Windsor is a town in Hartford County, United States, was the first English settlement in the state. It lies on the northern border of Hartford; the population of Windsor was 29,044 at the 2010 census. Poquonock is a northern area of Windsor. Other unincorporated areas in Windsor include Rainbow and Hayden Station in the north, Wilson and Deerfield in the south; the Day Hill Road area is known as Windsor's Corporate Area, although other centers of business include New England Tradeport, Kennedy Industry Park and Kennedy Business Park, all near Bradley International Airport and the Addison Road Industrial Park. The coastal areas and riverways were traditional areas of settlement by various American Indian cultures, in the region for thousands of years, they relied on the rivers for fishing and transportation. Before European contact, the historic Pequot and Mohegan tribes had been one Algonquian-speaking people. After they separated, they became traditional enemies in the Connecticut region. During the first part of the 17th century, the Pequot and Mohegan nations had been at war.
The Podunk were forced to pay tribute to the more powerful Pequot. The Podunk invited a small party of settlers from Plymouth, Massachusetts, to settle as a mediating force between the other tribes. In exchange they granted them a plot of land at the confluence of the Farmington River and the west side of the Connecticut River. After Edward Winslow came from Plymouth to inspect the land, William Holmes led a small party, arriving at the site on September 26, 1633, where they founded a trading post; the spot of the trading post is at the confluence of the Connecticut Rivers. The Loomis Chaffee School owns the land as the spot is now the school's sports fields. Native Americans referred to the area as Matianuck, it was about 50 miles up river from Long Island Sound, at the end of waters navigable by ship and above the Dutch fort at Hartford, offering an advantageous location for the English to trade with the Indians before they reached the Dutch. In 1635, a party of around 30 people, sponsored by Sir Richard Saltonstall, led by the Stiles brothers, Francis and Henry, settled in the Windsor area.
Governor John Winthrop of the Massachusetts Bay Company acknowledged in a letter to Saltonstall that the Stiles party was the second group to settle Connecticut. The first group of 60 or more people were led by Roger Ludlow, primary framer of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, having trekked overland from Dorchester, Massachusetts, they had arrived in the New World five years earlier on the ship Mary and John from Plymouth and settled in Dorchester. Reverend Warham promptly renamed the Connecticut settlement "Dorchester". During the next few years, more settlers arrived from Dorchester and soon displacing the original Plymouth contingent, who returned to Plymouth in 1638 after selling their parcel to a Matthew Allyn of Hartford. On February 21, 1637, the colony's General Court changed the name of the settlement from Dorchester to Windsor, named after the town of Windsor, Berkshire, on the River Thames in England; the same day, Windsor was incorporated as a town along with Wethersfield. Several "daughter towns" were formed from Windsor's original boundaries.
These include portions or all of Barkhamsted, Bolton, Coventry, East Granby, East Windsor, Enfield, Harwinton, Manchester, Simsbury, South Windsor, Tolland, Torrington and Windsor Locks. The first "highway" in the Connecticut Colony opened in 1638 between Hartford. Two years the highway was extended north to the colony's 1636 settlement at Springfield, with the road connecting to Wethersfield and thus the four settlements that came to dominate the region for much of colonial history were connected. In the summer of 1640, an event took place that would forever change the boundaries of the Connecticut River Valley. During a grain famine, the founder of Springfield, William Pynchon, was given authority by Windsor and Hartford to negotiate a price for grain for the three settlements with the natives. First, the natives refused to sell grain at the usual market price, refused to sell it at "a reasonable price". Pynchon refused to buy it, attempting to teach the natives a peaceful lesson about integrity and reliability.
Windsor's cattle were starving and the citizens of Hartford were furious. With Windsor's consent, Hartford commissioned the famous Indian fighter John Mason to travel to Springfield with "money in one hand and a sword in the other" to threaten the natives, thereby force the grain trade; the natives capitulated and sold their grain. After "negotiating the trade", Mason refused to share the grain with Springfield, and, to add further insult, insisted that Springfield pay a tax when sailing ships passed Windsor. Outraged, Springfield forever sided with the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a faraway theocracy based in Boston, rather than with the Connecticut Colony, much closer geographically and far more compatible ideologically. Windsor played a neutral role in the colonial rivalry between Springfield. Windsor sided with Connecticut; the Hartford & Springfield Street Railway, a trolley
William Buckland DD, FRS was an English theologian who became Dean of Westminster. He was a geologist and palaeontologist, he wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur. His work proved that Kirkdale Cave had been a prehistoric hyena den, for which he was awarded the Copley Medal, it was praised as an example of. He pioneered the use of fossilised faeces in reconstructing ecosystems. Buckland followed the Gap Theory in interpreting the biblical account of Genesis as two separated episodes of creation, it had emerged as a way to reconcile the scriptural account with discoveries in geology suggesting the earth was old. Early in his career Buckland believed he had found evidence of the biblical flood, but saw that the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz gave a better explanation, played a significant role in promoting it. Buckland was born at Axminster in Devon and, as a child, would accompany his father, the Rector of Templeton and Trusham, on his walks where interest in road improvements led to collecting fossil shells, including ammonites, from the Jurassic-era lias rocks exposed in local quarries.
He was educated first at Blundell's School, Devon, at Winchester College, from where he won a scholarship to Corpus Christi College, matriculating in 1801, graduating BA in 1805. He attended lectures of John Kidd on mineralogy and chemistry, developed an interest in geology, carried out field research on strata during his vacations, he went on to obtain his MA degree in 1808, became a Fellow of Corpus Christi in 1809, was ordained as a priest. He continued to make frequent geological excursions, on horseback, to various parts of England, Scotland and Wales. In 1813, Buckland was appointed reader in mineralogy, in succession to John Kidd, giving lively and popular lectures with increasing emphasis on geology and palaeontology; as an unofficial curator of the Ashmolean Museum, he built up collections, touring Europe and coming into contact with scholars including Georges Cuvier. In 1818, Buckland was elected a fellow of the Royal Society; that year he persuaded the Prince Regent to endow an additional Readership, this time in Geology and he became the first holder of the new appointment, delivering his inaugural address on 15 May 1819.
This was published in 1820 as Vindiciæ Geologiæ. At a time when others were coming under the opposing influence of James Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism, Buckland developed a new hypothesis that the word "beginning" in Genesis meant an undefined period between the origin of the earth and the creation of its current inhabitants, during which a long series of extinctions and successive creations of new kinds of plants and animals had occurred. Thus, his catastrophism theory incorporated a version of Old Earth Gap creationism. Buckland believed in a global deluge during the time of Noah but was not a supporter of flood geology as he believed that only a small amount of the strata could have been formed in the single year occupied by the deluge. From his investigations of fossil bones at Kirkdale Cave, in Yorkshire, he concluded that the cave had been inhabited by hyaenas in antediluvian times, that the fossils were the remains of these hyaenas and the animals they had eaten, rather than being remains of animals that had perished in the Flood and carried from the tropics by the surging waters, as he and others had at first thought.
In 1822 he wrote: It must appear probable, from the facts above described from the comminuted state and gnawed condition of the bones, that the cave in Kirkdale was, during a long succession of years, inhabited as a den of hyaenas, that they dragged into its recesses the other animal bodies whose remains are found mixed indiscriminately with their own: this conjecture is rendered certain by the discovery I made, of many small balls of the solid calcareous excrement of an animal that had fed on bones... It was at first sight recognised by the keeper of the Menagerie at Exter Change, as resembling, in both form and appearance, the faeces of the spotted or cape hyaena, which he stated to be greedy of bones beyond all other beasts in his care. While criticised by some, Buckland's analysis of Kirkland Cave and other bone caves was seen as a model for how careful analysis could be used to reconstruct the Earth's past, the Royal Society awarded Buckland the Copley Medal in 1822 for his paper on Kirkdale Cave.
At the presentation the society's president, Humphry Davy, said: by these inquiries, a distinct epoch has, as it were, been established in the history of the revolutions of our globe: a point fixed from which our researches may be pursued through the immensity of ages, the records of animate nature, as it were, carried back to the time of the creation. While Buckland's analysis convinced him that the bones found in Kirkdale Cave had not been washed into the cave by a global flood, he still believed the thin layer of mud that covered the remains of the hyaena den had been deposited in the subsequent'Universal Deluge', he developed these ideas into his great scientific work Reliquiæ Diluvianæ, or, Observations on the Organic Remains attesting the Action of a Universal Deluge, published in 1823 and became a best seller. However, over the next decade as geology continued to progress Buckland changed his mind. In his famous Bridgewater Treatise, published in 1836, he acknowledged that the biblical account of Noah's flood could
Enfield Falls Canal
Enfield Falls Canal is a canal, built to circumvent the shallows at Enfield Falls on the Connecticut River, between Hartford and Springfield, Massachusetts. It is situated along the west side of the river, adjacent to the towns of Suffield and Windsor Locks in Hartford County in the state of Connecticut, USA. Windsor Locks is named after the series of locks on the canal. Prior to the opening of the canal, the scows or flat-bottomed boats which plied the Connecticut River could only ascend the falls by engaging local fallsmen to propel the craft forward utilizing set poles. One fallsman was required for each ton of cargo. Not only did the added labor costs make this method of overtaking the falls expensive, but the amount of cargo that could be transported was limited to ten tons. Any additional freight had to be offloaded at Warehouse Point on the east bank and warehoused for transport or carried around the falls by ox teams. Construction of the canal commenced in 1827 and it was opened on November 11, 1829.
The canal was 5 1⁄4 miles long and had a vertical drop of 32 ft. The locks admitted craft up to 90 ft long and 20 ft wide; the canal was unique among canals of the era in that it was designed with structural reinforcement to facilitate steam tug boat traffic. The design of the canal included a massive head gate with apertures that could be opened and closed to control water levels not only within the lock chambers but within the canal itself; the design feature supported the incorporator's dual intent to profit not only from tolls charged on canal traffic but from the sale of mill sites and the leasing of water rights to mill operators along the last mile of the canal bank. Once the canal was opened, boats were able to carry much larger loads, the anticipated steamboat services were introduced using newly designed vessels capable of passing through the lock chambers. Charles Dickens traveled along the canal on February 7, 1842. However, by 1844 the Hartford and Springfield Railroad had started operation, navigation on the Connecticut River reduced.
The profits realized from the sale of water rights proved to be the more lucrative of the canal's two purposes. Today the canal is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, but closed to navigation and owned by the Ahlstrom Corporation, which has a manufacturing facility adjacent to the canal; the locks themselves have not been usable since the 1970s. Most of the towpath is open for cycling as the Windsor Locks Canal State Park Trail. While the canal is nominally open April 1 through November 15, the Southern end may be closed due to a pair of bald eagles which has nested there since 2011. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hartford County, Connecticut windsorlockshistory.com - an on-line listing of books, articles and videos on the history of Windsor Locks, including many on the canal. Windsor Locks Canal State Park Trail Windsor Locks Canal State Park Trail Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection The Rise and Fall of the Canal and the Factories Along it, by Dr. Melvin D. Montemerlo, July 25, 2016.
Connecticut Heritage. The Canal at Windsor Locks. Retrieved January 20, 2006. Windsor Locks Canal State Park Trail, Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection
A shallop was a small boat used for coastal navigation from the seventeenth century. Somewhat larger than a dory, the shallop was about 30 feet long and equipped with oars and a mast with one or two sails. A shallop could take over a dozen people and had a shallow draft of about two feet. Vessels of this design could carry a substantial load and be armed with cannon. Captain John Smith used shallops to explore Chesapeake Bay in the Summer of 1608; the boats were sawed in half and stowed aboard the Susan Constant, being reassembled when the colonists arrived in North America. The Danes armed shallops for use as gunboats in the Gunboat War between Denmark–Norway and the British Navy during the Napoleonic Wars. Whale boat
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
King Philip's War
King Philip's War was an armed conflict in 1675–78 between Indian inhabitants of New England and New England colonists and their Indian allies. The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the name Philip because of the friendly relations between his father Massasoit and the Mayflower Pilgrims; the war continued in the most northern reaches of New England until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April 1678. Massasoit had maintained a long-standing alliance with the colonists. Metacom was his younger son, he became tribal chief in 1662 after Massasoit's death. Metacom, did not maintain his father's alliance between the Wampanoags and the colonists; the colonists insisted. Colonial militia and Indian raiding parties spread over Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Maine over the next six months; the Narragansetts remained neutral, but several individual Narragansetts participated in raids of colonial strongholds and militia, so colonial leaders deemed the Narragansetts to be in violation of peace treaties.
They assembled the largest colonial army that New England had yet mustered, consisting of 1,000 militia and 150 Indian allies, Governor Josiah Winslow marshaled them to attack the Narragansetts in November 1675. They attacked and burned Indian villages throughout Rhode Island territory, culminating with the attack on the Narragansetts' main fort called the Great Swamp Fight. An estimated 150 Narragansetts were killed, many of them women and children, the Indian coalition was taken over by Narragansett sachem Canonchet, they pushed back the colonial frontier in Massachusetts Bay and Rhode Island colonies, burning towns as they went, including Providence in March 1676. However, the colonial militia overwhelmed the Indian coalition and, by the end of the war, the Wampanoags and their Narragansett allies were completely destroyed. Metacom fled to Mount Hope where he was killed by the militia; the war was the greatest calamity to occur in seventeenth-century New England and is considered by many to be the deadliest war in the history of American colonization.
In the space of little more than a year, 12 of the region's towns were destroyed and many more were damaged, the economy of Plymouth and Rhode Island Colonies was all but ruined and their population was decimated, losing one-tenth of all men available for military service. More than half of New England's towns were attacked by Indians. King Philip's War began the development of an independent American identity; the New England colonists faced their enemies without support from any outside government or military, this gave them a group identity separate and distinct from Britain. The Pilgrims who arrived on the Mayflower and founded Plymouth Plantation expended great effort forging friendship and peace with the Indians around Cape Cod, they traveled long distances to make peace with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag tribe, Governor William Bradford made a gift of his prized red horse coat upon seeing that the chief admired it. Yet over the next 50 years and misunderstandings multiplied as wave after wave of Puritans and non-religious "strangers" kept arriving oblivious to the fragile peace woven since the earliest arrivals.
By 1675, the early efforts at friendship failed. King Philip's War joined a list of uprisings and conflicts between various Indian tribes and the French and English colonial settlements of Canada, New York, New England; these include the Powhatan wars of 1610–14, 1622–32, 1644–46 in Virginia, the Pequot War of 1637 in Connecticut, the Dutch-Indian war of 1643 along the Hudson River, the Iroquois Beaver Wars of 1650. Throughout the Northeast, the Indians had suffered severe population losses as a result of epidemics of smallpox, spotted fever and measles starting in about 1618, two years before the Pilgrims established Plymouth Colony. Plymouth Colony was established in 1620 with significant early help from local Indians Squanto and Massasoit. Subsequent colonists founded Salem and many small towns around Massachusetts Bay between 1628 and 1640, during a time of increased English immigration, as well as towns such as Windsor, Newbury, Hartford, Springfield, Northampton and Providence, Rhode Island.
The colonists progressively expanded throughout the territories of the several Algonquian-speaking tribes in the region. Prior to King Philip's War, tensions fluctuated between Indian tribes and the colonists, but relations were peaceful; the Rhode Island, Massachusetts Bay and New Haven colonies each developed separate relations with the Wampanoags, Narragansetts, Mohegans and other tribes of New England, whose territories had differing boundaries. Many of the neighboring tribes had been traditional enemies; as the colonial population increased, the New Englanders expanded their settlements along the region's coastal plain and up the Connecticut River valley. By 1675, they had established a few small towns in the interior between Boston and the Connecticut River settlements; the Wampanoag tribe under Metacomet's leadership had entered into an agreement with the Plymouth Colony and believed that they could rely on the colony for protection. However, in the decades preceding the war