Jacobite rising of 1745 and was involved in the Skirmish of Arisaig. James Duff, 4th Earl of Fife fought with distinction in the Peninsular War where he was wounded at the Battle of Talavera in 1809 and was made a Knight of the Order of St Ferdinand of Spain.
Alexander Duff, 6th Earl of Fife married Louise, Princess Royal, Alexander was advanced to the rank of Duke of Fife in July 1889. With the death of the 1st Duke of Fife, the Clan MacDuff had its last Chief, as of 2014, the representative that should eventually succeed to its Headship is, according to thepeerage. com, James Richard Valentine Duff, born on 19 October 1941. Clan Macduff was the first Scottish clan to be recognized as a clan by the Scottish Parliament, the Earl of Fife and the Abbot of Abernethy were both Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff. The chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of Scone, in 1425, the last Earl of Fife, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was beheaded
Donald of Islay, Lord of the Isles
Donald, Lord of the Isles, was the son and successor of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and chief of Clan Donald. Donald was the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland and first cousin of King Robert III, he took pride in his royal blood, the Douglas kindred of southern Scotland and the Albany Stewarts had similar roles as Donald. Donald spent some of his first years as Lord of the Isles suppressing a revolt by his brother John Mór, John was Donalds younger brother, and resented his meagre inheritance. Although he was recognised as heir-apparent, he only received patches of land in Kintyre, the rebellion started in 1387 and went on into the 1390s, and John obtained the support of the MacLean kindred. However and the MacLeans were eventually forced to submit to Donald, there he entered the service of King Richard II of England and established a MacDonald lordship in Antrim. Suppression of the revolt enabled Donald to turn his attention northwards and eastwards. Most of the area to the north and east of the Lordship, the Stewarts had been building up their power in the central Highlands and north of Scotland since the death of John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray in 1346.
Alexander had acquired control of the lordship of Badenoch, the earldom of Buchan and he had been appointed Lieutenant of the North, giving him the flexibility to exercise total control over most of Scotland north of the mounth. Alexander was at once the de facto ruler of northern Scotland as well as the means by which the crown itself exercised control, there had been complaints over the activities of his caterans. More importantly, Alexanders position had become threatening not only to the crown, but to the Euphemia I, Countess of Ross, her son Alexander and the titular Dunbar Earl of Moray. Late in 1388, soon after becoming Guardian of the Kingdom, Robert Stewart, the assault of Alexanders position continued into the 1390s. Donald and his brother Alexander of Lochaber were in a position to benefit. In 1394, the latter entered a 17-year agreement with the Earl of Moray, the MacDonalds were in possession of Urquhart Castle by the end of 1395, and had given control of the Duart Castle to Maclean of Duart.
The Guardian soon turned his hostility against Donald and his family, Alexander of Lochaber had been using his role as protector to further his own lordship, including granting episcopal lands to his military followers. In 1398, Robert Stewart was called upon to take action, Lochaber continued his activities, and in a raid of 1402 burned the burgh of Elgin along with the manses of the canons belonging to Elgin Cathedral. For this he was excommunicated by William Spynie, bishop of Moray, in the year Alexander visited Spynie to seek forgiveness. Donald attempted to control of the earldom. Sometime after 1405 but before 1411, Donald gained control of Dingwall Castle, in the year after the death of the nominal king, Robert III, Donald sent emissaries England, to make contact with the heir of the Scottish throne, the captive James Stewart
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth, in 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England. However, in 1425, soon after Jamess coronation, Stewart was arrested, found guilty of treason and his only surviving heir was James the Fat, who escaped to Antrim, where he died in 1429. Stewarts wife Isabella of Lennox survived the destruction of her family, and she would live to see the murder of James I, Stewart was born in 1362, the only son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and his wife Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith. Duke Robert was a leading Scottish nobleman who was Regent of Scotland at various stages during the reigns of three kings, in addition, Duke Robert held the titles of Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan and Earl of Atholl.
In 1389, at around age 27, Murdoch was appointed Justiciar North of the Forth and son would now work together to expand their family interest, bringing them into violent confrontation with other members of the nobility such as Donald McDonald, 2nd Lord of the Isles. While returning to Scotland, they were intercepted by English forces led by Henry Percy, the result was a decisive defeat of the Scottish army. William Shakespeare wrote, in the play Henry IV, part 1, Ten thousand bold Scots and twenty knights, Balk’d in their own blood did Sir Walter see On Holmedon’s plains. Of prisoners, Hotspur tookMordake the Earl of Fife, and eldest son To beaten Douglas, and the Earl of Athol, Of Murray, Angus, ---Shakespeare, Henry IV, part 1, act 1, scene 1. Murdoch Stewart would be a prisoner in England for the twelve years. Murdoch Stewarts captivity in England did not prevent his father from pursuing the family interest. In 1402 The Duke of Albanys nephew, David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, died in Falkland Palace while under his uncles protection.
King Robert III of Scotland, fearful that his younger son Prince James, soon afterwards, on 4 April 1406 King Robert III died, leaving Scotland without a King. Prince James, now the heir to the throne of Scotland, in his absence the Albany Stewarts took the reins of power, and Murdochs father, Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, became Governor of Scotland, king in all but name. The English price of returning James to Scotland was English overlordship of Scotland, at this time Murdoch Stewart was still a prisoner in England, but in 1416 he was exchanged for Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, and he returned to Scotland. The Albany Stewarts took Jamess lands under their own control, depriving the king of income, James was referred to in the official records as merely the son of the late king. In 1420, on his fathers death, now aged 58 and he inherited the Earldom of Fife and the Earldom of Menteith, and at last became Governor of Scotland in his own right. He would hold this position from 1420 to 1424, while King James I was still captive in England
Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with boundaries to Perth and Kinross. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib. It is an area, and was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was very occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents, a person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a government region divided into three districts, Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotlands third largest local authority area by population and it has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes. The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife and it is well known for the University of St Andrews, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf.
Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay, the earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife. The notion of a kingdom may derive from a misintrepretation of an extract from Wyntoun, the name is recorded as Fib in A. D.1150 and Fif in 1165. It was often associated with Fothriff, the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig, near Newburgh, was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD. Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey. The Abbey replaced Iona as the resting place of Scotlands royal elite. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past, the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the previously thatched roofs.
This endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie. Fife became a centre of industry in the 19th century
Kenneth III of Scotland
Cináed mac Duib anglicised as Kenneth III, and nicknamed An Donn, the Chief or the Brown, was King of Scots from 997 to 1005. Many of the Scots sources refer to him as Giric son of Kenneth son of Dub and they can be found in The Chronicles of the Picts and Scots of William Forbes Skene. The chronicle of John of Fordun mentions Giric as Grim or Gryme, charles Cawley, a modern genealogist, cautions about the late date of these sources. And that Kenneth III could be an ancestor to Clan MacDuff. Noting that Giric could be the founder of the house. The only event reported in Kenneths reign is the killing of Dúngal mac Cináeda by Gille Coemgáin mac Cináeda, by the Annals of the Four Masters s. a. It is not certain that this refers to events in Scotland, a Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed appears in the Annals of Ulster. An entry from the year 1035 reports that his granddaughter and her husband Cathal. This Cathal was reportedly king to the Western Laigin, possibly connected to the Kings of Leinster, the context is unclear but it is likely that this is the same Gille Coemgáin, connected to Kenneth III.
Kenneth III was killed in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn by Malcolm II in 1005, whether Boite mac Cináeda was a son of this Kenneth, or of Kenneth II, is uncertain, although most propose this Kenneth. A son, or grandson of Boite, was reported to be killed by Malcolm II in 1032 in the Annals of Ulster, the relevant entry has been translated as, The grandson of Baete son of Cinaed was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed. The theory that Clan MacDuff were descendants of Kenneth III was based on their connection to royalty. Andrew of Wyntoun reported that Malcolm III of Scotland had granted to a MacDuff, while John of Fordun has Malcolm III promise this same unnamed MacDuff that he will be the first man of the kingdom, second only to the king. This unnamed MacDuff appears frequently in stories connected to the rise of Malcolm III to the throne, the status of the successive heads of this clan as the senior inaugural official seems confirmed by records of the inauguration ceremonies of Alexander II and Alexander III.
While earlier heads of this house witnessed royal documents far more frequently than other members of the nobility. Their names often listed first among the lay witnesses, ahead of both the native Scottish nobility and the Anglo-Norman nobles, a number of 12th-century heads of house served as Justiciars of Scotia. Their leaders were named Donnchadh, Mael-Coluim, and Causantin, names shared by the royal family, making a close relation to the reigning royal house likely. Bannerman suggests that the MacDuffs had their own, legitimate claim to the Scottish throne, a claim which they declined to pursue, compensated with privileges by Malcolm III and his descendants
Battle of Falkirk
The Battle of Falkirk, which took place on 22 July 1298, was one of the major battles in the First War of Scottish Independence. Led by King Edward I of England, the English army defeated the Scots, shortly after the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland. King Edward learned of the defeat of his army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. As a preliminary step he moved the centre of government to York, a council-of-war was held in the city in April to finalise the details of the invasion. The Scottish magnates were all summoned to attend, and when none appeared they were all declared to be traitors, Edward ordered his army to assemble at Roxburgh on 25 June. Edwards own supply fleet was delayed by bad weather, and when the army reached central Scotland it was tired and hungry. The Welsh infantry in particular were badly demoralised, while the army was encamped at Temple Liston, near Edinburgh, they erupted in a drunken riot that was broken up by the English cavalry, who killed 80 Welshmen.
Edward faced the prospect of the kind of retreat that became a regular feature of his sons campaigns in the succeeding reign. Edward was delighted, As God lives and they need not pursue me, for I will meet them this day. The Scots army, again made up chiefly of spearmen as at Stirling, was arranged in four great armoured hedgehogs known as schiltrons, the long spears pointed outwards at various heights gave these formations a formidable and impenetrable appearance. The gaps between the schiltrons were filled with archers and to the rear there was a troop of men-at-arms, provided by the Comyns. On Tuesday 22 July, the English cavalry, divided into four battalions, the left was commanded by the Earls of Norfolk and Lincoln. The right was under the command of Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, while the King commanded the centre, in a disorganised pell-mell the cavalry finally closed on the Scots, on the right and left. The party of men-at-arms under John Comyn left the field immediately, the Scots bowmen commanded by Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, the younger brother of the High Steward of Scotland, stood their ground and were quickly destroyed.
But the schiltrons held firm, with the knights making little impression on the dense forest of long spears, King Edward arrived in time to witness the discomfiture of his cavalry and quickly restored discipline. The knights were ordered to withdraw and Edward prepared to employ the tactics that the Earl of Warwick had used to defeat the Welsh spearmen at the Battle of Maes Moydog in 1295. The Scottish cavalry charged the English cavalry, but seeing the vast numbers that were formed against them they fled the field, Edwards longbowmen were brought into place and quickly overcame the inexperienced force of badly armed Scottish archers. The schiltrons were a target, they had no defence
Lord Macduff, the Thane of Fife, is a character in William Shakespeares Macbeth. Macduff plays a role in the play, he suspects Macbeth of regicide. He can be seen as the hero who helps save Scotland from Macbeths tyranny in the play. The character is first known from Chronica Gentis Scotorum and Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, Shakespeare drew mostly from Holinsheds Chronicles. Although characterized sporadically throughout the play, Macduff serves as a foil to Macbeth and these served as the basis for the account given in Holinsheds Chronicles, on whose narratives of King Duff and King Duncan Shakespeare in part based Macbeth. Macduff first appears in Holinsheds narrative of King Duncan after Macbeth has killed the monarch, when Macbeth calls upon his nobles to contribute to the construction of Dunsinane castle, Macduff avoids the summons, arousing Macbeths suspicions. Macduff leaves Scotland for England to prod Duncans son, Malcolm III of Scotland, Malcolm and the English forces march on Macbeth, and Macduff kills him.
Shakespeare follows Holinsheds account of Macduff closely, with his only deviations being Macduffs discovery of Duncans body in 2.3, the Clan MacDuff was the most powerful family in Fife in the medieval ages. The ruins of Macduffs Castle lie in East Wemyss cemetery, Macduff first speaks in the play in act 2, scene 3 to the drunken porter to report to his duty of awaking King Duncan when he is sleeping for the night at Macbeths castle. When he discovers the corpse of King Duncan, he raises an alarm, Macduff begins to suspect Macbeth of regicide when Macbeth says, O, yet I do repent me of my fury / That I did kill them. Interestingly, Macduff’s name does not appear in this scene, rather, in 2.4 Macbeth has left for Scone, the ancient royal city where Scottish kings were crowned. Macduff, meets with Ross and an Old Man and he reveals that he will not be attending the coronation of Macbeth and will instead return to his home in Fife. However, Macduff flees to England to join Malcolm, the slain King Duncan’s elder son, meanwhile, visits the Three Witches again after the spectre of Banquo appears at the royal banquet.
The Witches warn Macbeth to beware Macduff, beware the Thane of Fife, they inform him that, The power of man, for none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth. Macduff, who is still in England, learns of his family’s deaths through Ross and he joins Malcolm, and they return to Scotland with their English allies to face Macbeth at Dunsinane Castle. After Macbeth slays the young Siward, Macduff charges into the main castle, although Macbeth believes that he cannot be killed by any man born of a woman, he soon learns that Macduff was from his mother’s womb / Untimely ripped. The two fight, and Macduff slays Macbeth offstage, Macduff ultimately presents Macbeth’s head to Malcolm, hailing him as king and calling on the other thanes to declare their allegiance with him. As a supporting character, Macduff serves as a foil to Macbeth, the play positions the characters of Macduff and Macbeth as holy versus evil The contrast between Macduff and Macbeth is accentuated by their approaches to death
Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife
Princess Arthur of Connaught, 2nd Duchess of Fife, GCStJ was a granddaughter of King Edward VII and great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Alexandras father was Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, Princess Louise accordingly became the Duchess of Fife. Alexandra was born at East Sheen Lodge, Richmond on 17 May 1891, as a female-line granddaughter of the British monarch, Alexandra was not entitled to the title of Princess of the United Kingdom Great Britain and Ireland, nor to the style of Her Royal Highness. Instead she was styled Lady Alexandra Duff, as the daughter of a duke, on 5 November 1905, King Edward VII declared his eldest daughter Princess Royal. From that point, Her Highness Princess Alexandra held her title and rank, not from her ducal father, around 1910, Alexandra became secretly engaged to Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark, a son of King George I of the Hellenes. The engagement was terminated when their disapproving parents learned of the liaison, as Prince Christophers father was a younger brother of Princess Alexandras maternal grandmother, the hopeful couple were first cousins once-removed.
On 15 October 1913, Princess Alexandra married her cousin Prince Arthur of Connaught at the Chapel Royal, St. Jamess Palace, the brides attendants were, Princess Mary, daughter of King George V. Princess Mary of Teck and Princess Helena of Teck, daughters of Prince Adolphus, Princess May of Teck, daughter of Prince Alexander of Teck and Princess Alice of Albany. Prince Arthur of Connaught was the son of the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, third son of Queen Victoria and thus a younger brother of her maternal grandfather. As such and Alexandra were first cousins once removed, after their marriage, Alexandra was referred to as HRH Princess Arthur of Connaught, in accordance with the tradition that a wife normally shares the title and style of her husband. With her husband, Alexandra carried out engagements on behalf of her uncle, King George V. She served as a Counsellor of State between 1937 and 1944, during World War I, Princess Arthur of Connaught served as nurse at St. Marys Hospital in Paddington.
When Prince Arthur was appointed general of the Union of South Africa in 1920, she accompanied him to Pretoria. Upon the couples return to Britain, she continued to carry out royal duties and she died at her home near Primrose Hill, London, in 1959 and was buried at St Ninians Chapel, Braemar. The Royal Encyclopedia, ISBN 0-333-53810-2 Marlene A. Eilers, Queen Victorias Descendants, ISBN 91-630-5964-9 Alison Weir, Britains Royal Families, the Complete Genealogy, rev. ed. ISBN 0-7126-4286-2
Duke of Fife
The dukedom of Fife was the last dukedom in Britain created for a person who was not a son, grandson or consort of the Sovereign. Alexander Duff was the eldest son of the 5th Earl Fife, upon his fathers death on 7 August 1879, he succeeded as 6th Earl Fife in the Peerage of Ireland and 2nd Baron Skene in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. In 1885, Queen Victoria created him Earl of Fife in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, the couple were third cousins in descent from George III. The wedding marked the time a descendant of Queen Victoria married a British subject. Two days after the wedding, the Queen elevated Lord Fife to the dignity of Duke of Fife and Marquess of Macduff, in the County of Banff. In the first creation of the dukedom of Fife, Queen Victorias Letters Patent of 29 June 1889 contained the remainder to heirs male of his body. As such and Alexandra were first cousins once removed and their only son, died in 1943. When the 2nd Duchess of Fife died in 1959, her hereditary peerages passed to her nephew James Carnegie, eldest son of her sister Maud and her husband Charles Carnegie, 11th Earl of Southesk.
Thirty-three years later, in 1992, the 3rd Duke of Fife succeeded his father as 12th Earl of Southesk, upon his death in 2015, he was succeeded by his son, David, as fourth duke. The heir apparent of the titles is his son, Charles Carnegie, the familys current main residence is Elsick House near Stonehaven, The Mearns, within the watershed of the Burn of Elsick. The first two holders of the dukedom are buried in St Ninians Chapel, from 1790 until 1809 and from 1827 until its extinction in 1857, the title of Baron Fife was held by the Earl Fife. In 1735, the title of Baron Braco was created for the 1st Earl Fife, the titles of Marquess of Macduff, Earl Fife, Earl of Fife, Viscount Macduff, Baron Braco, and Baron Skene became extinct along with the first dukedom of Fife. The titles of Marquess of Macduff, Earl of Fife, and Baron Skene are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, whereas all the others are in the Peerage of Ireland. The subsidiary titles held by the present Duke are, Earl of Macduff, Earl of Southesk, Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird, Lord Carnegie, and Baron Balinhard.
The titles of Earl of Macduff and Baron Balinhard are in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, all subsidiary titles other than that of Earl of Macduff have been subsidiary titles of the Earls of Southesk. The dukes current seats are Elsick House and Kinnaird Castle, Mar Lodge, Braemar was bequeathed by Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife to her nephew Alexander Ramsay of Mar, and subsequently sold