Earl of Merioneth
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1. Duke of Edinburgh – Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, is a title that has been created four times for members of the British royal family since 1726. The current holder is the Prince Philip, consort to Queen Elizabeth II, the title was first created in the Peerage of Great Britain on 26 July 1726 by George I, who bestowed it on his grandson Prince Frederick, who also became Prince of Wales the following year. These titles were also in the Peerage of Great Britain, the marquessate was apparently erroneously gazetted as Marquess of the Isle of Wight although Marquess of the Isle of Ely was the intended title. In later editions of the London Gazette the Duke is referred to as the Marquess of the Isle of Ely, upon Fredericks death, the titles were inherited by his son Prince George. When Prince George became King George III in 1760, the merged into the Crown. On 19 November 1764, George III created a variation of the title for his brother, Prince William. This title was in the Peerage of Great Britain and the subsidiary title of the dukedom was Earl of Connaught, in the Kingdom of Ireland. In 1805, the titles were inherited by Williams only son, another William, Queen Victoria re-created the title on 24 May 1866 for her second son Prince Alfred, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster, when Alfred became the sovereign of the two German duchies Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in 1893, he retained his British titles. His only son Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha committed suicide in 1899, the title was created for a fourth time on 19 November 1947 by King George VI, who bestowed it on his son-in-law Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, when he married Princess Elizabeth. Subsequently, Elizabeth was styled HRH Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh until she became Queen in 1952, the subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, of Greenwich in the County of London. Like the dukedom, these titles were also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, earlier that year, Philip had renounced his Greek and Danish royal titles along with his rights to the Greek throne. In 1957, Philip became a Prince of the United Kingdom and this is unlikely to happen by direct inheritance, as Prince Edward is the youngest of Prince Philips three sonsDuke of Edinburgh – The Prince Frederick Louis (1707–1751) was the very first Duke of Edinburgh, from 1727 to his death.
2. Prince Philip – Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II. A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Philip was born into the Greek and he was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, he joined the Royal Navy in 1939, from July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets, after the war, Philip was granted permission by King George VI to marry Elizabeth. After an engagement of five months, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947, just before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active service when Elizabeth became Queen in 1952. He was formally made a Prince of the United Kingdom in 1957, Philip has four children with Elizabeth, Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward. He has eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren, a keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving. He is a patron of over 800 organisations and serves as chairman of the Duke of Edinburghs Award scheme for people aged 14 to 24 and he is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest-ever male member of the British royal family. Philips four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora, Cecilie, and he was baptised into the Greek Orthodox Church. His godparents were Queen Olga of Greece and the Mayor of Corfu, shortly after Philips birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, who, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten during the First World War. After visiting London for the memorial, Philip and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War, the war went badly for Greece and the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philips uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate, the commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, and five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrews life was believed to be in danger, and Alice was under surveillance, in December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life. The British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrews family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philips family went to France, where settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece. Because Philip left Greece as a baby, he not have a strong grasp of GreekPrince Philip – Prince Philip in March 2015
3. Merionethshire – Merionethshire or Merioneth is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, a vice county and a former administrative county. The spelling of the Welsh name in modern orthography is Meirionnydd or Sir Feirionnydd, with a double <nn>. Merionethshire is a county, bounded to the north by Caernarfonshire, to the east by Denbighshire, to the south by Montgomeryshire and Cardiganshire. With a total area of 1,731 km², it is one of the sparsely populated counties in Great Britain. The Merioneth area remains one of the strongest Welsh-speaking parts of Wales, the coastline consists alternately of cliffs and stretches of sand and the area generally is the most mountainous in Wales, a large part of the Snowdonia National Park lies within it. The greatest heights are Aran Fawddwy 905 m and Cadair Idris 893 m, the chief rivers are the Dwyryd, the Mawddach and the Dyfi. Waterfalls and small lakes are numerous, the largest being Bala Lake, an administrative county of Merioneth was created under the Local Government Act 1888 on 1 April 1889. The first election to the new authority was held in January 1889, the county was abolished under the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974. The bulk formed the Meirionnydd district of Gwynedd, with an area in the north east, Edeirnion Rural District. The latter area was, however, renamed Gwynedd almost immediately, the main towns are Dolgellau Aberdyfi Bala Barmouth Blaenau Ffestiniog Corwen Ffestiniog Harlech Tywyn The main industries today are agriculture, forestry and tourismMerionethshire – Flag of Merionethshire
4. Wales – Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon. The country lies within the temperate zone and has a changeable. Welsh national identity emerged among the Celtic Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudds death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of Englands conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542, distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism, Welsh national feeling grew over the century, Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, two-thirds of the population live in south Wales, mainly in and around Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and in the nearby valleys. Now that the countrys traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales economy depends on the sector, light and service industries. Wales 2010 gross value added was £45.5 billion, over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west. From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the land of song, Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Celtic Britons in particular, the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. The use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, in particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage, culture, and language to the Welsh. The word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century and it is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of names, Cambrian, Cambric and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales, WelshWales – Bryn Celli Ddu, a late Neolithic chambered tomb on Anglesey
5. Watsonian vice-counties – A vice-county is a geographical division of the British Isles used for the purposes of biological recording and other scientific data-gathering. In 1901 Robert Lloyd Praeger introduced a system for Ireland. Vice-counties are the geographical area for county based recording. This allows data collected over long periods of time to be compared easily, the vice-counties remain unchanged by subsequent local government reorganisations, allowing historical and modern data to be more accurately compared. The resulting datafiles were much more detailed than anything available to recorders up to that point. Intended for use with modern GIS and biological recording software, a standard version was released in 2008. Up until that point, county recorders only had access to a set of two fold-out vice-county maps covering the entirety of Great Britain, published in 1969. The vice-county system was first introduced by Hewett Cottrell Watson in the volume of his Cybele Britannica published in 1852. He refined the system in later volumes, the geographical area that Watson called Britain consisted of the island of Great Britain with all of its offshore islands, plus the Isle of Man, but excluding the Channel Islands. This area was divided into 112 vice-counties with larger counties divided, for example, Devon into the vice-counties of North Devon and South Devon, each of these 112 vice-counties has a name and a number. Thus Vice-county 38, often abbreviated to VC38, is called Warwickshire, in 1901, Robert Lloyd Praeger extended the system of vice-counties to Ireland and its off-shore islands, based on an earlier suggestion by C. C. The Irish vice-counties were based on the historic 32 counties of Ireland, with the six largest being sub-divided, for example and this produced a total of 40 vice-counties for Ireland, which were numbered from H1 to H40. As with the 112 vice-counties of Britain, each vice-county has a name as well as a number, thus Vice-county H3 is West Cork. Combining these two systems produces a 152 vice-county system, the exclusion of the Channel Islands from Watsons system for Britain has led to variations between different recording schemes. The geographical area covered by the 152 vice-counties may be described as the British Isles, other recording schemes regard the British Isles as including the Channel Islands. As they are not part of the 152 vice-county system, the Channel Islands may be added as an extra vice-county, making 153 in total, less usually, each of the five separate islands may be treated as a vice-county, giving 157 vice-counties in total. Alternative counts of vice-counties used in different recording schemes are shown in the table below, in all cases, the Channel Islands may be excluded, or included, so that the count of vice-counties varies, as noted in the table aboveWatsonian vice-counties – Vice-counties of Great Britain and the Isle of Man (Orkney and Shetland not shown)
6. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II. A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Philip was born into the Greek and he was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, he joined the Royal Navy in 1939, from July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets, after the war, Philip was granted permission by King George VI to marry Elizabeth. After an engagement of five months, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947, just before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active service when Elizabeth became Queen in 1952. He was formally made a Prince of the United Kingdom in 1957, Philip has four children with Elizabeth, Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward. He has eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren, a keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving. He is a patron of over 800 organisations and serves as chairman of the Duke of Edinburghs Award scheme for people aged 14 to 24 and he is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest-ever male member of the British royal family. Philips four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora, Cecilie, and he was baptised into the Greek Orthodox Church. His godparents were Queen Olga of Greece and the Mayor of Corfu, shortly after Philips birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, then known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, who, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten during the First World War. After visiting London for the memorial, Philip and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War, the war went badly for Greece and the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philips uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate, the commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, and five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrews life was believed to be in danger, and Alice was under surveillance, in December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life. The British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrews family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philips family went to France, where settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece. Because Philip left Greece as a baby, he not have a strong grasp of GreekPrince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh – Prince Philip in March 2015
7. Battenberg family – The Battenberg family was formally a morganatic branch of the House of Hesse-Darmstadt, rulers of the Grand Duchy of Hesse in Germany. The name Battenberg was last used by her youngest son, Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg, the name Battenberg refers to the town Battenberg, Hesse. For this reason, her brother-in-law Grand Duke Louis III created the title of Countess of Battenberg for her, in 1858, the title, which referred to the town of Battenberg, Hesse, was elevated to princely status. There was never a corresponding Principality of Battenberg, the title was a one in the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. The children of this bore the title of Prince or Princess. Battenberg thus became the name of a cadet branch of the Grand Ducal family of Hesse. Another son, Prince Henry of Battenberg, married Princess Beatrice and her uncle Edward VII elevated her style to Royal Highness, so that she would have the necessary status to marry into the Spanish royal house. Alexander and Julias eldest son, Prince Louis of Battenberg, became the First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy. Due to anti-German feelings prevalent in Britain during World War I, he anglicised his name to Mountbatten, as did his children and nephews, the sons of Prince Henry and Princess Beatrice. The name Battenberg, in its form, is now a part of the personal surname, Mountbatten-Windsor. Prince Francis Joseph of Battenberg married Princess Anna of Montenegro, sister of Queen Elena of Italy, besides those depicted above, Tribute & Memorial web-site to Louis, 1st Earl Mountbatten of BurmaBattenberg family – Arms of the House of Battenberg
8. Mountbatten-Windsor – Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal surname used by the male-line descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Under a declaration made in Privy Council in 1960, the name Mountbatten-Windsor applies to male-line descendants of the Queen without royal styles and titles. Individuals with royal styles do not usually use a surname, the British monarchy now asserts that the name Mountbatten-Windsor is used by members of the Royal Family who do not have a surname, when a surname is required. For example, Prince Andrew, Duke of York and Princess Anne, Princess Royal, children of the Queen, likewise, the Duke of Cambridge used the name when filing a French lawsuit related to the topless pictures of his wife published by the French magazine Closer. On the marriage of the Earl and Countess of Wessex in 1999, the Queen decided, with their agreement, consequently, the birth of their daughter in 2003 marked the first emergence of the Mountbatten-Windsor surname. Their daughter was named Louise Alice Elizabeth Mary Mountbatten-Windsor, though goes by Lady Louise Windsor, Mountbatten-Windsor differs from the official name of the British royal family or Royal House, which remains Windsor. The adoption of the Mountbatten-Windsor surname applies only to members of the British royal family who are descended from the Queen through the male line, House of Battenberg/Mountbatten – Prince Philips maternal family house House of Glücksburg – Prince Philips paternal family house House of Wettin 1960 DeclarationMountbatten-Windsor – A Good riddance The King has done a popular act in abolishing the German titles held by members of His Majesty's family. Cartoon from Punch magazine Vol. 152, June 27, 1917, noting the UK Royal Family's change of name to Windsor
9. Elizabeth II – Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, however, support for the monarchy remains high. Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Elizabeth, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved. During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, later that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a later son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of successionElizabeth II – The Queen in March 2015
10. Charles, Prince of Wales – Charles, Prince of Wales is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Known alternatively in South West England as Duke of Cornwall and in Scotland as Duke of Rothesay, he is the heir apparent in British history. He is also the oldest person to be next in line to the throne since Sophia of Hanover, Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons, Prince William later to become Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Harry, in 1996, the couple divorced, following well-publicised extramarital affairs. Diana died in a car crash in Paris the following year, in 2005, Charles married Camilla Parker Bowles. Charles has sought to raise awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment. As an environmentalist, he has received awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and he has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings. Subsequently, Charles created Poundbury, a new town based on his theories. He has authored a number of books, including A Vision of Britain, A Personal View of Architecture in 1989 and he was baptised in the palaces Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mothers accession as Queen Elizabeth II made him her heir apparent. As the monarchs eldest son, he took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince. Charles attended his mothers coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother, as was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, Charles then attended two of his fathers former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, England, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland. He reportedly despised the school, which he described as Colditz in kilts. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy and he left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C, respectively. Tradition was broken again when Charles proceeded straight from school into universityCharles, Prince of Wales – The Prince of Wales in Jersey, July 2012
11. Anne, Princess Royal – Anne, Princess Royal, KG KT GCVO GCStJ QSO GCL CD is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession, behind her mother – then Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother and she rose to second after her mothers accession, but is currently 12th in line. Anne is known for her work, and is patron of over 200 organisations. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder, Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they divorced in 1992. They have two children and three grandchildren, in 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mothers equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11,50 am, as the child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh. She was the grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, after the death of George VI, Annes mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation, the Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963, in 1968 she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating, in 1970 her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who later became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Following the wedding, Anne and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park and he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. By 1989, however, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, the couple divorced on 23 April 1992. The Queen had offered Phillips an earldom on his wedding day, the couple had two children, Peter Phillips and Zara Phillips. As female-line descendants of royalty, the children have no title despite being the grandchildren of a monarch, Anne became a grandmother on 29 December 2010 when Peter and his wife Autumn had a daughter, Savannah. On 29 March 2012, the couple had daughter, Isla. Annes third granddaughter, Mia Grace, was born on 17 January 2014 to Zara and her husband Mike Tindall. As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, the driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistolAnne, Princess Royal – The Princess Royal at Chatham House, October 2015
12. Prince Andrew, Duke of York – Prince Andrew, Duke of York, KG, GCVO, CD, ADC, is the second son and third child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to succeed his mother, as of 2017 he is sixth in line. He holds the rank of commander and the rank of vice admiral in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active duty helicopter pilot and instructor. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, in 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson, the couples marriage, subsequent separation and eventual divorce in 1996 attracted a high level of media coverage. As well as carrying out official engagements, he served as Britains Special Representative for International Trade. Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960 and he was baptised in the Palaces Music Room on 8 April 1960 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher. He is the namesake of his grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark. Prince Andrew was the first child born to a monarch since the birth in 1857 of Queen Victorias youngest child. As with his siblings, Andrew was looked after by a governess. He was sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire, in September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had attended before him. While there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—participating in a programme to Lakefield College School in Canada. He left Gordonstoun in July two years later with A-Levels in English, history, economics, and political science and he did not go to university but instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. The Royal Household announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year, on 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, and entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During 1980 he also took the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course, after being awarded his wings, he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, and conducted operational flying training until 1982. He joined carrier-based squadron,820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, the Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory claimed by Argentina, were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War. Invincible was one of the two aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands. The Queen, though, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship and he witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor. At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, the Argentine military government reportedly planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982Prince Andrew, Duke of York – The Duke of York, 2014
13. Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex – Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, KG, GCVO, CD, ADC is the youngest of four children and the third son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was third in line to succeed his mother, as of 2017, he is ninth in line. Prince Edward was born on 10 March 1964, at Buckingham Palace, as the son and fourth and youngest child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip. He was baptised on 2 May 1964 in the chapel at Windsor Castle by the then-Dean of Windsor. As with his siblings, a governess was appointed to look after Edward and was responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace. At the age of seven, Edward was then sent to Gibbs School before attending, in September 1972, Heatherdown School, near Ascot in Berkshire. He then, as his father and elder brothers had done him, moved to Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland. Upon his return to Britain, Edward matriculated at Jesus College, Cambridge and his admission to Cambridge caused some controversy at the time, since his A-level grades were far below the standard normally required, straight As, for Oxbridge entrance. Edward graduated in 1986 as BA and proceeded Master of Arts in 1991, Prince Edward made two very public attempts to pursue a career. However, in January 1987 he dropped out of the commando course after completing just one third of the 12-month training. Media reported, at the time, that the move prompted a berating from Prince Philip who reduced his son to prolonged tears, after leaving the Marines, Edward opted for a career in entertainment. His duties reportedly involved making tea for the artistic staff, while there he met actress Ruthie Henshall, whom he dated for three years. The media attacked the programme, it was reported that the Queen was not in favour of the event. In 1993, Edward formed the production company Ardent Productions. Commercial breaks are filled with army recruiting advertisements, ardents productions were somewhat better received in the United States and a documentary Edward made about his great-uncle, Edward VIII in 1996, sold well worldwide. Nonetheless, the reported losses every year it operated save one when Edward did not draw a salary. The Prince of Wales was reportedly angered by the incident, Ardent Productions was voluntarily dissolved in June 2009, with assets reduced to just £40. Edwards original backers in the venture are said to have lost every penny, Edward met Sophie Rhys-Jones, then a public relations executive with her own firm, in 1994Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex – The Earl in Belfast, February 2015
14. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark – Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, was the seventh child and fourth son of King George I of Greece and Olga Constantinovna of Russia. He was a grandson of Christian IX of Denmark and father of Prince Philip and he began military training at an early age, and was commissioned as an officer in the Greek army. His command positions were substantive appointments rather than honorary, and he saw service in the Balkan Wars, in 1913, his father was assassinated and Andrews elder brother, Constantine, became king. Dissatisfaction with his brothers neutrality policy during World War I led to his brothers abdication and most of the royal family, including Andrew, was exiled. On their return a few later, Andrew saw service in the Greco-Turkish War, but the war went badly for Greece. He was exiled for a time in 1922, and spent most of the rest of his life in France. By 1930, he was estranged from his wife, Princess Alice of Battenberg and his only son, Prince Philip, served in the British navy during World War II, while all four of his daughters were married to Germans, three of whom had Nazi connections. Separated from his wife and son by the effects of the war and he had seen neither of them since 1939. Prince Andrew was born at the Old Royal Palace in Athens on February 2,1882 and he was taught English by his caretakers as he grew up, but in conversations with his parents he refused to speak anything but Greek. He also spoke German, Danish, Russian, and French and he attended cadet school and staff college at Athens, and was given additional private tuition in military subjects by Panagiotis Danglis. Despite his short-sightedness, Andrew joined the army as a officer in May 1901. In 1902, Prince Andrew met Princess Alice of Battenberg at the coronation of her grand-uncle and his aunts husband, King Edward VII, Princess Alice was a daughter of Prince Louis of Battenberg and Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. They fell in love, and the year, on 6 October 1903. The following day two religious wedding services were performed, one Lutheran in the Evangelical Castle Church, and another Greek Orthodox in the Russian Chapel on the Mathildenhöhe, Prince and Princess Andrew had five children, all of whom later had children of their own. In 1909, the situation in Greece led to a coup détat, as the Athens government refused to support the Cretan parliament. A group of dissatisfied officers formed a Greek nationalist Military League that eventually led to Prince Andrews resignation from the army and the rise to power of Eleftherios Venizelos. A few years later, at the outbreak of the Balkan Wars in 1912, Andrew was reinstated in the army as a lieutenant colonel in the 3rd Cavalry Regiment, and placed in command of a field hospital. During the war, his father was assassinated and Andrew inherited a villa on the island of Corfu, in 1914, Andrew held honorary military posts in both the German and Russian empires, as well as Prussian, Russian, Danish and Italian knighthoodsPrince Andrew of Greece and Denmark – Portrait by Philip de László, 1913
15. Princess Alice of Battenberg – Princess Alice of Battenberg, later Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark, was the mother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and mother-in-law of Queen Elizabeth II. A great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria, she grew up in Germany, England, after marrying Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark in 1903, she lived in Greece until the exile of most of the Greek royal family in 1917. In 1930, she was diagnosed with schizophrenia and committed to a sanatorium in Switzerland, thereafter, after her recovery, she devoted most of her remaining years to charity work in Greece. She stayed in Athens during the Second World War, sheltering Jewish refugees, for which she is recognized as Righteous Among the Nations by Israels Holocaust memorial institution, Yad Vashem. After the war, she stayed in Greece and founded an Orthodox nursing order of nuns known as the Christian Sisterhood of Martha and her remains were transferred to the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem in 1988. Alice was born in the Tapestry Room at Windsor Castle in Berkshire in the presence of her great-grandmother and she was the eldest child of Prince Louis of Battenberg and his wife Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine. Her mother was the eldest daughter of Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and her father was the eldest son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine through his morganatic marriage to Julia von Hauke, Princess of Battenberg. Her three younger siblings, Louise, George, and Louis, later became Queen of Sweden, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven and she was christened Victoria Alice Elizabeth Julia Marie in Darmstadt on 25 April 1885. Alice spent her childhood between Darmstadt, London, Jugenheim, and Malta and her mother noticed that she was slow in learning to talk, and became concerned by her indistinct pronunciation. Eventually, she was diagnosed with congenital deafness after her grandmother identified the problem, with encouragement from her mother, Alice learned to both lip-read and speak in English and German. Educated privately, she studied French, and later, after her engagement and her early years were spent in the company of her royal relatives, and she was a bridesmaid at the marriage of George, Duke of York and Mary of Teck in 1893. A few weeks before her birthday she attended the funeral of Queen Victoria in St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle. Princess Alice met and fell in love with Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and they married in a civil ceremony on 6 October 1903 at Darmstadt. The following day, there were two religious marriage ceremonies, one Lutheran in the Evangelical Castle Church, and one Greek Orthodox in the Russian Chapel on the Mathildenhöhe and she adopted the style of her husband, becoming Princess Andrew. All of Prince and Princess Andrews children later had children of their own, after their marriage, Prince Andrew continued his career in the military and Princess Andrew became involved in charity work. In 1908, she visited Russia for the wedding of Grand Duchess Marie of Russia, while there, she talked with her aunt, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna, who was formulating plans for the foundation of a religious order of nurses. Princess Andrew attended the laying of the stone for her aunts new church. Later in the year, the Grand Duchess began giving away all her possessions in preparation for a spiritual lifePrincess Alice of Battenberg – Princess Alice of Battenberg
16. Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark – Princess Margarita of Greece and Denmark was the eldest child and daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. She was the first great-great-grandchild of Queen Victoria, and the eldest sister of Prince Philip, Princess Margarita was born on 18 April 1905 at the Royal Palace in Athens. She was the sister of Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark and she also had three sisters, Theodora, Margravine of Baden, Cecilie, Hereditary Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine, and Sophie, later Princess George of Hanover. Margarita married Prince Gottfried of Hohenlohe-Langenburg on 20 April 1931 in Langenburg, in descent from Queen Victoria, Prince Gottfried was a second cousin once removed of Princess Margarita and in descent from Nicholas I, they were third cousins. Gottfried succeeded his father as Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg on 11 December 1950 and they have two daughters, Princess Katharina Clementine Beatrix of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Prince Nikolaus of Waldeck and Pyrmont on 29 September 2002. They have two daughters, Princess Laetitia of Waldeck and Pyrmont Princess Alexia of Waldeck and Pyrmont Princess Tatiana Luise of Hohenlohe-Langenburg married Hubertus Stephan on 10 September 2010. They have one son, Prince Ludwig of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Their four elder children were all born at Schwäbisch Hall, Princess Margarita died on 24 April 1981 in Langenburg, Germany. She survived her husband by 21 yearsPrincess Margarita of Greece and Denmark – Princess Margarita with her mother Princess Alice and sister Princess Theodora, ca. 1912.
17. Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark – Princess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark was the wife of Hereditary Grand Duke Georg Donatus of Hesse and third eldest sister to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Cecilie was the child and daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark. She was born on 22 June 1911 at the estate of the Greek Royal Family at Tatoi. Although her given name was Cecilie, she was known to her family as Cécile, Cecilie was baptised at Tatoi on 2 July 1911. Her godparents were King George V of the United Kingdom, Grand Duke Ernst Louis of Hesse, Prince Nicholas of Greece, through her father Cecilie was a grandchild of King George I of Greece and his wife Grand Duchess Olga Konstantinova of Russia. Through her mother she was a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. Cecilie had three sisters, Margarita, Theodora and Sophie and her brother Philip, later Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II. In 1922 Cecilie and her sisters were bridesmaids at the wedding of their maternal uncle Lord Louis Mountbatten to Edwina Ashley, on 2 February 1931 at Darmstadt, Cecilie married her maternal first cousin once-removed Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine. They had four children, On 1 May 1937 Cecilie and her husband joined the Nazi Party. In October 1937, Cecilies father-in-law Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig of Hesse died, a few weeks after the funeral, her brother-in-law Prince Ludwig was due to be married to the Hon. Margaret Campbell-Geddes in London. On 16 November 1937, Georg Donatus, Cecilie, their two sons and Georgs mother Grand Duchess Eleonore left Darmstadt for London, where they planned to attend the wedding. The aircraft in which they were travelling struck a chimney in bad weather near Ostend, Belgium. Cecilie was eight months pregnant with her child at the time of the crash. Cecilie was buried with her husband, two sons and the child in Darmstadt at the Rosenhöhe, the traditional burial place of the Hesse family. Cecilies daughter Johanna was adopted by Prince Ludwig and Princess Margaret, however, Johanna died two years later from meningitis and is buried with her parents and siblings. Cecilie was the first of Prince Andrew and Princess Alices children to die. The crash figures in the plot of A Matter of Honour by Jeffrey Archer, where Grand Duke Georg has in his possession the jewels of his aunt, the last Tsaritsa of Russia, there is no evidence in reality that this was the casePrincess Cecilie of Greece and Denmark – Princess Cecilie
18. Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark – Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark was the fourth child and youngest daughter of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. The Duke of Edinburgh is her younger brother, Sophie was born at Villa Mon Repos on the island of Corfu in Greece. Sophies father was the son of King George I of the Hellenes. Through King George, she was a great-granddaughter of King Christian IX of Denmark, through Queen Olga, she was a great-great-granddaughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. Sophie was also a great-great-granddaughter of Queen-Empress Victoria, through descent from Victorias second daughter, Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse, Sophie was the closest sister in age of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the consort of Elizabeth II. Her three sisters were Margarita, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Theodora, Margravine of Baden and Cecile, banished with King George in 1924, the dynasty would not again be reinstated on Greeces throne until 1935, by which time Sophie had married and was raising a family in Germany. Meanwhile, Sophies father remained in contact with his children, but lived apart from them, Sophie and her sisters lived under the care and at the expense of relatives, all four princesses marrying German princes between December 1930 and August 1931. Their brother Philip, not yet 10 years old, was sent to boarding schools and, later. Although the youngest of four sisters, Sophie was the first to wed, marrying her second cousin-once-removed Prince Christoph of Hesse on 15 December 1930 in Kronberg, Berlin, she was 16. A director in the Third Reichs Ministry of Air Forces and a commander in the German Air Reserves, on 7 October 1943, he was killed in an airplane accident in a war zone of the Apennine mountains near Forlì, Italy. His body was found two days later and they had two children and two granddaughters. She remarried Robert Floris van Eyck on 3 December 1962 and had two children and two granddaughters. Princess Marina Margarita Sofia Leontina Christina of Windisch-Grätz married Gyula Lajos Jakabffy on 8 May 1988 and they have two daughters, Réka Dorothea Sita Jakabffy Sophia Magdolna Jakabffy Princess Clarissa Elisabeth Fiore of Windisch-Grätz married Eric De Waele on 16 November 1985. They have four children and two grandchildren, Michel Jean Henri de Waele married Caroline Libbrecht in 2011, Princess Clarissa Alice of Hesse married Jean-Claude Derrien on 20 July 1971 and were divorced in 1976. She has a daughter, Johanna von Hesse Sophies second marriage was to her cousin Prince George William of Hanover on 23 April 1946 in Salem. George was a son of Ernest Augustus III, Duke of Brunswick, who lost his duchy in 1918, and his consort, Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia. George VI then sought to arrange to have the Hanovers informally advised that the exigencies of war, rather than personal disapproval, but after internal consultation the British government blocked the endeavour on the grounds that any such communication could be subsequently misconstrued. The latter act does not confer legitimacy upon the children of a marriage which formerly required approval under the Royal Marriage Act, if such approval was sought but not obtainedPrincess Sophie of Greece and Denmark – First generation
19. Prince Philip Designers Prize – The Prince Philip Designers Prize is an annual design recognition given by the Chartered Society of Designers awarded by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. It is the longest running design award in the United Kingdom, the recognition is on the basis of a design career which has upheld the highest standards and broken new ground. In 2011 The Duke of Edinburgh stepped down from the prize as he reduced his royal responsibilities in his 90th year. It was agreed in December 2015 that the Chartered Society of Designers should re-introduce, Prince Philip suggested and agreed various changes to the Prize that build on its heritage in order to reflect today’s design profession including opening the Prize to international nominations. Official website 50 years of innovation in design, prize winners 1959–2009Prince Philip Designers Prize – Titles
20. Prince Philip Medal – The Prince Philip Medal is named after Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who is the Senior Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering. The first of these medals was awarded in 1991 to Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, another medal also known as the Prince Philip medal is the City and Guilds Institute of London Gold Medal, awarded by the City & Guilds. This was awarded to Jocelyn Burton, the first woman recipient, in 2003 for outstanding achievements in the fields of science, previous recipients of the RAE medal have includedPrince Philip Medal – Titles
21. Prince Philip Movement – The Prince Philip Movement is a religious sect followed by the Kastom people around Yaohnanen village on the southern island of Tanna in Vanuatu. It is a cult of the Yaohnanen tribe, who believe that Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. According to ancient Yaohnanen tales, the son of a mountain spirit travelled over the seas to a distant land, there, he married a powerful woman and in time would return to them. He was sometimes said to be a brother to John Frum of another local cargo cult, the people of the Yaohnanen area believe that Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the consort to Queen Elizabeth II, is a divine being. They had seen the respect accorded to Queen Elizabeth II by the officials and concluded that her husband, Prince Philip. It is unclear just when this came about, but it was probably some time in the 1950s or 1960s. It was strengthened by the couples official visit to Vanuatu in 1974. The Prince was not then aware of the cult, but it was brought to his several years later by John Champion. Champion suggested that Prince Philip send them a portrait of himself and he agreed and sent a signed official photograph. The villagers responded by sending him a traditional pig-killing club called a nal-nal, in compliance with their request, the Prince sent a photograph of himself posing with the club. Another photograph was sent in 2000, all three photographs were kept by Chief Jack Naiva, who died in 2009. Anne, Princess Royal, visited Tanna in October 2014 and she is the only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip. She had visited Vanuatu in 1974, but had not previously travelled to the island, on 27 September 2007, British television station Channel 4 broadcast Meet the Natives, a reality show about five Tanna men from the Prince Philip Movement on a visit to Britain. Their visit culminated in an audience with Philip, where gifts were exchanged. In 2010 Australian journalist Amos Roberts visited Tanna and reported on the celebration of Philips 89th birthday. In 2011 the people of Yaohnanen village were featured in an episode of the series of An Idiot Abroad with Karl Pilkington. An interview about the movement featured in a programme about Mount Yasur made by Kate Humble for BBC, Prince Philip, they hardly know ye, Christian Science Monitor,8 June 2007, accessed 7 June 2007 Squires, Nick. Is Prince Philip an island god, BBC News,10 June 2007, accessed 10 June 2007 Adams, GuyPrince Philip Movement – Prince Philip in 1992, by Allan Warren.
22. HMS Magpie (U82) – HMS Magpie, pennant number U82, was a Royal Navy Modified Black Swan-class sloop launched in 1943 and broken up in 1959. She was the seventh Royal Navy ship to bear the name, the ship was the only vessel commanded by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, who took command on 2 September 1950. Commissioned on 30 August 1943, during October–November 1943 Magpie was part of the 2nd Support Group in the North Atlantic, the following month saw Magpie involved in destroying U-238 and U-734. After serving as an escort during the D-Day amphibious Allied landings in Normandy, Magpie served in British coastal waters, along with others in the Black Swan class she was officially reclassified as a frigate in 1947, also receiving a new pennant number F82. Magpie did duty in Trieste following riots there over the city’s future, at this time she was based in Malta, as part of the 3rd Frigate Flotilla. This Flotilla took part in preventing illegal immigrants following the formation of Israel. She returned to Portsmouth in 1954 where was placed in reserve and she was commanded by Lieutenant-Commander HRH The Duke of Edinburgh from 2 September 1950 until 1952, in the Mediterranean. In 1953 she took part in the Fleet Review to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, on 3 March 1955 Magpie left Portsmouth to steam to the 7th Frigate Squadron at Simonstown, South Africa. Due to be relieved at the Cape Station by her sister ship Sparrow, magpie’s crew returned to the UK in Sparrow. In 1958 Magpie had her tour of duty at the Cape Station finally completed, she sailed back for the UK for paying off, HMS Magpie stood in for the moving shots of HMS Amethyst in the film Yangtse Incident in 1957. Ships of the Royal Navy, The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy, Sloops, A History of the 71 Sloops Built in Britain and Australia for the British, Australian and Indian Navies 1926–1946HMS Magpie (U82) – Magpie in the Atlantic
23. Earl – An earl /ɜːrl/ is a member of the nobility. The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form jarl, in Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced by duke. In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count, however, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could also mean a sovereign prince. For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl, alternative names for the rank equivalent to Earl/Count in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the hakushaku of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era. In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage, ranking below a marquess, a feminine form of earl never developed, instead, countess is used. The term earl has been compared to the name of the Heruli, proto-Norse eril, or the later Old Norse jarl, came to signify the rank of a leader. The Norman-derived equivalent count was not introduced following the Norman conquest of England though countess was and is used for the female title. In the other languages of Britain and Ireland, the term is translated as, Welsh iarll, Irish and Scottish Gaelic iarla, Scots yarl or yerl, Cornish yurl. An earl has the title Earl of when the title originates from a placename, in either case, he is referred to as Lord, and his wife as Lady. A countess who holds an earldom in her own right also uses Lady, younger sons are styled The Honourable, and daughters, The Lady. In the peerage of Scotland, when there are no courtesy titles involved, the heir to an earldom, and indeed any level of peerage, is styled Master of, and successive sons as younger of. In Anglo-Saxon England, earls had authority over their own regions and right of judgment in provincial courts and they collected fines and taxes and in return received a third penny, one-third of the money they collected. In wartime they led the kings armies, some shires were grouped together into larger units known as earldoms, headed by an ealdorman or earl. Under Edward the Confessor earldoms like Wessex, Mercia, East Anglia, Earls originally functioned essentially as royal governors. Though the title of Earl was nominally equal to the duke, unlike them. After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror tried to rule England using the traditional system, shires became the largest secular subdivision in England and earldoms disappeared. The Normans did create new earls like those of Herefordshire, Shropshire and their power and regional jurisdiction was limited to that of the Norman counts. There was no longer any administrative layer larger than the shire, Earls no longer aided in tax collection or made decisions in country courts and their numbers were smallEarl – The royal procession to Parliament at Westminster, 4 February 1512. Left to right: The Marquess of Dorset, Earl of Northumberland, Earl of Surrey, Earl of Shrewsbury, Earl of Essex, Earl of Kent, Earl of Derby, Earl of Wiltshire. From: Parliament Procession Roll of 1512.