Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the name for each instance of that project; the project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, translations. Conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, it has expanded to become a general-content library; the project began in November 24, 2003 under the name Project Sourceberg, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later; the project holds works that are either in the public domain or licensed. Verification was made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, which ensures the reliability and accuracy of the project's texts; some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, from comics to film to audio books. Some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question; the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. Wikisource's early history included several changes of name and location, the move to language subdomains in 2005; the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing primary evidence and original source texts, as an archive in its own right; the collection was focused on important historical and cultural material, distinguishing it from other digital archives such as Project Gutenberg. The project was called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages. In 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion.
Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this. In describing the proposed project, user The Cunctator said, "It would be to Project Gutenberg what Wikipedia is to Nupedia," soon clarifying the statement with "we don't want to try to duplicate Project Gutenberg's efforts. Project Sourceberg can work as an interface for linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, as an interface for people to submit new work to PG." Initial comments were sceptical, with Larry Sanger questioning the need for the project, writing "The hard question, I guess, is why we are reinventing the wheel, when Project Gutenberg exists? We'd want to complement Project Gutenberg--how, exactly?", Jimmy Wales adding "like Larry, I'm interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, whatever we want it to be."The project began its activity at ps.wikipedia.org.
The contributors understood the "PS" subdomain to mean either "primary sources" or Project Sourceberg. However, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. Project Sourceberg launched on November 24, 2003 when it received its own temporary URL, at sources.wikipedia.org, all texts and discussions hosted on ps.wikipedia.org were moved to the temporary address. A vote on the project's name changed it to Wikisource on December 6, 2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23, 2004. Since Wikisource was called "Project Sourceberg", its first logo was a picture of an iceberg. Two votes conducted to choose a successor were inconclusive, the original logo remained until 2006. For both legal and technical reasons – because the picture's license was inappropriate for a Wikimedia Foundation logo and because a photo cannot scale properly – a stylized vector iceberg inspired by the original picture was mandated to serve as the project's logo.
The first prominent use of Wikisource's slogan — The Free Library — was at the project's multilingual portal, when it was redesigned based upon the Wikipedia portal on August 27, 2005. As in the Wikipedia portal the Wikisource slogan appears around the logo in the project's ten largest languages. Clicking on the portal's central images links to a list of translations for Wikisource and The Free Library in 60 languages. A MediaWiki extension called ProofreadPage was developed for Wikisource by developer ThomasV to improve the vetting of transcriptions by the project; this displays pages of scanned works side-by-side with the text relating to that page, allowing the text to be proofread and its accuracy verified independently by any other editor. Once a book, or other text, has been scanned, the raw images can be modified with image processing software to correct for page rotations and other problems; the retouched images can be converted into a PDF or DjVu file and uploaded to either Wikis
Mäurer & Wirtz
Mäurer & Wirtz is a German manufacturer of personal care products and perfumes. Since 1990 the company has been an independent subsidiary of Dalli Group; the company is managed by the fifth generation of joint CEO Hermann Wirtz. The headquarters and production site is in Stolberg near the city of Aachen with 400 employees; the company sells a range of consumer products using the sales divisions Cosmeurop Perfumes, Théany Cosmetics, NewYorker Cosmetics, s. Oliver Cosmetics and comma Cosmetics. Besides its own brands, such as Betty Barclay and 4711, the company produces licensed brands, such as s. Oliver and Otto Kern; the main markets are Germany, Austria and exports to 135 countries. The company's products are distributed and sold through perfumery and drugstore retailers, department stores, drug stores and selected supermarkets; the history of the family business goes back to Michael Mäurer and his stepson Andreas August Wirtz, who established a soapworks in 1845 in Stolberg. Only soft soaps, curd soaps and fine soaps were sold in a grocery store for the local market.
Over time, the products were established in the Rhineland and also in neighboring countries. In 1884 the production of washing powder began and around the turn of the century the company's first trademarks were registered. Mäurer & Wirtz now produces detergents, soap products and cosmetics. Since 1992, products under the Betty Barclay brand have been produced under license. In 2007, the company took over the brands 4711, Sir Irisch Moos and Extase from Procter & Gamble, in 2011 the Baldessarini fragrance line, Windsor were acquired. Mäurer & Wirtz divided its assortment in 2010 into three business units, which will cover different market and user segments: The segment "Beauty" includes own brands and licensed brands from the low-price sector, the pillar "prestige" is in charge for luxury fragrances and under the third segment "4711" the products from the Cologne "Glockengasse" were brought together: Website of Mäurer & Wirtz
4711 is a traditional German Eau de Cologne by Mäurer & Wirtz. Because it has been produced in Cologne since at least 1799, it is allowed to use the geographical indication Original Eau de Cologne; the brand has been expanded to various other perfumes and products besides the original Echt Kölnisch Wasser, which has used the same formula for more than 200 years. The original 4711 store at Glockengasse 4 in Cologne is a popular tourist attraction. In the early 18th century, Johann Maria Farina, an Italian living in Cologne, created a fragrance, he named it Eau de Cologne after his new home. Over the next century, the fragrance became popular. According to legend, on 8 October 1792, a Carthusian monk made a wedding gift for the merchant Wilhelm Mülhens: the secret recipe of a so-called "aqua mirabilis", a "miracle water" for internal and external use. Mülhens founded a small factory at Cologne's "Glockengasse" and established the first "Eau de Cologne" as a remedy. Peter Joseph Mülhens and his son Wilhelm Mülhens had been in a dispute over the use of the name "Farina" from 1800 to 1881.
The Farina family accused Mülhens of using the name without authorization. The firm "Johann Maria Farina gegenüber dem Jülichs-Platz" feared confusion between the products because they produced perfumes. In 1832, Wilhelm Mülhens lost the dispute, whereupon he employed another Mr. Farina from Mortara in order to continue using the name; the company name was Eau de Cologne & Parfümerie Fabrik Glockengasse No. 4711 gegenüber der Pferdepost von Ferd. Mülhens in Köln am Rhein until 1990, when it was renamed Mülhens Co.. KG. In 1994, the Mülhens family company was bought by Wella AG, Germany. Since 1997, Wella has operated its cosmetic activities under the name Cosmopolitan Cosmetics GmbH, although the name Mülhens GmbH & Co. KG was still in use. In 2003, Wella AG was taken over by the American competitor Gamble. In summer 2006, Procter & Gamble announced it would sell the 4711 brand and three other former Mühlens brands, as part of an effort to divest "local" brands and to focus on global brands; the offer attracted several interested parties.
On 3 October 1794, in view of the French troops standing just outside Cologne, the city council approved a plan proposed by the guard-committee to number all houses in the city without exception and to install what would be considered appropriate lighting for each location. Orders were given to install the lighting while the numbering was left to fate. On 6 October 1794, French troops occupied the city. On 7 October 1794, the city council decided that every local government official had to hand in an inventory of all citizens and non-citizens in his district within 48 hours. Furthermore, the guard-committee received authorisation to number the houses as agreed. On 20 October 1794, Senator Gottfried von Gall noted in his diary that the numbering and the written documentation of the houses which started eight days earlier was being continued; the printer Heinrich Josef Metternich applied for permission to publish an address calendar. This calendar was supposed to include, amongst other things, the house numbers, assigned.
He sought permission to collect all the relevant details. In the second address book of Cologne, the widow of Wilhelm von Lemmen was still listed as the tenant of the Klöckergasse house, given the number 4711. Wilhelm Mülhens was listed as the tenant of the house no sooner than in the third edition of the address book of Cologne, he is not yet listed under the manufacturers of Eau de Cologne in the mercantile directory. In 1811, the continuous house numbering was changed to a system of numbering streets separately, as is common today. In the preface to the 1813 French edition of the address book, the publisher Thiriart claimed that there had not been any house numbering before the arrival of the French in the city and that the order to number the houses had been given in 1795. In 1854, Peter Joseph Mülhens moved from Glockengasse 12 into a newly constructed commercial building with a neo-gothic facade at Glockengasse 26-28. Glockengasse 12, assigned the number 4711 in 1794, remained vacant for a period of time and was torn down after it was sold.
The depiction of a French military officer painting the house number 4711 on the facade of the house in the Glockengasse while sitting on his horse is a product of advertising. A piece of tapestry, a gobelin, ordered and made in the 1920s, served as a model. A scenic version spread in the 1950s and the 1960s. In Yevgeny Zamyatin's novel We, the name S-4711 is a reference to the Eau de Cologne. In The Rocky Horror Picture Show, 4711 is tattooed on Frank's upper thigh. Electronic musician Vladimir Ussachevsky composed a work called Improvisation on 4711. During World War II Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine issued vast amounts of 4711 perfume to the submariners of the U-Boat fleet; as there were limited facilities and few opportunities for bathing, the scent was to be used in an attempt to improve the odour aboard the vessel. Crew members didn't use much of it and would take home bottles as presents for mothers, wives or girlfriends. In the novella Breakfast at Tiffany's by Truman Capote, the famed lead character Holly Golightly uses 4711.
Stiftung Rheinisch-Westfälisches Wirtschaftsarchiv, Cologne: Genuine files 1803 u. Mülhens letters May 9, 1802 / June 22, 1819 / Jun
Johann Maria Farina
Giovanni Maria Farina was an Italian-born perfumier from Germany who created the first Eau de Cologne. Farina settled in Cologne, Duchy of Westphalia, in the year 1709 where he founded Johann Maria Farina gegenüber dem Jülichs-Platz GmbH, the world’s oldest perfume factory still in existence, his subtle fragrance Eau de Cologne became famous worldwide and in the 18th century was an indispensable accessory at all royal courts. The perfume maker chose to call his perfume after his new home town so as to honour it. Indeed, at the time when Farina first moved to Cologne, there were strict laws regarding foreign settlers. Farina was granted citizenship and, in order to show off his gratitude, he named his first creation Eau de Cologne; this perfume, being a real sensation at the time, contributed to Cologne’s global fame. Being the first perfume of its kind on the market, the word "Cologne" became a household name. Cologne refers to a perfume, refreshingly light, unisex with a citrus-based head note.
The explanation as to why the perfume was given a French name is rather simple: In the 17th and 18th century, the French language was spoken in European high society and used by tradesmen, which explains Farina's name decision. Counterfeits of the perfume only appeared at the end of the 18th century. After the French Revolution, Napoleon's troops occupied Cologne for a number of years and introduced freedom of trade. Back registered trademarks did not exist, which explains why there were so many counterfeits. Farina died on 25 November 1766 in Cologne. Today the 8th generation of the Farina family still produces the original Eau de Cologne. Eau de Cologne - The premier fragrance created by Farina Farina gegenüber - The oldest existing perfume factory in the world Cologne - The German city where the original Eau de Cologne was invented Homepage of the Eau de Cologne Company Farina in Cologne Fragrance Museum in Cologne
Ethanol is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C2H6O. Its formula can be written as CH3−CH2−OH or C2H5−OH, is abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol is a volatile, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor, it is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, is most consumed as a popular recreational drug, it has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, is a vital substance used across many different kinds of manufacturing industries. Ethanol is used as a clean-burning fuel source. Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry for a compound consisting of alkyl group with two carbon atoms, having a single bond between them, attached functional group −OH group; the “eth-” prefix and the qualifier “ethyl” in “ethyl alcohol” come from the name “ethyl” assigned in 1834 to the group C2H5− by Justus Liebig.
He coined the word from the German name Aether of the compound C2H5−O−C2H5. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, Ethyl is a contraction of the Ancient Greek αἰθήρ and the Greek word ὕλη; the name ethanol was coined as a result of a resolution, adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature, held in April 1892 in Geneva, Switzerland. The term “alcohol” now refers to a wider class of substances in chemistry nomenclature, but in common parlance it remains the name of ethanol; the Oxford English Dictionary claims that it is a medieval loan from Arabic al-kuḥl, a powdered ore of antimony used since antiquity as a cosmetic, retained that meaning in Middle Latin. The use of “alcohol” for ethanol is modern, first recorded 1753, by the 18th century referred to “any sublimated substance”; the systematic use in chemistry dates to 1850. Ethanol is used in medical wipes and most in antibacterial hand sanitizer gels as an antiseptic for its bactericidal and anti-fungal effects. Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, many viruses.
However, ethanol is ineffective against bacterial spores. 70% ethanol is the most effective concentration because of osmotic pressure. Absolute ethanol may inactivate microbes without destroying them because the alcohol is unable to permeate the microbe's membrane. Ethanol can be used as a disinfectant and antiseptic because it causes cell dehydration by disrupting the osmotic balance across cell membrane, so water leaves the cell leading to cell death. Ethanol may be administered as an antidote to ethylene glycol poisoning. Ethanol in high concentrations, is used to dissolve many water-insoluble medications and related compounds. Liquid preparations of crack cocaine, pain medication, mouth washes may be dissolved in 1 to 25% concentrations of ethanol and may need to be avoided in individuals with adverse reactions to ethanol such as alcohol-induced respiratory reactions. Ethanol is present as an antimicrobial preservative in over 700 liquid preparations of medicine including acetaminophen, iron supplements, furosemide, phenobarbital, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and over-the-counter cough medicine.
If ingested orally, ethanol is extensively metabolized by the liver via the enzyme CYP450. Ethyl Alcohol increases the secretion of acids in the stomach; the metabolite acetaldehyde is responsible for much of the short term, long term effects of ethyl alcohol toxicity. As a central nervous system depressant, ethanol is one of the most consumed psychoactive drugs; the largest single use of ethanol is as an engine fuel additive. Brazil in particular relies upon the use of ethanol as an engine fuel, due in part to its role as the globe's leading producer of ethanol. Gasoline sold in Brazil contains. Hydrous ethanol can be used as fuel in more than 90% of new gasoline fueled cars sold in the country. Brazilian ethanol is noted for high carbon sequestration; the US and many other countries use E10 and E85 ethanol/gasoline mixtures. Ethanol has been used as rocket fuel and is in lightweight rocket-powered racing aircraft. Australian law limits the use of pure ethanol from sugarcane waste to 10% in automobiles.
Older cars should have the engine valves replaced. According to an industry advocacy group, ethanol as a fuel reduces harmful tailpipe emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, other ozone-forming pollutants. Argonne National Laboratory analyzed greenhouse gas emissions of many different engine and fuel combinations, found that biodiesel/petrodiesel blend showed a reduction of 8%, conventional E85 ethanol blend a reduction of 17% and cellulosic ethanol 64%, compared with pure gasoline. Ethanol combustion in an internal combustion engine yields many of the products of incomple
Santa Maria Maggiore, Piedmont
Santa Maria Maggiore is a comune in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 130 kilometres northeast of Turin and about 25 kilometres north of Verbania, on the border with Switzerland. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 1,236 and an area of 53.2 square kilometres. Santa Maria Maggiore borders the following municipalities: Campo, Druogno, Masera, Toceno, Vergeletto. Comune.santamariamaggiore.vb.it/ http://english.santamariamaggiore.info/