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East Africa Protectorate

East Africa Protectorate was an area in the African Great Lakes occupying the same terrain as present-day Kenya from the Indian Ocean inland to the border with Uganda in the west. Although part of the dominions of the Sultanate of Zanzibar, it was controlled by Britain in the late 19th century. European missionaries began settling in the area from Mombasa to Mount Kilimanjaro in the 1840s, nominally under the protection of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. In 1886, the British government encouraged William Mackinnon, who had an agreement with the Sultan and whose shipping company traded extensively in the African Great Lakes, to establish British influence in the region, he formed a British East Africa Association which led to the Imperial British East Africa Company being chartered in 1888 and given the original grant to administer the dependency. It administered about 240 kilometres of coastline stretching from the River Jubba via Mombasa to German East Africa which were leased from the Sultan; the British "sphere of influence", agreed at the Berlin Conference of 1885, extended up the coast and inland across the future Kenya.

Mombasa was the administrative centre at this time. However, the company began to fail, on 1 July 1895, the British government proclaimed a protectorate, the administration being transferred to the Foreign Office. In 1902 administration was again transferred to the Colonial Office. In 1897 Lord Delamere, the pioneer of white settlement, arrived in the Kenya highlands, part of the Protectorate. Lord Delamere was impressed by the agricultural possibilities of the area. In 1902, the boundaries of the Protectorate were extended to include what was the Eastern Province of Uganda. In 1902, the East Africa Syndicate received a grant of 1,300 square kilometres to promote white settlement in the Highlands. Lord Delamere now commenced extensive farming operations, in 1905, when a large number of new settlers arrived from England and South Africa, the Protectorate was transferred from the authority of the Foreign Office to that of the Colonial Office; the capital was shifted from Mombasa to Nairobi in 1905.

A regular Government and Legislature were constituted by Order in Council in 1906. This provided for legislative and executive councils. Lieutenant Colonel J. Hayes Sadler was the first commander in chief. There were occasional troubles with local tribes but the country was opened up by the Government and the colonists with little bloodshed. After the First World War, more farmers arrived from England and South Africa, by 1919 the European population was estimated at 9,000 settlers. On 23 July 1920, the inland areas of the Protectorate were annexed as British dominions by Order in Council; that part of the former Protectorate was thereby constituted as the Colony of Kenya. The remaining 16-kilometre-wide coastal strip, remained a Protectorate under an agreement with the Sultan of Zanzibar; that coastal strip, remaining under the sovereignty of the Sultan of Zanzibar, was constituted as the Protectorate of Kenya in 1920. After 1896, immigrants from India came to the area as moneylenders and artisans.

Racial segregation was normalised, with the Europeans assigning the Highlands to themselves. Other restrictions included commercial and residential segregation in the towns, restrictions on Indian immigration; the Indians grew to outnumber the Europeans by more than two to one by 1919. India was a crown colony whose citizens enjoyed certain privileges but it was unclear whether the Ishmael Indians in the African Great Lakes were to be recognised as citizens of the British Empire or as a subject race. In April 1902, the first application for land in British East Africa was made by the East Africa Syndicate – a company in which financiers belonging to the British South Africa Company were interested – which sought a grant of 1,300 square kilometres, this was followed by other applications for considerable areas, including a large Jewish settlement. In 1902, a British soldier in East Africa described what happened in a single village:Every soul was either shot or bayoneted... We razed the banana plantations to the ground.

In April 1903, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the American scout and a Director of the East African Syndicate, sent an expedition consisting of John Weston Brooke, John Charles Blick, Mr. Bittlebank and Mr. Brown, to assess the mineral wealth of the region; the party, known as the "Four B.'s", travelled from Nairobi via Mount Elgon northwards to the western shores of Lake Rudolph, experiencing plenty of privations from want of water, of the danger from encounters with the Maasai. With the arrival in 1903 of hundreds of prospective settlers, chiefly from South Africa, questions were raised concerning the preservation for the Maasai of their rights of pasturage, the decision was made to entertain no more applications for large areas of land. In the process of carrying out this policy of colonisation a dispute arose between Sir Charles Eliot, Commissioner of British East Africa, Lord Lansdowne, the British Foreign Secretary; the East Africa Syndicate had applied for and been pledged the lease of 1,300 square kilometres of land.

Lansdowne, believing himself bound by the pledges, decided. In a separate matter, two South African applicants

Tong Bing Yu

Tong Bing Yu is a Malaysian actress. She first established her career in Singapore from 2008 as a Mediacorp artiste and is now in China from 2018. While Singapore, she was known as Chris Tong in the English media. After leaving Singapore to act in China in 2018, she is known as 童缤毓, however retaining the former spelling for communications in English. Tong was born in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 14 June 1983. Tong won Miss Malaysia Chinese Cosmos International 2006, in which she won along with two other subsidiary titles, Miss Personality and Miss Perfect Skin. In 2007, she represented Malaysia in Miss Chinese Cosmos International held in Hong Kong and was awarded the Miss Culture Personality title. Known as Chris Tong in the English media and in credits of the dramas she acted in, Tong started her acting career in 2008 in Singapore, she landed on her first leading role in 2009 with the television series, The Adjusters, playing an insurance investigator. In 2014, she gotten her first Best Actress award nomination in Star Awards 20 for her role in The Journey: A Voyage.

At the same time, she won her first award — Top 10 Most Popular Female Artistes in Singapore's Star Awards and Most Popular Actress in Malaysia’s Golden Awards, proving her popularity among audiences in both countries. These awards have made her the first female artiste who achieved both Malaysian and Singaporean awards. Although she is well acknowledged for her acting skills in the television scene, Tong pushed herself for improvements and in the past few years, when Malaysia’s movie industry blooms, she was invited for her first big screen participation, her roles in the big screen included a warrior, mischievous night market hawker and many more. Regardless if it is a small or huge production, or if the role is main or side, to her, every acting opportunity is a self-improvement and a contribution to the Chinese Entertainment industry; as Malaysian movies are being noticed by the overseas market, in 2013, Tong was invited to participate in overseas productions, including movies from Hong Kong and Mainland China, namely "Kick Ass Girls", Special Female Force and "League of Legend".

In 2015, she was invited by Mainland China as the female lead in their first martial arts short film, to which she sang the theme song. Being contributing to charity in low-profile since her pageant period, Tong won her first non-acting award in November 2014, her long-term charity contributions are being acknowledged by the “Malaysia’s Top Ten Outstanding Youth” organizers and gained her an award which acknowledges this. This achievement was reported in both Malaysia and Singapore media, showing her status in the entertainment industry of both countries. In 2015, she won her first global awards, being the Outstanding Female Artiste in the McMillan Woods Global Awards. In 2016, Tong decided to dropped her English name, Chris after consulting a fortune teller who had told her that the masculine name would cause her more stress in the future though she would earn more. In 2018, Tong Bing Yu left Mediacorp as a full-time artiste. Mediacorp has extended her contract in hopes of convincing Tong to stay.

However, it would appear that Tong has made up her mind. Her last drama with Mediacorp was Mightiest Mother-in-Law. In an interview with Lianhe Wanbao, she said that she is unwilling to lose to the “game”, the “system” and lose to the way of “being human”, she has revealed that the current condition of the TV industry in Singapore is one of the many reasons why she has decided to leave Mediacorp. According to Tong, the reason why she came to Singapore from Malaysia was because she wanted to be an actress; the 34-year-old, who looks like a 24-year-old, started her acting journey from 2008 in Malaysia. However, after 7 years in Singapore, she has realized that what Mediacorp needs isn’t actors and actresses, she changed the characters of her Chinese name in 2018 after consulting a master who advised her to change it to 童缤毓. As the pronunciation of the characters are close to her previous name, she only updated her Chinese name on her social media profiles while retaining the previous name's pinyin.

In December 2019, it was revealed that Tong's Moths Studio, based in Malaysia, would partner China’s Golden Shield Television Centre and Changsha LeFeng Culture Communication Co Ltd to produce a series of multiple cultural entertainment projects including movies, programmes and many others over 5 years with a budget of RM3 billion. Their first project would be a RM273 million China-Malaysia co-production movie, titled “Beyond Life and Death” where filming would take place 2020 in Johor. Tong and Aaron Kee Kai Loon married in March 2007, after dated for six months. On her 35th birthday in 2018, Kee re-proposed to her with a large diamond ring after she quipped that if his proposal was like her friends', extravagant and with a large diamond ring, instead of with a ring with a small diamond set in, they have no children. Tong Bing Yu on Facebook Tong Bing Yu on Twitter Tong Bing Yu on Instagram

Malawi–Taiwan relations

Malawi–Taiwan relations refer to foreign relations between Malawi and Taiwan. Diplomatic relations existed from 1966 to 2008. There are no current official diplomatic relations between the two countries. In December 2007, Taiwan sent officials to Malawi and summoned its ambassador to save diplomatic relations amid reports China was aggressively courting Malawi; the Malawi ambassador to Taiwan Thengo Maloya reassured Minister of Foreign Affairs James C. F. Huang that his country had no intention of switching diplomatic recognition from Taiwan to the People's Republic of China. In 2008, Malawi decided to establish diplomatic ties with China instead; the Malawi Government said that it recognised that there is but one China in the world" and that "Taiwan in an inalienable part of China's territory". In response, the Taiwanese Government said that "In order to safeguard Taiwan's national dignity, we hereby announce the Taiwan government will cease all diplomatic ties with the government of Malawi".

The Taiwanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs said the decision of Malawi was the "greatest insult to the people of Taiwan". The Taiwanese Government announced the immediate cessation of all Taiwan sponsored humanitarian aid and projects The Taiwanese Government accused the Chinese government of luring the Malawians with $6 billion in aid and other inducements

Pallasovka (town)

Pallasovka is a town and the administrative center of Pallasovsky District in Volgograd Oblast, located on the Torgun River, 301 kilometers northeast of Volgograd, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 16,081 , it was founded in 1907 as a settlement of Torgun servicing the construction of a railway station of the same name. That same year, Torgun was renamed Pallasovka in honor of an academician Peter Pallas, who visited the area in 1773–1774, it was granted town status in 1967. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Pallasovka serves as the administrative center of Pallasovsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with three rural localities, incorporated within Pallasovsky District as the town of district significance of Pallasovka. As a municipal division, the territory of Pallasovka is incorporated within Pallasovsky Municipal District as Pallasovka Urban Settlement; the three rural localities are incorporated as Limannoye Rural Settlement of Pallasovsky Municipal District.

Peter Pallas was a famous naturalist who took part in the discovery and the study of the first pallasite, a type of stony-iron meteorite named after him. Coincidentally, Pallasovka is a pallasite meteorite named after it. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №982-ОД от 30 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Палласовского района и муниципальных образований в его составе». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №8, №147, 19 января 2005 г. 11 августа 2005 г

The Return of the Musketeers

The Return of the Musketeers is a 1989 film adaptation loosely based on the novel Twenty Years After by Alexandre Dumas. It is the third Musketeers film directed by Richard Lester, following 1973's The Three Musketeers and 1974's The Four Musketeers. Like the other two films, the screenplay was written by George MacDonald Fraser; the character of Mordaunt, Milady de Winter's son in the original novel, is replaced by Milady's daughter, called Justine de Winter. Several cast members from the first two reprised their roles in this one. Jean-Pierre Cassel, who played Louis XIII in the original films, has a cameo appearance as Cyrano de Bergerac. While filming in September 1988, character actor Roy Kinnear died following an on-camera accident in which he fell off a horse, his role was completed by using a stand-in, filmed from the rear, dubbed-in lines from a voice artist. Twenty years after the events of The Four Musketeers, Cardinal Mazarin has imprisoned the Duke of Beaufort. Mazarin hires d'Artagnan to bring together Athos and Aramis, to work for him.

Porthos accepts. By this time, Athos has a son named Raoul. Milady de Winter's daughter, questions the headsman that the musketeers hired to kill her mother. After finding out from the headsman that "Comte de la Fere" hired him, she kills the headsman. Raoul happens upon the aftermath of this event and chases after Justine, disguised as a priest. After a swordfight, when he discovers who she is and her plan, Raoul leaves and tells d'Artagnan and Athos that Justine wants to kill them. Comte de Rochefort is unable to prevent Beaufort from escaping from his prison, he is subsequently arrested by Mazarin. Mazarin sends d'Artagnan and Porthos after Beaufort, but Beaufort escapes them due to interference from Athos and Aramis, who are working for Beaufort; this starts a fight amongst the Musketeers. Aramis breaks his sword and rides away. D'Artagnan and Porthos are fired by Mazarin for not catching Beaufort. Rochefort goes into hiding until he finds Justine, tells her the names of d'Artagnan and Aramis, revealing to her that the Comte de la Fere is Athos.

King Charles I of England is to be executed, so Queen Anne of Austria sends d'Artagnan, Athos and Raoul to rescue him. They attempt a rescue by knocking out the headsman, but Justine takes his place and executes Charles; the musketeers have several encounters with Justine: in one, Raoul's true allegiance is revealed to her. Justine attempts to kill King Louis XIV, but is stopped by the Musketeers, their battle concludes with Justine jumping out of the window into the water. Aramis rejoins the musketeers, they force Mazarin to sign several forms in favour of them, including making Porthos a baron, Aramis a bishop, Raoul being commissioned into the Guards; the film ends with the Musketeers riding together again. Michael York as d'Artagnan Oliver Reed as Athos Frank Finlay as Porthos Richard Chamberlain as Aramis C. Thomas Howell as Raoul Geraldine Chaplin as Anne of Austria Kim Cattrall as Justine de Winter Philippe Noiret as Cardinal Mazarin Christopher Lee as the Comte de Rochefort Roy Kinnear as Planchet Eusebio Lázaro as the Duke of Beaufort Jean-Pierre Cassel as Cyrano de Bergerac Alan Howard as Oliver Cromwell David Birkin as Louis XIV Bill Paterson as Charles I Billy Connolly as Caddie The film was Richard Lester's first movie in four years.

It reunited him with the main cast of the first two films. Author George MacDonald Fraser said that in the film "Charles I is seen playing golf, which is, true, he was playing golf. Lester said the two main problems with the film were a lack of money, a refusal of the Salkinds to let him use footage from the first two films. "The whole concept of making Dumas' Twenty Years After was destroyed," said Lester. "It was the hole beneath the water line." (However Lester did admit that may not have worked as the target audience were unlikely to have been familiar with the original films. The film was shot in Spain. Charlton Heston was hoping to be asked to reprise his role as Richelieu from the original films but the cardinal had died several years before the events of the new movie. Heston did give the filmmakers permission to use a painting of Richileu that featured his likeness - provided he was given the painting once filming ending. "It's a good portrait," wrote Heston. "I'm fond of it. It's much in the style of the period."

Roy Kinnear was accidentally killed during production in Spain. The Spanish crew misunderstood the instructions of director Lester and washed down the cobblestone street prior to filming, making the stones wet. Kinnear and other cast members had to travel on horses across the Alcantara Bridge above the River Tagus. Kinnear was given one fifteen minute practice ride before the take; when Kinnear and other cast members rode into the shot on horses and stopped, Kinnear's horse slipped, Kinnear fell off, breaking his pelvis. He was treated at the Ruber Internacional Hospital in Madrid and on 20 September was transferred to a nearby clinic but died soon after from internal bleeding. After a six year legal battle Kinnear's widow was awarded £650,000 in damages from the production company, Falconfilms - consisting of producer Pierre Spengler and director Richard Lester. A court ruled that the hospital was 60% liable for his death and ordered them to pay 60% of the payout figure."It was ghastly," said Fraser.

"He was such a witty character in the prime of life. His death put paid to any chance of the movie being a succ

Siege of Tottori

The Siege of Tottori Castle occurred in 1581 and was part of Oda Nobunaga's campaign to consolidate his power in western Honshu in an effort to unite Japan during the late 16th century. The siege was fought between Hashiba Hideyoshi, a Oda clan general, against a garrison under an ally of the Mōri clan, it is a case in which starvation tactics were used in a Sengoku Period siege. The siege lasted up to 200 days, when Kikkawa Tsuneie committed suicide to save his men from cannibalism. Tottori Castle was key to the Mōri clan's defense of their inner provinces against the encroachment of Oda Nobunaga. In late 1580, as part of his campaign to extend Nobunaga's domain to the west Hashiba Hideyoshi moved north from his new base in Harima and by 1581 entered Inaba province on the Sea of Japan wherein his forces encountered Tottori; the yamashiro castle, built into the mountain itself, was owned by the Yamana clan under Yamana Toyokuni, but had passed to the Mori and was guarded by their retainer, Kikkawa Tsuneie.

Hideyoshi made efforts to negotiate with Tsuneie, but the Mori retainer was resolved to hold onto the castle and keep it from falling into Oda hands. The siege began when Hideyoshi opted to starve the garrison out. To this end, Hideyoshi drove the local villagers within the walls of the castle and all the approaches to Tottori were covered by erecting towers every 500 meters around the perimeter. Hideyoshi went as far as purchasing all the available rice in Inaba province at several times the market price to aid in the process of breaking the resolve of the garrison. Though the defenders held out for some time their food stores began to run low and were reduced to consuming all of the horses they had on hand; when these were gone, the defenders resorted to eating grass and rumored to be on the verge of cannibalism. Any emaciated defenders who attempted to flee the castle were picked off by arquebusiers. After enduring 200 days, the siege ended when the lord of the castle, Kikkawa Tsuneie and agreed to commit suicide.

In spite of the garrison surviving the siege many perished from overeating when they gorged on the food provided to them when released into Hideyoshi's care. Hashiba Hideyoshi would return to his base at Himeji in Harima and continue westward along the San'yōdō through Bizen and into Mori-controlled Bitchu province, where in 1582 he would besiege the castle of Takamatsu. Turnbull, Stephen.'Toyotomi Hideyoshi'. Osprey Publishing