5th millennium BC

The 5th millennium BC spanned the years 5000 BC to 4001 BC. It is impossible to date events that happened around the time of this millennium and all dates mentioned here are estimates based on geological and anthropological analysis; the rapid world population growth of the previous millennium, caused by the Neolithic Revolution, is believed to have slowed and become stable. It has been estimated that there were around forty million people worldwide by 5000 BC, growing to 100 million by the Middle Bronze Age c. 1600 BC. The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture began around 4800 BC, it was centred on modern Moldova and lasted in three defined phases until c. 3000 BC. From about 4500 BC until c. 2500 BC, a single tongue called Proto-Indo-European existed as the forerunner of all modern Indo-European languages, but it left no written texts and its structure is unknown. Chinese civilisation advanced in this millennium with the beginnings of three noted cultures from around 5000 BC; the Yangshao culture was based in the Huang He endured for some 2,000 years.

It is believed. Pottery was fired in kilns dug into the ground and painted. Millet was cultivated. A type-site settlement for the Yangshao was established c. 4700 BC at Banpo near modern Xi'an, Shaanxi. About 5000 BC, the Hemudu culture began in eastern China with cultivation of rice, the Majiabang culture was established on the Yangtze estuary near modern Shanghai, lasting until c. 3300 BC. It is estimated that the distinctive Aboriginal rock carvings near Sydney were created sometime between 5000 BC and 3000 BC, it is estimated that the beginning of the Pastoral Neolithic was in the phase of the Green Sahara, in the 6th or 5th millennium BC. It was prior to the desiccation of the Green Sahara. During this time, sub-Saharan Africa remained in the Palaeolithic; as the grasslands of the Sahara began drying after c. 3900 BC, herders moved into the Nile Valley and by the middle of the 3rd millennium BC into eastern Africa. The 5th millennium has become a startpoint for calendars and chronologies, though only one has any basis in reality.

The year 4750 BC is the retrospective startpoint for the Assyrian calendar, marking the traditional date for the foundation of Assur, some 2,000 years before it happened. Another traditional date is 19 July 4241 BC, marking the supposed beginning of the Egyptian calendar, as calculated retrospectively by Eduard Meyer; the more startpoint is 19 July 2781 BCE, one Sothic cycle later. It has been believed that the calendar was based on a heliacal rising of Sirius but that view is now being questioned. According to the Ussher chronology, the creation of Earth happened on 22/23 October 4004 BC; this chronology was the work of James Ussher, whose basis was the dates in the Old Testament of the Bible. He estimated that the universe was created by God at either 18:00 on the 09:00 on the 23rd; the only exact date in the 5th millennium is Monday, 1 January 4713 BC, the beginning of the current Julian Period, first described by Joseph Justus Scaliger in the sixteenth century. This Julian Period lasts 7,980 years until the year 3268 CE in the next millennium.

It is a useful device for date conversions between different calendars. The date of origin has the integer value of zero in the Julian Day Count: i.e. in the Julian Calendar.

Josh Kassel

Josh Kassel is a former American college ice hockey goaltender for the Army Black Knights of the Atlantic Hockey League. He played for the Bozeman Icedogs from 2003 to 2005. In 2008, as a junior, Kassel was the Atlantic Hockey All-Conference Player of the Year and was in the top eight nationally for best save percentage and goals against average, he was the first goaltender to be awarded the Atlantic Hockey Player of the Year and held the best GAA in Atlantic Hockey league history. He was selected as Division I Men's Hockey 2008 Second Team All-Americans for the East, becoming the Army's first hockey All-American in nearly 30 years. Kassel played more poorly in his senior year, was replaced as the starter by sophomore Jay Clark, he retired from competitive hockey after the 2009 season. Biographical information and career statistics from The Internet Hockey Database