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Earth science

Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of the Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science can be with a much older history. Earth science encompasses four main branches of study, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere, each of, further broken down into more specialized fields. There are both holistic approaches to Earth sciences, it is the study of Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the planet to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth's environment, design methods to protect the planet; some use their knowledge about earth processes such as volcanoes and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events. The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere and biosphere.

Earth scientists use tools from geology, physics, geography and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. Earth science affects our everyday lives. For example, meteorologists study the watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists warn of floods. Seismologists try to understand where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help to locate useful minerals. Earth scientists work in the field—perhaps climbing mountains, exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or wading in swamps, they measure and collect samples they record their findings on charts and maps. The following fields of science are categorized within the Earth sciences: Geology describes the rocky parts of the Earth's crust and its historic development. Major subdisciplines are mineralogy and petrology, paleontology, structural geology, engineering geology, sedimentology. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science. Physical geography is the study of earth's seasons, atmosphere, streams and oceans.

Physical geography can be divided into several branches or related fields, as follows: geomorphology, environmental geography, climatology, coastal geography, ecology, glaciology. Geophysics and geodesy investigate the shape of the Earth, its reaction to forces and its magnetic and gravity fields. Geophysicists explore the Earth's core and mantle as well as the tectonic and seismic activity of the lithosphere. Geophysics is used to supplement the work of geologists in developing a comprehensive understanding of crustal geology in mineral and petroleum exploration. Seismologists use geophysics to understand plate tectonic shifting, as well as predict seismic activity. Geochemistry is defined as the study of the processes that control the abundance and distribution of chemical compounds and isotopes in geologic environments. Geochemists use the tools and principles of chemistry to study the composition, structure and other physical aspects of the Earth. Major subdisciplines are aqueous geochemistry, isotope geochemistry and biogeochemistry.

Soil science covers the outermost layer of the Earth's crust, subject to soil formation processes. Major subdivisions in this field of study include pedology. Ecology covers the interactions between their environment; this field of study differentiates the study of Earth from the study of other planets in the Solar System, Earth being its only planet teeming with life. Hydrology and limnology are studies which focus on the movement and quality of the water and involves all the components of the hydrologic cycle on the Earth and its atmosphere. "Sub-disciplines of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface water hydrology, watershed science, forest hydrology, water chemistry." Glaciology covers the icy parts of the Earth. Atmospheric sciences cover the gaseous parts of the Earth between the exosphere. Major subdisciplines include meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric physics. Plate tectonics, mountain ranges and earthquakes are geological phenomena that can be explained in terms of physical and chemical processes in the Earth's crust.

Beneath the Earth's crust lies the mantle, heated by the radioactive decay of heavy elements. The mantle is not quite solid and consists of magma, in a state of semi-perpetual convection; this convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly. The resulting process is known as plate tectonics. Plate tectonics might be thought of as the process; as the result of seafloor spreading, new crust and lithosphere is created by the flow of magma from the mantle to the near surface, through fissures, where it cools and solidifies. Through subduction, oceanic crust and lithosphere returns to the convecting mantle. Areas of the crust where new crust is created are called divergent boundaries, those where it is brought back into the Earth are convergent boundaries and those where plates slide past each other, but no new lithospheric material is created or destroyed, are referred to as transform boundaries Earthquakes result from the movement of the lithospheric plates, they occur near convergent bou

Serkan Göcer

Serkan Göcer is a German footballer who plays for FC 08 Homburg in the Regionalliga Südwest. After playing as a youth for his hometown club, TuS Koblenz, Göcer signed for Rot-Weiß Oberhausen in 2011 and made his 3. Liga debut in the second match of the 2011–12 season, replacing Timo Kunert in a 0–0 draw with 1. FC Saarbrücken. After Oberhausen were relegated at the end of the season, he signed for Saarbrücken, he was signed for SV Elversberg. Less than a week after signing for Elversberg, he scored on his debut, a 3–1 win over the club he had just left. Serkan Göcer – UEFA competition record Serkan Göcer at fussballdaten.de "schalke 04 profile". Schalke04.de. Serkan Göcer at Kicker Serkan Göcer at Soccerway

Al-Nusra Front–SRF/Hazzm Movement conflict

The al-Nusra Front–SRF/Hazzm Movement conflict started in late October 2014, during the Syrian Civil War, in Idlib and Aleppo governorates, during which al-Nusra attempted to establish an Islamic state rival to that of ISIL. Despite this, the al-Nusra Front and Free Syrian Army factions continued to cooperate in the southern Syrian governorates of Quneitra and Daraa. Before the clashes, there were tensions between Jabhat al-Nusra and the Syria Revolutionaries Front. 100 members of the latter had been killed by al-Nusra during clashes in July 2014. After that, Nusra launched the 2014 Idlib city raid, they blamed the Syrian Revolutionaries Front for the failure, according to al-Nusra, the SRF stabbed them in the back. They launched the offensive. However, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, the clashes between the two sides started the day before the raid; the clashes between the two sides erupted on 26 October 2014, with conflicting information about the reason. Between 27 and 28 October, the al-Nusra Front attacked the SRF and took over the towns and villages of Balyon, Eblin, Mashon and Maghara as well as four of their checkpoints near Maarrat Al-Nu'man.

"This has happened before and we came through it. But this time the mobilisation is large," said a military official in the Syria Revolutionaries Front, he added. He claimed ISIL fighters were reinforcing the Nusra Front in the assault, but the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that it was another hardline group, Jund al-Aqsa, providing the backup. On 28 October, the al-Nusra Front attacked a checkpoint of the Hazzm Movement in western Aleppo countryside but this attack was repelled and a number of Nusra fighters were killed. At the same time the Al-Atareb area and the Regiment 46 witnessed a "tension and wait-and-see attitude" after these clashes. Another clash took place between the two parties in the area between Ma’er Debseh and Khan al-Sobol in the Idlib countryside. On 29 October, Army of Mujahedeen took over the Hazzm Movement checkpoints around al-Atarib, while Ahl Al-Sham was expected to take over the al-Nusra checkpoints in the same area as part of a deal between the rebel groups.

Both parties agreed to release all detainees afterwards. On 30 October, clashes in Khan al-Sibel between the Hazzm Movement against al-Nusra left three fighters dead. On 31 October 15 Islamic battalions formed the "al-Sohl forces" and sent them to the al-Zawiya mount area, where the al-Nusra Front and the SRF were still fighting, in order to separate the two parties from each other; the 15 battalions included: the Army of Mujahedeen, Nour al-Din al-Zanki Islamic Brigades, Sham Legion, the 13th Division, Omar Al-Mukhtar Brigade, the Hazzm Movement, Ahrar ash-Sham, Liwa al-Haqq, Syrian Liberation Front, the al-Awal Brigade, Suqour al-Sham, Jaysh al-Islam. Meanwhile, fighting raged between the SRF and al-Nusra in the village of Deir Sinbel, with both sides suffering heavy losses. Before reaching Deir Sinbel, al-Nusra had captured a dozen villages in the area; the next day, al-Nusra forced the SRF to retreat from the village. With the fall of Deir Sinbel, Nusra had taken control of most towns and villages on the Zawiya Mountain.

This caused many SRF fighters join the al-Nusra Front. At the same time, ISIL sent some of its fighters to the contested area to aid al-Nusra in their fight against the SRF, some of whom were involved in the fight for Deir Sinbel. After this, the al-Nusra Front agreed to a proposed cease-fire, starting at 2 o'clock, but demanded that Jamal Maarouf had to appear before a Sharia court within 24 hours after the judge's request. On 2 November, al-Nusra seized Khan al-Subul, in the Idlib province, after Hazzm Movement fighters retreated from the town. Al-Nusra further took control of the villages/towns of Maar Shurin, Ma'saran, Kafr Battikh, Kafr Rumah from the Islamist rebels and Hazzm Movement, thus taking over the entire Zawiya mountain area. On 3 November, al-Nusra fighters were gathering in the town of Sarmada in Idlib province, some 4 miles from the Bab al-Hawa border crossing, held by the Islamic Front. If al-Nusra Front seized the crossing, it would block an important supply line for the Western-backed rebels.

By that point, the Hazzm Movement was defeated. Hundreds of its members escaped; the next day, the Northern Knights Brigades in Aleppo province retreated from the Menagh Military Airbase, burning a T-62 tank, in the face of an al-Nusra advance. On 7 November, the al-Nusra Front, with the support of Jund al-Aqsa, seized the villages of Safuhin and Hazarin in the southern countryside of Idlib, as well as the village of Flayfel in the Shahshabo Mountain. On 29 November, Syrian activist Omar Jassim, said that the al-Nusra Front seized the city of al-Rastan, in the Homs province, captured a large number of Free Syrian Army fighters after clashes between the two sides, subsequently established a number of checkpoints in the city. On 30 November, al-Nusra executed 13 Syrian rebels in Kawkaba, in the south of the Idlib province, after taking the village. At the end of December 2014, al-Nusra seized another Hazzm Movement post in the Kafar Karmin area of the western countryside of Aleppo. On 29 January 2015, al-Nusra expelled the rebels from the Regiment 111 base in Aleppo province.

At least four rebel fighters were killed in the fighting at the base. The next day, fighting spread to Idli