The eaves are the edges of the roof which overhang the face of a wall and project beyond the side of a building. The eaves form an overhang to throw water clear of the walls and may be decorated as part of an architectural style, such as the Chinese dougong bracket systems; the term eaves is derived from Old English efes meaning edge. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, eaves is both the plural form of the word. However, the Merriam-Webster website lists the word as eave and states that it is "usually used in plural"; the primary function of the eaves is to keep rain water off the walls and to prevent the ingress of water at the junction where the roof meets the wall. The eaves may protect a pathway around the building from the rain, prevent erosion of the footings, reduce splatter on the wall from rain as it hits the ground; the secondary function is to control solar penetration as a form of passive solar building design. The eaves overhang may shelter openings to ventilate the roof space.
Aesthetic, traditional or purely decorative considerations may prevail over the functional requirements of the eaves. The Arts and Crafts Movement influenced the American Craftsman tradition, which has wide eaves with decorative brackets, for which there is not a real functional need; the eaves may terminate in a fascia, a board running the length of the eaves under the tiles or roof sheets to cap off and protect the exposed rafter ends and to provide grounds on which to fix gutters. At the gables the eaves may extend beyond the gable end wall by projecting the purlins and are capped off by bargeboards to protect the wall and the purlin ends; the underside of the eaves may be filled with a horizontal soffit fixed at right angles to the wall, the soffit may be decorative but it has the function of sealing the gap between the rafters from vermin and weather. Eaves must be designed for local wind speeds as the overhang can increase the wind loading on the roof; the line on the ground under the outer edge of the eaves is the eavesdrip, or dripline, in typical building planning regulations defines the extent of the building and cannot oversail the property boundary.
Randy Montana is an American country singer signed to Mercury Records Nashville. His first album, Randy Montana, was released in 2011, he is the son of singer-songwriter Billy Montana, who has written Number One singles for Garth Brooks, Jo Dee Messina and Sara Evans. He is married to Montgomery "Gummy" Lee, daughter of retired stock car racer Kyle Petty, granddaughter of Richard Petty; the couple have one daughter Sullivan Mae Montana born February 27, 2012 and one son Gunnar West Montana born December 10, 2014. In March 2010, Montana released his debut single "Ai," to radio; the song entered at No. 59 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts dated for the week ending April 3, 2010. His self-titled album's second single "1,000 Faces" released to country radio on 2011. Karlie Justus of Engine 145 gave "Ain't Much Left of Lovin' You" a thumbs-up, calling Montana's voice "raspy" and comparing the song's theme to George Jones's "The Grand Tour." Matt Bjorke of Roughstock rated it three-and-a-half stars out of five, saying that the song is a "grow-on-you type" but that it "really feels like a genuine and proper introduction."
Timeline of women's legal rights represents formal changes and reforms regarding women's rights. That includes actual law reforms as well as other formal changes, such as reforms through new interpretations of laws by precedents; the right to vote is exempted from the timeline: for that right. The timeline excludes ideological changes and events within feminism and antifeminism: for that, see Timeline of feminism. 1803United Kingdom: Lord Ellenborough's Act was enacted, making abortion after quickening a capital crime, providing lesser penalties for the felony of abortion before quickening.1804Sweden: Women are granted the permit to manufacture and sell candles. France: Divorce is abolished for women in 1804. France: Equal inheritance rights for women were abolished in 1804.1810France: Until 1994, France kept in the French Penal Code the article from 1810 that exonerated a rapist in the event of a marriage to their victim. France: The 1810 Napoleonic Code of France punished any person who procured an abortion with imprisonment.
Sweden: The right of an unmarried woman to be declared of legal majority by royal dispensation are confirmed by parliament. Sweden: Amendment to the Guild Regulation of 1720 secures the right of all women of legal majority to apply and be granted a permit to work within all guild professions and handicrafts without having to fulfill the normal requirement of male applicants, because of their greater difficulty to support themselves.1811Austria: Married women are granted separate economy and the right to choose profession. Sweden: Married businesswomen are granted the right to make decisions about their own affairs without their husband's consent.1817England: Public whipping of women abolished.1820–1900United States: Primarily through the efforts of physicians in the American Medical Association and legislators, most abortions in the U. S. were outlawed.1821United States, Maine: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse. United States, Connecticut: A law targeted apothecaries who sold "poisons" to women for purposes of inducing an abortion.1823Argentina: The charitable Beneficial Society is charged by the government to establish and control elementary schools for girls.1829India: The Bengal Sati Regulation, 1829 bans the practice of Sati in British Bengal.
Sweden: Midwives are allowed to use surgical instruments, which are unique in Europe at the time and gives them surgical status. United States, New York: New York made post-quickening abortions a felony and pre-quickening abortions a misdemeanor.1830The practice of Sati is banned in Madras and Bombay.1833Guatemala: Divorce legalized.1835United States, Arkansas: Married women allowed to own property in their own name. United States, Massachusetts: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse. United States, Tennessee: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse. Ireland: Contraception in Ireland was made illegal in 1835 under the 1835 Criminal Law Act.1839United Kingdom: The Custody of Infants Act 1839 makes it possible for divorced mothers to be granted custody of their children. United States, Mississippi: The Married Women's Property Act 1839 grants married women the right to own property in her own name.1840Guatemala: Divorce illegalized.
Republic of Texas: Married women allowed to own property in their own name. United States, Maine: Married women allowed to own property in their own name. United States, Maryland: Married women allowed to own property in their own name.1842Norway: Unmarried women are given the right to engage in small scale commerce. Sweden: Compulsory Elementary school for both sexes. United States, New Hampshire: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse. Japan: The Shogunate in Japan banned induced abortion in Edo, but the law did not affect the rest of the country until 1869, when abortion was banned nationwide.1843United States, Kentucky: Married women allowed to own and manage property in their own name during the incapacity of their spouse.1844United States, Maine: Married women granted separate economy. United States, Maine: Married women granted trade license. United States, Massachusetts: Married Women granted separate economy.1845Denmark: Married women, despite being minors, are given the right to make a will without the approval of their husbands.
Norway: "Law on the vast majority for single women", for which the age of majority was recognized at age 25, without a requirement for submitting to a guardian after that age. Sweden: Equal inheritance for sons and daughters. United States, New York: Married women granted patent rights. United States, Florida: Married women allowed to own property in their own name.1846Sweden: All Trade- and crafts works professions controlled by the guilds are opened to all women of legal majority through the Fabriks och Handtwerksordning and the Handelsordningen. United States, Alabama: Married women allowed to own property in their own name. United States, Kentucky: Married women allowed to own property in their own name. United States, Ohio: Married women allowed to own property in their own name. United States, Michigan: Married women allowed to own and mana