Walter Whitman was an American poet and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon called the father of free verse, his work was controversial in its time his poetry collection Leaves of Grass, described as obscene for its overt sexuality. Born in Huntington on Long Island, Whitman worked as a journalist, a teacher, a government clerk, and—in addition to publishing his poetry—was a volunteer nurse during the American Civil War. Early in his career, he produced a temperance novel, Franklin Evans. Whitman's major work, Leaves of Grass, was first published in 1855 with his own money; the work was an attempt at reaching out to the common person with an American epic. He continued expanding and revising it until his death in 1892. After a stroke towards the end of his life, he moved to Camden, New Jersey, where his health further declined; when he died at age 72, his funeral became a public spectacle.
Walter Whitman was born on May 31, 1819, in West Hills, Town of Huntington, Long Island, to parents with interests in Quaker thought and Louisa Van Velsor Whitman. The second of nine children, he was nicknamed "Walt" to distinguish him from his father. Walter Whitman Sr. named three of his seven sons after American leaders: Andrew Jackson, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson. The oldest was named Jesse and another boy died unnamed at the age of six months; the couple's sixth son, the youngest, was named Edward. At age four, Whitman moved with his family from West Hills to Brooklyn, living in a series of homes, in part due to bad investments. Whitman looked back on his childhood as restless and unhappy, given his family's difficult economic status. One happy moment that he recalled was when he was lifted in the air and kissed on the cheek by the Marquis de Lafayette during a celebration in Brooklyn on July 4, 1825. At age eleven Whitman concluded formal schooling, he sought employment for further income for his family.
There, Whitman learned about typesetting. He may have written "sentimental bits" of filler material for occasional issues. Clements aroused controversy when he and two friends attempted to dig up the corpse of Elias Hicks to create a plaster mold of his head. Clements left the Patriot shortly afterward as a result of the controversy; the following summer Whitman worked for Erastus Worthington, in Brooklyn. His family moved back to West Hills in the spring, but Whitman remained and took a job at the shop of Alden Spooner, editor of the leading Whig weekly newspaper the Long-Island Star. While at the Star, Whitman became a regular patron of the local library, joined a town debating society, began attending theater performances, anonymously published some of his earliest poetry in the New-York Mirror. At age 16 in May 1835, Whitman left the Brooklyn, he moved to New York City to work as a compositor though, in years, Whitman could not remember where. He attempted to find further work but had difficulty, in part due to a severe fire in the printing and publishing district, in part due to a general collapse in the economy leading up to the Panic of 1837.
In May 1836, he rejoined his family, now living in Long Island. Whitman taught intermittently at various schools until the spring of 1838, though he was not satisfied as a teacher. After his teaching attempts, Whitman went back to Huntington, New York, to found his own newspaper, the Long-Islander. Whitman served as publisher, editor and distributor and provided home delivery. After ten months, he sold the publication to E. O. Crowell, whose first issue appeared on July 12, 1839. There are no known surviving copies of the Long-Islander published under Whitman. By the summer of 1839, he found a job as a typesetter in Jamaica, Queens with the Long Island Democrat, edited by James J. Brenton, he left shortly thereafter, made another attempt at teaching from the winter of 1840 to the spring of 1841. One story apocryphal, tells of Whitman's being chased away from a teaching job in Southold, New York, in 1840. After a local preacher called him a "Sodomite", Whitman was tarred and feathered. Biographer Justin Kaplan notes that the story is untrue, because Whitman vacationed in the town thereafter.
Biographer Jerome Loving calls the incident a "myth". During this time, Whitman published a series of ten editorials, called "Sun-Down Papers—From the Desk of a Schoolmaster", in three newspapers between the winter of 1840 and July 1841. In these essays, he adopted a constructed persona, a technique he would employ throughout his career. Whitman moved to New York City in May working a low-level job at the New World, working under Park Benjamin Sr. and Rufus Wilmot Griswold. He continued working for short periods of time for various newspapers, he contributed freelance fiction and poetry throughout the 1840s. Whitman lost his position at the Brooklyn Eagle in 1848 after siding with the free-soil "Barnburner" wing of the Democratic party against the newspaper's owner, Isaac Van Anden, who belonged to the conservative, or "Hunker", wing of the party. Whitman was a delegate to the 1848 founding convention of the Free Soil Party, concerned about the threat slavery would pose to free white labor and northern businessmen moving
Letchworth Garden City known as Letchworth, is a town in Hertfordshire, with a population of 33,600. It is a former civil parish; the town's name is taken from one of the three villages it surrounded – all of which featured in the Domesday Book. The land used was purchased by Quakers who had intended to farm the area and build a Quaker community; the town was laid out by Raymond Unwin as a demonstration of the principles established by Ebenezer Howard who sought to create an alternative to the industrial city by combining the best of town and country living. It is home to the United Kingdom's first roundabout, built in 1909; as one of the world's first new towns and the first garden city it had great influence on future town planning and the New towns movement. There is a link to town planning in Stalingrad through the architect V. N. Semionov and an account of Lenin visiting the town when he visited England for a congress of the Russian Bolshevik party banned in Russia. Letchworth was one of the ancient parishes of Hertfordshire.
The parish church of St Mary the Virgin was built in the 12th or 13th Century. The village was located along the road now called Letchworth Lane, stretching from St Mary's and the adjoining medieval manor house up to the crossroads of Letchworth Lane, Hitchin Road, Baldock Road and Spring Road, where there was a post office. Letchworth was a small parish, having a population in 1801 of 67, rising to 96 by 1901. In 1898, the social reformer Ebenezer Howard wrote a book entitled To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, in which he advocated the construction of a new kind of town, summed up in his three magnets diagram as combining the advantages of cities and the countryside while eliminating their disadvantages. Industry would be kept separate from residential areas—such zoning was a new idea at the time—and trees and open spaces would prevail everywhere, his ideas were mocked in the press but struck a chord with many members of the Arts and Crafts movement and the Quakers. According to the book the term "garden city" derived from the image of a city being situated within a belt of open countryside, not, as is cited, to a principle that every house in the city should have a garden.
The concept outlined in the book is not one of urban planning, but included a system of community management. For example, the Garden City project would be financed through a system that Howard called "Rate-Rent", which combined financing for community services with a return for those who had invested in the development of the city; the book advocated a rudimentary form of competitive tendering, whereby the municipality would purchase services, such as water, waste disposal, etc. from commercial providers. These systems were never implemented, in Letchworth, Welwyn or their numerous imitators. A competition was held to find a town design which could translate Howard's ideas into reality, September 1903 the company "First Garden City Ltd." was formed, Richard Barry Parker and Raymond Unwin were appointed architects, 6 square miles of land outside Hitchin were purchased for building. In keeping with the ideals only one tree was felled during the entire initial construction phase of the town, an area devoted to agriculture surrounding the town was included in the plan – the first "Green Belt".
In 1905, again in 1907, the company held the Cheap Cottages Exhibitions, contests to build inexpensive housing, which attracted some 60,000 visitors and had a significant effect on planning and urban design in the UK, pioneering and popularising such concepts as pre-fabrication, the use of new building materials, front and back gardens. The exhibitions were sponsored by the Daily Mail, their popularity was significant in the development of that newspaper's launching of the Ideal Home Exhibition – the first of which took place the year after the second Cheap Cottages Exhibition. A railway station was opened in 1903 a few hundred yards west of its current position and railway companies ran excursions to the town, bringing people to marvel at the social experiment and sometimes to mock it: Letchworth's founding citizens, attracted by the promise of a better life, were caricatured by outsiders as idealistic and otherworldly. John Betjeman in his poems Group Life: Letchworth and Huxley Hall painted Letchworth people as earnest health freaks.
One commonly-cited example of this is the ban, most unusual for a British town, on selling alcohol in public premises. This did not stop the town having a "pub" however – the Skittles Inn or the "pub with no beer" which opened as early as 1907. Despite the ban it is not true to say that there were no pubs in the Garden City. Pubs that had existed from before the foundation of the Garden City continued – including the Three Horseshoes in Norton, The George IV on the borders with Baldock, the Three Horseshoes and The Fox in Willian – continued to operate, undoubtedly benefited from the lack of alcohol to be had in the centre of the town, as did the pubs in neighbouring Hitchin and Baldock. New inns sprang up on the borders of the town, one such example being the Wilbury Hotel, just outside the town's border; this ban was lifted after a referendum in 1958, which resulted i
Letchworth Cemetery was the first burial ground for Letchworth Garden City in Hertfordshire. Letchworth’s first cemetery and bordered by Icknield Way and Wilbury Hills Road, the cemetery is now closed for new burials but can be used if graves are being reopened and for prepurchased plots. Cremated remains are still being interred at the cemetery; the car gates close automatically each day at dawn and dusk. Letchworth Cemetery has a small chapel, available for services for children's funerals and can seat about eight mourners; the chapel houses the Book of Remembrance, available to view every day of the year, either inside or through its position at a rear window. It has 15 military graves from World War II which are maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Today burials in Letchworth take place at the nearby Wilbury Hills Cemetery. In 2013 the cemetery featured in an episode of the BBC series Who Do You Think You Are? when the actress Una Stubbs visited the grave of her great-grandfather, garden city pioneer Sir Ebenezer Howard.
Adrian Fortescue, Roman Catholic priest, Byzantine scholar, adventurer. William Henry Gaunt, English transport engineer. Ebenezer Howard, founder of the garden city movement. Letchworth Cemetery on Find a Grave Letchworth Cemetery Rules and Regulations - North Herts District Council Photographs of the Cemetery Chapel - Hertfordshire Churches website
Henry George was an American political economist and journalist. His writing was immensely popular in the 19th century, sparked several reform movements of the Progressive Era, his writings inspired the economic philosophy known as Georgism, based on the belief that people should own the value they produce themselves, but that the economic value derived from land should belong to all members of society. His most famous work and Poverty, sold millions of copies worldwide more than any other American book before that time; the treatise investigates the paradox of increasing inequality and poverty amid economic and technological progress, the cyclic nature of industrialized economies, the use of rent capture such as land value tax and other anti-monopoly reforms as a remedy for these and other social problems. The mid-twentieth century labor economist and journalist George Soule wrote that George was "By far the most famous American economic writer," and "author of a book which had a larger world-wide circulation than any other work on economics written."
George was born in Philadelphia to a lower-middle-class family, the second of ten children of Richard S. H. George and Catharine Pratt George, his father was a publisher of religious texts and a devout Episcopalian, sent George to the Episcopal Academy in Philadelphia. George left the academy without graduating. Instead he convinced his father to hire a tutor and supplemented this with avid reading and attending lectures at the Franklin institute, his formal education ended at age 14 and he went to sea as a foremast boy at age 15 in April 1855 on the Hindoo, bound for Melbourne and Calcutta. He ended up in the American West in 1858 and considered prospecting for gold but instead started work the same year in San Francisco as a type setter. In California, George fell in love with Annie Corsina Fox, an eighteen-year-old girl from Sydney, orphaned and was living with an uncle; the uncle, a prosperous, strong-minded man, was opposed to his niece's impoverished suitor. But the couple, defying him and married in late 1861, with Henry dressed in a borrowed suit and Annie bringing only a packet of books.
The marriage was a happy four children were born to them. On November 3, 1862 Annie gave birth to future United States Representative from New York, Henry George Jr.. Early on with the birth of future sculptor Richard F. George, the family was near starvation. George was raised as an Episcopalian, but he believed in "deistic humanitarianism". Fox was Irish Catholic, but Henry George Jr. wrote that the children were influenced by Henry George's deism and humanism. After deciding against gold mining in British Columbia, George was hired as a printer for the newly created San Francisco Times, was able to submit editorials for publication, including the popular What the Railroads Will Bring Us. which remained required reading in California schools for decades. George climbed the ranks of the Times becoming managing editor in the summer of 1867. George worked for several papers, including four years as editor of his own newspaper San Francisco Daily Evening Post and for a time running the Reporter, a Democratic anti-monopoly publication.
The George family struggled but George's increasing reputation and involvement in the newspaper industry lifted them from poverty. George's other two children were both daughters; the first was Jennie George to become Jennie George Atkinson. George's other daughter was Anna Angela George, who would become mother of both future dancer and choreographer, Agnes de Mille and future actress Peggy George, born Margaret George de Mille. George began as a Lincoln Republican, but became a Democrat, he was a strong critic of railroad and mining interests, corrupt politicians, land speculators, labor contractors. He first articulated his views in an 1868 article entitled "What the Railroad Will Bring Us." George argued that the boom in railroad construction would benefit only the lucky few who owned interests in the railroads and other related enterprises, while throwing the greater part of the population into abject poverty. This had led to him earning the enmity of the Central Pacific Railroad's executives, who helped defeat his bid for election to the California State Assembly.
One day in 1871 George went for a horseback ride and stopped to rest while overlooking San Francisco Bay. He wrote of the revelation that he had: I asked a passing teamster, for want of something better to say, what land was worth there, he pointed to some cows grazing so far off that they looked like mice, said, "I don't know but there is a man over there who will sell some land for a thousand dollars an acre." Like a flash it came over me. With the growth of population, land grows in value, the men who work it must pay more for the privilege. Furthermore, on a visit to New York City, he was struck by the apparent paradox that the poor in that long-established city were much worse off than the poor in less developed California; these observations supplied the theme and title for his 1879 book Progress and Poverty, a great success, selling over 3 million copies. In it George made the argument that a sizeable portion of the wealth created by social and technological advances in a free market economy is possessed by land owners and monopolists via economic rents, that this concentration of unearned wealth is the main cause of poverty.
George considered it a great injustice that private pr
Greenbelt is a city in Prince George's County, United States, a suburb of Washington, D. C.. Greenbelt is notable for being the first and the largest of the three experimental and controversial New Deal Greenbelt Towns and built by the Federal government of the United States; the cooperative community was conceived in 1935, by Undersecretary of Agriculture Rexford Guy Tugwell, perceived by some of his contemporaries as having held a collectivist ideology and was utilized as a source of opposition to the Greenbelt Towns project throughout its short duration. The project came into legal existence in the spring of 1935. On April 8, 1935, the United States Congress passed the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935. Under the authority granted to him from this legislation, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order, on May 1, 1935, establishing the United States Resettlement Administration. Referred to as Maryland Special Project No. 1, the project was given the name Greenbelt when the Division of Suburban Resettlement of the Resettlement Administration began construction on January 13, 1936 8 miles north of Washington, D.
C. The complete Greenbelt plans were reviewed at the White House by President Roosevelt and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt on April 30, 1936; the first tenants, after being selected through a stringent and restrictive application process, moved into the town, which consisted of structures built in the Art Deco, Streamline Moderne, Bauhaus architectural styles, on September 30, 1937. Greenbelt is credited as a historic milestone in urban development, which includes its role as having served as the initial model for the constructed suburban Washington, D. C. planned cities of Reston and Columbia, Maryland. Known locally as Old Greenbelt, the original, federally-built core of the city was recognized as the Greenbelt Historic District by the Maryland Historical Trust, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark District. Greenbelt's population, which includes residents of private sector dwellings that were constructed over several decades subsequent to the federal government's ownership of the city, was recorded as 23,068 in the 2010 U.
S. Census. Greenbelt is located at 38°59′41″N 76°53′07″W. According to United States Census Bureau data, as of January 1, 2018, the city has a total area of 6.23 square miles, of which, 6.18 square miles is land, 0.06 square miles is water. Greenbelt's ZIP Codes are 20770, 20771, 20768; the ZIP Code 20770 contains all residential and business addresses that correspond to actual physical locations inside the geographic boundaries of the City of Greenbelt. The 20771 ZIP Code is assigned to post-office box addresses, while 20768 is the designated ZIP Code for Goddard Space Flight Center, situated on federal government owned land, contiguous with a portion of Greenbelt's eastern border. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, located directly adjacent to Greenbelt's eastern boundary, utilizes a Greenbelt postal address, as well, it is within the former Goddard census-designated place. Greenbelt Park, a unit of the National Park System, is located within the City of Greenbelt's boundaries, at its southernmost portion.
Two major highways pass through and have interchanges in Greenbelt: the Capital Beltway and the National Park Service's owned and maintained portion of the Baltimore–Washington Parkway. The Greenbelt portion of the Baltimore–Washington Parkway is part of the parkway's 19-mile section, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. Additionally, Greenbelt Road is part of state highway MD 193, which connects several suburban communities in both Prince George's and Montgomery counties. Kenilworth Avenue traverses Greenbelt in a north-south direction, running parallel to the B–W Parkway, providing an alternate travel route into Washington, D. C. from Greenbelt. The southernmost Maryland portion of Kenilworth Avenue forms a major interchange with both the B–W Parkway and US 50 near the Maryland–D. C. Line, continues into Washington, as the Kenilworth Avenue Freeway. Washington Metro′s rapid transit rail system serves Washington, D. C. and neighboring communities in Maryland and Northern Virginia, by operating 91 Metro stations, which includes the Greenbelt station, the northern terminus of Metro′s Green Line.
Commuter rail service to the station is provided by MARC Train′s Camden Line, which connects the District of Columbia′s Washington Union Station with Camden Station in Baltimore. The Camden Line provides service by utilizing the original 1835 Baltimore and Ohio Railroad track route between Washington and Baltimore, now part of the CSX System. Available at the station, is a weekday express Metrobus service, the Greenbelt–BWI Thurgood Marshall Airport Express Line, designated route B30, to Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, a mode of transportation to and from the airport for airline passengers, in addition to allowing for connections to Baltimore′s regional transit services. Metrobus, Prince George′s County′s THE BUS, the University of Maryland′s Shuttle-UM each have bus routes which serve the city of Greenbelt. Through a city–university partnership that began in 2017, Greenbelt residents are permitted to unlimited travel on Shuttle UM, with the purchase of a $10 annual pass.
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Berwyn Heights College Park Goddard Lanham New Carrollton Glenn D
Georgism called geoism and single tax, is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land should belong to all members of society. Developed from the writings of the economist and social reformer Henry George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice. Georgism is concerned with the distribution of economic rent caused by natural monopolies and the control of commons, including title of ownership for natural resources and other contrived privileges. Any natural resource, inherently limited in supply can generate economic rent, but the classical and most significant example of'land monopoly' involves the extraction of common ground rent from valuable urban locations. Georgists argue that taxing economic rent is efficient and equitable; the main Georgist policy recommendation is a tax assessed on land value.
Georgists argue that revenues from a land value tax can be used to reduce or eliminate existing taxes that are unfair and inefficient. Some Georgists advocate for the return of surplus public revenue to the people by means of a basic income or citizen's dividend. Economists since Adam Smith and David Ricardo have observed that, unlike other taxes, a public levy on land value does not cause economic inefficiency. A land value tax has progressive tax effects, in that it is paid by the wealthy, it cannot be passed on to tenants, workers, or users of land. Advocates of land value taxes argue that they would reduce economic inequality, increase economic efficiency, remove incentives to under-utilize urban land, reduce property speculation; the philosophical basis of Georgism dates back to several early thinkers such as John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, Thomas Paine, but the concept of gaining public revenues from land and natural resource privileges was popularized by Henry George and his first book and Poverty.
Georgist ideas were influential during the late 19th and early 20th century. Political parties and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time. Early devotees of Henry George's economic philosophy were termed Single Taxers for their political goal of raising public revenue from a land value tax, although Georgists endorsed multiple forms of rent capture as legitimate; the term Georgism was invented and some prefer the term geoism to distinguish their beliefs from those of Henry George. Henry George is best known for popularizing the argument that government should be funded by a tax on land rent rather than taxes on labor. George believed that although scientific experiments could not be performed in political economy, theories could be tested by comparing different societies with different conditions and by thought experiments about the effects of various factors. Applying this method, he concluded that many of the problems that beset society, such as poverty and economic booms and busts, could be attributed to the private ownership of the necessary resource, land.
In his most celebrated book and Poverty, George argues that the appropriation of land for private use contributes to persistent poverty in spite of technological progress, causes economies to exhibit a tendency toward boom and bust cycles. According to George, people justly own what they create, but that natural opportunities and land belong to all; the tax upon land values is, the most just and equal of all taxes. It falls only upon those who receive from society a peculiar and valuable benefit, upon them in proportion to the benefit they receive, it is the taking by the community, for the use of the community, of that value, the creation of the community. It is the application of the common property to common uses; when all rent is taken by taxation for the needs of the community will the equality ordained by Nature be attained. No citizen will have an advantage over any other citizen save as is given by his industry and intelligence, but not till will labor get its full reward, capital its natural return.
George believed there was an important distinction between collective property. Although equal rights to land might be achieved by nationalizing land and leasing it to private users, George preferred taxing unimproved land value and leaving the control of land in private hands. George's reasoning for leaving land in private control and shifting to land value tax was that it would not penalize existing owners who had improved land and would be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have been granted. Georgists have observed that created wealth is socialized via the tax system, while created wealth in land values are privatized in the price of land titles and bank mortgages; the opposite would be the case if land rents replaced taxes on labor as the main source of public revenue. According to Georgists, a land value tax can be considered a user fee instead of a tax, since it is related to the market value of created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations.
Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be considered as wealth si
Henry Vivian (trade unionist)
Henry Harvey Vivian was an English trade unionist, Liberal Party politician and campaigner for industrial democracy and co-partnership noted for his work in co-partnership housing. Vivian was born in Cornwood, not far from Dartmoor, the son of William Henry Vivian, a carpenter, he was educated at the local Church of England or'national' school and following a period as an apprentice to a local carpenter, he moved to London for work. In August 1894, he married the daughter of an Inland Revenue supervisor. Together with their daughter they lived in Burgoyne Road, Harringay. Vivian's spiritual beliefs appear to have been much in line with his political ones. John Burns, on opening a new recreation ground at Brentham in June 1908, described him as a practical mystic Like his father, Vivian was a carpenter by trade and became an active trade union organiser, he was for a time President of the Pimlico Society of Joiners. He was a strong believer in the ideals of the cooperative movement being a member of the Central Board of the Cooperative Congress for the London region and of co-partnership in industry and society which he believed made industrial harmony more as employees gained a direct stake in the ownership and success of the companies for which they worked.
He was a leader in the co-partnership housing movement, a campaigning secretary of the Labour Co-partnership Association, chairman of the Co-partnership Tenants’ Housing Council and of Co-partnership Tenants Ltd. He co-founded and edited the journal Labour Co-partnership. Vivian set up a company called General Builders Ltd. a practical venture into co-partnership with the aim of providing its members with work and accommodation. One of Vivian’s most enduring achievements was the building of the Brentham Garden Suburb in the Pitshanger area of Ealing following the philosophy of the garden city movement promoted by Ebenezer Howard. Brentham featured a social institute, tennis courts and a bowling green. In addition the houses were designed with large gardens and the house attracted interest from British and foreign urban planners, he was chairman on the project's management body, Ealing Tenants Ltd from its inception in 1901. Although he resigned the chairmanship in 1911, he remained on the committee until his death.
At the invitation of the Governor-General, Vivian made a tour of Canada in 1910 to promote similar schemes and lecture on town planning, housing conditions and public health. Co-Partnership Tenants Ltd went on to play an important role in the development of the garden city of Letchworth and of Hampstead Garden Suburb. Vivian was a Free Trade Liberal not a socialist. While he did not believe in votes for women, as his support for co-partnership demonstrated, he believed in the Liberal virtues of self-reliance, self-help and freedom from state interference, he was first elected to Parliament at the 1906 general election as Liberal candidate for Birkenhead, in Cheshire. He opposed the movement of Trade Union MPs into the Labour Party in 1908, he voted against what he saw as socialist measures such as the Unemployed Workmen Bill which placed a duty on local committees to provide work or relief for the unemployed. Vivian held his Birkenhead seat at the general election of January 1910, albeit by the narrow margin of 144 votes.
In December 1910 however, when he was subject to attacks from the left accusing him of being ‘the workers’ enemy’ and urging socialists to vote against him, he lost to the Unionists. Vivian got a chance to re-enter the House of Commons in 1911 when the Liberal MP for South Somerset, Sir Edward Strachey, was given a peerage, causing a by-election. Vivian was adopted as Liberal candidate. South Somerset had been a Liberal seat since its creation in 1885 and Strachey had been MP for the constituency since 1892 but the size of his majorities had been decreasing since 1906 and the Conservative candidate in the by-election, Aubrey Herbert, had the advantage of being known in the area, having been the candidate in both the general elections of 1910; the election seems to have fought on the issue of the National Insurance Act. On 13 November, in a portent of things to come, the Unionists won a Liberal seat in a by-election at Oldham. Herbert entered polling day in a mood of great optimism and duly emerged as the new MP with a majority of 148 votes over Vivian.
Vivian had no wish to end his political career and was adopted as Liberal candidate for the new north London constituency of Edmonton in 1917. At the 1918 general election he faced a four-cornered contest there standing as an Independent Asquithian Liberal but was not successful, he next fought Northampton at the 1922 general election again as an Independent Liberal in a three-cornered contest with a Lloyd George National Liberal and Labour. The National Liberal topped Vivian lost his deposit. By the time of the 1923 general election the two wings of the Liberal Party had re-united and Vivian was chosen as candidate for Totnes in his home county of Devon, he beat the sitting Tory MP Samuel Harvey by a majority of 502 votes. However this margin was too narrow to hold against a resurgent Conservative Party at the 1924 election and Harvey regained the seat. Vivian did not stand for Parliament again but remained interested in Liberal politics as an active member of Hornsey Liberal Association. In 1906 Vivian was appointed a member of the Royal Commission on Waterways.
He was a member of the House of Commons Select Committee on Housing and Town Planning and of a Home Office Departmental Committee on Accidents in Factories and Workshops. After the First World War, Vivian became an enthusiastic supporter of the League of Nations and he was chairman of his local branch