Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford
Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford PC was an English nobleman and politician. He built the square of Covent Garden, with the piazza and church of St. Paul's, employing Inigo Jones as his architect, he is known for his pioneering project to drain The Fens of Cambridgeshire. He was the only son of William Russell, 1st Baron Russell of Thornhaugh and his wife Elizabeth Long, to which barony he succeeded in August 1613. For a short time he had been Member of Parliament for the borough of Lyme Regis. In 1623 he was made Lord Lieutenant of Devon and on 3 May 1627 became Earl of Bedford on the death of his cousin Edward Russell, 3rd Earl of Bedford. In 1621 Russell was one of the thirty-three peers who petitioned James I on the prejudice caused to the English peerage by the lavish grant of Irish and Scottish titles of nobility. In 1628, during the debates on the Petition of Right, he supported the demands of the House of Commons, was a member of the committee which reported against the king's right to imprison.
In May he was sent down to Devon, ostensibly to assist in refitting the fleet returned from Rochelle, but according to report, on account of his opposition in the House of Lords. Bedford was one of the three peers implicated in the circulation of Sir Robert Dudley's Proposition for His Majesty s Service, was arrested on 5 November 1629, was brought before the Star-chamber; the prosecution, was dropped when the real nature of the paper was discovered, Bedford was released. The Short Parliament meeting in April 1640 found the earl as one of the King Charles I leading opponents, he was trusted by John Pym and Oliver St John, is mentioned by Clarendon as among the “great contrivers and designers” in the House of Lords. In July 1640 he was among the peers who wrote to the Scottish leaders refusing to invite a Scottish army into England, but promising to stand by the Scots in all legal and honourable ways, his signature was afterwards forged by Thomas, Viscount Savile, in order to encourage the Scots to invade England.
In the following September he was among those peers who urged Charles to call a parliament, to make peace with the Scots, to dismiss his obnoxious ministers. When the Long Parliament met in November 1640, Bedford was regarded as the leader of the parliamentarians. In February 1641 he was made a privy councillor, during the course of some negotiations was promised the office of Lord High Treasurer, he was a moderate man, seemed anxious to settle the question of the royal revenue in a satisfactory manner. He did not wish to alter the government of the church, was on good terms with Archbishop Laud, although convinced of the guilt of Strafford, was anxious to save his life. In the midst of the parliamentary struggle Bedford died of smallpox on 9 May 1641. Clarendon described him as "a wise man, of too great and plentiful a fortune to wish the subversion of the government," and again referring to his death, said that "many who knew him well thought his death not unseasonable as well to his fame as his fortune, that it rescued him as well from some possible guilt as from those visible misfortunes which men of all conditions have since undergone."
In about 1631 with architect Inigo Jones he built the square of Covent Garden, with the piazza and church of St. Paul's, he was threatened with a Star-chamber suit for contravening the proclamation against new buildings, but the matter seems to have been resolved by compromise. Bedford was the head of those who undertook to drain the great level of The Fens of Cambridgeshire, which were renamed the "Bedford Level" in his honour, he and the other undertakers were to receive ninety-five thousand acres of land, of which twelve thousand were to be set apart for the king, the profits of forty thousand were to serve as a security for keeping up the drainage works. He spent a large sum of money over this work, received 43,000 acres of land. By 1637 he had spent £100,000 on the undertaking but after various jealousies and difficulties the king took the work into his own hands in 1638, making a further grant of land to the Earl; the work was not declared finished till March twelve years after Bedford's death.
The 4th Earl is buried in the'Bedford Chapel' at Chenies. Bedford married daughter of Giles Brydges, 3rd Baron Chandos, they had eight children: 1st Duke of Bedford. Francis Russell. Colonel John Russell Edward Russell. Father of Edward Russell, 1st Earl of Orford. Catherine Russell. Married Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke. Margaret Russell. Married first James Hay, 2nd Earl of Carlisle and secondly Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester. Anne Russell. Married George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol. Diana Russell. Married Francis Newport, 1st Earl of Bradford. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Russell, Francis". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford
John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford was an 18th-century British statesman. He was the fourth son of Wriothesley Russell, 2nd Duke of Bedford, by his wife, Elizabeth and heiress of John Howland of Streatham, Surrey. Known as Lord John Russell, he married in October 1731 Diana Spencer, daughter of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland. In the House of Lords he joined the Patriot Whig opposition hostile to the Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole, took a prominent part in public business, earned the dislike of George II; when Carteret, now Earl Granville, resigned office in November 1744, Bedford became First Lord of the Admiralty in the administration of Henry Pelham, was made a privy councillor. He was successful at the admiralty, but was not fortunate after he became Secretary of State for the Southern Department in February 1748. Pelham accused him of idleness and he was at variance with his colleague The Duke of Newcastle. Newcastle, who had admired The Earl of Sandwich, Bedford's successor as First Lord of the Admiralty, for his forthright and hardline views, had begun to distrust him and his relationship with Bedford.
Newcastle engineered the dismissal of both of them, by sacking Sandwich in June 1751. Bedford resigned in protest, as Newcastle had calculated, allowing him to replace them with men he considered more loyal to him. During his time in the post he was accused of spending far too much time at his country estate playing cricket and shooting pheasants. Bedford was keen on cricket; the earliest surviving record of his involvement in the sport comes from 1741 when he hosted Bedfordshire v Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire at Woburn Park. The combined Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire team won. Bedford arranged the match with his friends George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax and John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. A few days there was a return match at Cow Meadow and the combined team won again. By 1743, Bedford had developed Woburn Cricket Club into a leading team, able to compete against London; the team was prominent in 1743 and 1744 but, after that, there is no further mention of it in the surviving sources.
Instigated by his friends, he was active in opposition to the government, becoming the leader of a faction named after him, the Bedford Whigs. After Newcastle's resignation in November 1756, Bedford became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the new government led by William Pitt and the Duke of Devonshire, he retained this office after Newcastle, in alliance with Pitt, returned to power in June 1757. In Ireland he favoured a relaxation of the penal laws against Roman Catholics, but did not keep his promises to observe neutrality between the rival parties, to abstain from securing pensions for his friends, his own courtly manners and generosity, his wife's good qualities, seem to have gained for him some popularity, although Horace Walpole says he disgusted everybody. He oversaw the Irish response to the threatened French invasion in 1759, the landing of a small French force in northern Ireland. In March 1761 he resigned this office. Having allied himself with the Earl of Bute and the party anxious to bring the Seven Years' War to a close, Bedford was noticed as the strongest opponent of Pitt, became Lord Privy Seal under Bute after Pitt resigned in October 1761.
The cabinet of Bute was divided over the policy to be pursued with regard to the war, but pacific counsels prevailed, in September 1762 Bedford went to France to treat for peace. He was annoyed because some of the peace negotiations were conducted through other channels, but he signed the Peace of Paris in February 1763. Resigning his office as Lord Privy Seal soon afterwards, various causes of estrangement arose between Bute and Bedford, the subsequent relations of the two men were somewhat virulent; the duke refused to take office under George Grenville on Bute's resignation in April 1763, sought to induce Pitt to return to power. A report, that Pitt would only take office on condition that Bedford was excluded, incensed him and, smarting under this rebuff, he joined the cabinet of Grenville as Lord President of the Council in September 1763, his haughty manner, his somewhat insulting language, his attitude with regard to the regency bill in 1765 offended George III, who sought in vain to supplant him, after this failure was obliged to make humiliating concessions to the ministry.
In July 1765, however, he was able to dispense with the services of Bedford and his colleagues, the duke became the leader of a political party, distinguished for rapacity, known as the Bedford party, or the Bloomsbury gang. During his term of office he had opposed a bill to place high import duties on Italian silks, he was assaulted and his London residence attacked by a mob. He took some part in subsequent political intrigues, although he did not return to office, his friends, with his consent, joined the ministry of the Duke of Grafton in December 1767; this proceeding led "Junius" to write his "Letter to the Duke of Bedford," one of especial violence. Bedford was hostile to John Wilkes, narrowly escaped from a mob favourable to the agitator at Honiton in July 1769. Child of John Russell and his first wife Lady Diana Spencer: John Russell, Marquess of Tavistock Children of John Russell and his second
Baron Russell of Thornhaugh
Baron Russell of Thornhaugh is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1603 for the Honourable Sir William Russell, he was the fourth son of 2nd Earl of Bedford. His son succeeded as Earl of Bedford in 1627 and the barony has been united with the earldom since. William Russell, 1st Baron Russell of Thornhaugh Francis Russell, 2nd Baron Russell of Thornhaugh For further succession, see Duke of Bedford. Earl Russell Baron Ampthill Thornhaugh Burkes Peerage
Robert Walpole, 2nd Earl of Orford
Robert Walpole, 2nd Earl of Orford, KB, was a British peer and politician, styled Lord Walpole from 1723 to 1745. He was the eldest son of Sir Robert Walpole, the King's First Minister, now regarded as the first Prime Minister, by his first wife Catherine Shorter. In 1723 his father declined a peerage for himself but did accept the offer on behalf of his 22-year-old son Robert, thus raised to the peerage as Baron Walpole, of Walpole in the County of Norfolk. Circa 26 March 1724 Lord Walpole married the 15-year-old heiress Margaret Rolle, only surviving daughter of Colonel Samuel Rolle, of Heanton Satchville, Petrockstowe. Margaret was the heiress to a junior branch of the great Rolle family of Stevenstone in Devon and to her paternal grandmother, born Lady Arabella Clinton, an aunt and co-heiress of her nephew Edward Clinton, 5th Earl of Lincoln and 13th Baron Clinton; the marriage was not a success and Lady Walpole quarrelled violently with his whole family. After one son was born they lived apart and obtained a legal separation.
In 1736 Hannah Norsa, a leading singer and actress at Covent Garden, moved to Houghton Hall in Norfolk and remained there as Walpole's mistress until his death in March 1751. Her financial support may have saved him from dying bankrupt. In Walpole's many absences Hannah Norsa was escorted in her landau and six horses by his chaplain, Rev William Paxton, who received the position as a small part of the Walpole family compensation for his father's defence of Walpole's father, the Prime Minister, his estranged widow became the 15th Baroness Clinton succeeding in her own right after the death of her cousin Hugh Fortescue, 1st Earl Clinton. She had remarried on Walpole's death but soon separated from her second husband, Hon Sewallis Shirley, a son of the 1st Earl Ferrers and Comptroller of Queen Charlotte's Household. Lady Clinton died at Pisa, in Tuscany, in 1781, was buried at Leghorn, "a woman of singular character and considered half mad". Both the Earl of Orford and his wife Baroness Clinton were succeeded in all their titles by their son George Walpole, 3rd Earl of Orford and 16th Baron Clinton, a celebrated falconer, who left no legitimate children and died insane.
Robert Walpole held the following posts at some time between 1701 and 1751: Clerk of the Pells Auditor of the Receipt of the Exchequer Ranger of Richmond Park High Steward of Yarmouth Lord Lieutenant of Devon Mr Robert Walpole The Rt Hon. The Baron Walpole Viscount Walpole The Rt Hon; the Earl of Orford Though he held a barony in his own right, from 1742 to 1745 Lord Walpole ranked higher by precedence as the eldest son of an earl. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages www.thepeerage.com
Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford
Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford was an English nobleman and peer. He was the son of 2nd Duke of Bedford. Russell married his sister's stepdaughter, Lady Anne Egerton, daughter of Scroop Egerton, 1st Duke of Bridgwater, on 22 April 1725, he died in 1732, aged 24 at Corunna, without issue. He was buried on 14 December 1732 in the'Bedford Chapel' at St. Michael’s Church, Chenies and his titles passed to his brother, John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford
Orford is a village with historic town status in Suffolk, within the Suffolk Coast and Heaths AONB. Like many Suffolk coastal towns it was of some importance as a port and fishing village in the Middle Ages, it still has a fine mediaeval castle, built to dominate the River Ore and a Grade I listed parish church, St Bartholomew's. The main geographical feature of the area is Orford Ness, a long, wide shingle spit at the mouth of the Ore. Orford Ness has in the past been used as an airstrip testing facility and in the early 1970s it was the site of a powerful radar station as part of the Cold War defences against low-flying attacking aircraft. Orford provides the only point of access to the nature reserves of Havergate Island. Both sites can only be accessed via ferry boat from Orford quay; the Orford Ness ferry runs on selected days between April and October and the Havergate Island ferry on selected Saturdays. The population of Orford increases during the summer months due to its flourishing sailing club.
As well as the Castle, Orford's attractions include river cruises, three pubs, a renowned traditional bakery, a smokehouse and a restaurant. Orford forms part of the electoral ward called Tunstall; the population of this ward at the 2011 census was 1,830. Orford, Suffolk Photographs and more details about Orford A Fishy Tale of Orford The Wild Man of Orford - An animated version of the 12th Century myth "My Orford" by Charlie Underwood M. B. E. - An interesting insight into village life in Orford
Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford
Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, KG of Chenies in Buckinghamshire and of Bedford House in Exeter, was an English nobleman and politician. He was a godfather to the Devon-born sailor Sir Francis Drake, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Devon. Francis was the son of 1st Earl of Bedford and Anne Sapcote, he was educated at King's Hall and accompanied his father, to sit in the House of Commons. He represented Buckinghamshire in parliament in 1545-47 and 1547-52. In 1547 he was appointed High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire, he assisted to quell the rising in Devon in 1549, after his father had been created Earl of Bedford in January 1550, was known as Lord Russell, taking his seat in the House of Lords under this title in 1552. Russell was in sympathy with the reformers, whose opinions he shared, was in communication with Sir Thomas Wyatt. Being released he visited Italy, came into touch with foreign reformers, he led the English contingent fighting for Philip II of Spain England's King Consort, at the Battle of St. Quentin in 1557.
When Elizabeth I of England ascended the throne in November 1558 the Earl of Bedford, as Russell had been since 1555, became an active figure in public life. He was made a privy councillor, was sent on diplomatic errands to Charles IX of France and Mary, Queen of Scots. From February 1564 to October 1567 he was governor of Berwick and warden of the east marches of Scotland, in which capacity he conducted various negotiations between Elizabeth and Mary. Bedford represented Elizabeth as her ambassador at the baptism of Prince James on 17 December 1566 at Stirling Castle, was guest of honour at the subsequent banquet and masque, he appears to have been an efficient warden, but was irritated by the vacillating and tortuous conduct of the English queen. When the northern insurrection broke out in 1569, Bedford was sent into Wales, he sat in judgment upon the Duke of Norfolk in 1572. In 1576 he was president of the council of Wales, in 1581 was one of the commissioners deputed to arrange a marriage between Elizabeth and François, Duke of Anjou.
Bedford, made a Knight of the Garter in 1564, appears to have been a generous and popular man, died in London. He was buried at the family chapel at St. Michael’s Church next to Chenies Manor House, the family estate which he had made his principal home and where he had entertained Queen Elizabeth in 1570, his first wife was Margaret St John, daughter of Sir John St John and Margaret Waldegrave, by whom he had four sons and three daughters: Lady Anne Russell, married Ambrose Dudley, 3rd Earl of Warwick. Henry Russell, Baron Russell, married his step-sister, Jane Sybilla Morrison of Cashiobury, without issue. John Russell, Baron Russell, married Elizabeth Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke and Anne FitzWilliam, they had one son and two daughters, which included Anne Russell, wife of Henry Somerset, 1st Marquess of Worcester. Francis Russell, Baron Russell, MP for Northumberland, from 1572-1584, he married Juliana Foster and had issue, including Edward Russell, 3rd Earl of Bedford, Mary Ann Russell, wife of John Roote.
William Russell, 1st Baron Russell of Thornhaugh Lady Elizabeth Russell, married William Bourchier, 3rd Earl of Bath. Lady Margaret Russell, married George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, his second wife was Bridget Hussey, daughter of John Hussey, 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford and Lady Anne Grey, who had twice widowed. He was succeeded as third Earl by his grandson, Edward Russell, only son of Francis Russell, Lord Russell. Chenies Manor House tudorplace.com.ar Accessed 27 October 2007 thepeerage.com Accessed 27 October 2007 Richardson, Kimball G. Everingham, David Faris. Plantagenet Ancestry A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families. Royal ancestry series. Baltimore, Md: Genealogical Pub. Co, 2004. Accessed 28 October 2007