click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Garden city movement

The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom and aims to capture the primary benefits of a countryside environment and a city environment while avoiding the disadvantages presented by both. Howard was knighted in 1927. During his lifetime Letchworth, Brentham Garden Suburb and Welwyn Garden City were built in or near London according to Howard’s concept and many other garden cities inspired by his model have since been built all over the world. Inspired by the utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George's work Progress and Poverty, Howard published the book To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform in 1898, his idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres, planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft wide, extending from the centre.

The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail. Howard's To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform sold enough copies to result in a second edition, Garden Cities of To-morrow; this success provided him the support necessary to pursue the chance to bring his vision into reality. Howard believed that all people agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time, he quotes a number of their disdain of cities. Howard's garden city concept combined the town and country in order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or in ‘crowded, unhealthy cities’. To build a garden city, Howard needed money to buy land, he decided to get funding from "gentlemen of responsible position and undoubted probity and honour". He founded the Garden City Association, which created First Garden City, Ltd. in 1899 to create the garden city of Letchworth.

However, these donors would collect interest on their investment if the garden city generated profits through rents or, as Fishman calls the process, ‘philanthropic land speculation’. Howard tried to include working class cooperative organisations, which included over two million members, but could not win their financial support; because he had to rely only on the wealthy investors of First Garden City, Howard had to make concessions to his plan, such as eliminating the cooperative ownership scheme with no landlords, short-term rent increases, hiring architects who did not agree with his rigid design plans. In 1904, Raymond Unwin, a noted architect and town planner, his partner Barry Parker, won the competition run by First Garden City Ltd. to plan Letchworth, an area 34 miles outside London. Unwin and Parker planned the town in the centre of the Letchworth estate with Howard's large agricultural greenbelt surrounding the town, they shared Howard's notion that the working class deserved better and more affordable housing.

However, the architects ignored Howard's symmetric design, instead replacing it with a more ‘organic’ design. Letchworth attracted more residents because it brought in manufacturers through low taxes, low rents and more space. Despite Howard's best efforts, the home prices in this garden city could not remain affordable for blue-collar workers to live in; the populations comprised skilled middle class workers. After a decade, the First Garden City became profitable and started paying dividends to its investors. Although many viewed Letchworth as a success, it did not inspire government investment into the next line of garden cities. In reference to the lack of government support for garden cities, Frederic James Osborn, a colleague of Howard and his eventual successor at the Garden City Association, recalled him saying, "The only way to get anything done is to do it yourself." In frustration, Howard bought land at Welwyn to house the second garden city in 1919. The purchase was at auction, with money Howard and borrowed from friends.

The Welwyn Garden City Corporation was formed to oversee the construction. But Welwyn did not become self-sustaining; until the end of the 1930s, Letchworth and Welwyn remained as the only existing garden cities in the United Kingdom. However, the movement did succeed in emphasizing the need for urban planning policies that led to the New Town movement. Howard organised the Garden City Association in 1899. Two garden cities were built using Howard's ideas: Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in the county of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Howard's successor as chairman of the Garden City Association was Sir Frederic Osborn, who extended the movement to regional planning; the concept was adopted again in the UK after World War II, when the New Towns Act spurred the development of many new communities based on Howard's egalitarian ideas. The idea of the garden city was influential including the United States. Examples include Residence Park in New York.

The Manticore

The Manticore is the second novel in Robertson Davies' Deptford Trilogy. Published in 1972 by Macmillan of Canada, it deals with the aftermath of the mysterious death of Percy Boyd "Boy" Staunton retold during a series of conversations between Staunton's son and a Jungian psychoanalyst; the title refers to elements of the subconscious which unfold through the story and are manifested as a fantastic mythical creature: a manticore. The Manticore won the Governor-General's Literary Award in the English-language fiction category in 1972. David Staunton – Son of the super-rich industrialist Boy Staunton, he is the narrator of the novel. After a psychotic episode in Toronto he seeks out the help of Jungian psychoanalysts in Zurich, he is a famous barrister, an alcoholic, a keen patron of the arts, with a heightened sense of morality and a hero worship for his father mixed with filial defiance. Johanna Von Haller – David Staunton's Jungian analyst in Zurich. More clever than Staunton in debate, she guides him through the multiple phases of Jungian analysis, being the subject of his projections of the shadow, the friend, the anima.

She warns Staunton. She has helped; the next phase would help him discover. Dunstan Ramsay – The narrator of the novel Fifth Business. Born at the turn of the twentieth century he is maimed in World War I, wins a Victoria Cross, devotes his life to the study of saints and myth, he watched over David Staunton during his youth. David is fixated on him, believing him to be his father through an alleged affair with his mother. Boy Staunton – David Staunton's father. Through his immense business skills he becomes fabulously wealthy in the sugar processing business in Canada, he has no insight into himself, but is a charming man with an immense need for sexual gratification. David Staunton idealizes his father at the start of the novel, his narrative can be seen as an extended effort to know who his father was. Leola Staunton – David Staunton's mother and the ravishing wife of Boy Staunton and first love of Dunstan Ramsay. A sometimes weak, sometimes strong woman who cannot live up to her ambitious husband's expectations.

Liselotte Naegeli – Daughter of a millionaire Swiss watchmaker who assists Magnus Eisengrim in his travelling magic show. She is bisexual, the victim of an early adolescent affliction which leaves her unusually tall and with large features. After David's analysis, she tries to shock him into understanding the nature of the collective unconscious. Magnus Eisengrim – Master magician and illusionist, he is a permanent guest at the Swiss mountain retreat of Liselotte Naegeli and much despised by David Staunton for his presumed role in his father's death. During an extended Christmas holiday at the Naegeli mansion, Staunton comes to a grudging acceptance and even admiration of Eisengrim, his ability to accept Eisengrim symbolizes the last step in Staunton's evolution towards a "whole" human who can take or leave others without upset. The Manticore at the Internet Book List

South Fellini

South Fellini is an American film, graphic novel and apparel studio established by Tony Trov and Johnny Zito in 2010. Starting in the comic book industry with DC Entertainment's Zuda Comics, South Fellini has developed graphic novels and films for Image Comics, Ford Automotive, Red 5 Comics, High Treason Pictures. South Fellini opened a brick and mortar studio and shop on Passyunk Avenue in South Philadelphia in 2016. DC Entertainment: Black Cherry Bombshells La Morté Sisters Comixology Carnivale De Robotique Red 5 Comics Moon Girl Image Comics D. O. G. S. of Mars Fiesta Day- Ford Fiesta short film series Alpha Girls- 2013 American Exorcist- 2017 Outstanding Achievement in Local Comic Art- Philadelphia Geek Awards 2011 Makers of the Year- Philadelphia Geek Awards 2016 Official website

Telkom University

Telkom University referred to by its acronym of Tel-U, is a private university located in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. It was established in 2013 with four institutions, which were under Telkom Indonesia through its education-focused wing, Telkom Education Foundation, were merged to form the university; these four forming institutions were Telkom Institute of Technology, Telkom Institute of Management, Telkom Polytechnic, the Telkom College of Art and Design Indonesia. The university, like its preceding institutions, maintains links with hundreds of companies, many of which involved in the telecommunications sector; the main campus site of Telkom University extends on the 48ha-area of Bandung Technoplex, on Jalan Telekomunikasi – Terusan Buahbatu, Kabupaten Bandung. Other campus is located in Gegerkalong Hilir area, north of the city of Bandung, at the office area of PT. Telkom's Telkom Corporate University/Telkom Training Center. Telkom University was awarded as the number 1 best private University in Indonesia and 14 best University in Indonesia Telkom University was established on August 14, 2013 by the Decree of Director General of Higher Education number 309/E/0/2013.

Telkom University is a private university established by Telkom Education Foundation. It was formed out of a merger of four private higher educations, namely Telkom Institute of Technology, Telkom Institute of Management, Telkom Polytechnic, Telkom College of Art and Design Indonesia. STT Telkom and STMB Telkom were established in 1990 on the initiative of Ir. Cacuk Sudarjanto, the Chief Director PT. Telkom, Indonesia's largest state-owned company in telecommunication. Both colleges were the first higher educations in Indonesia specializing in the field of telecommunications and information technology. Telkom University's campus in Bandung Technoplex is the integrated campus site developed for STT Telkom, opened by the President of Republic Indonesia, Suharto, on March 24, 1994. In the past, the area is the location of the second oldest radio stations in Indonesia owned by the Dutch colonial government; these radio stations brought the historical news of the Indonesian Declaration of Independence on August 17, 1945 to the world.

Telkom University was formed out of a merger of four institutions of higher education. The four institutions were Telkom Institute of Technology, Telkom Institute of Management, Telkom Polytechnics and Telkom Arts School; each of the four schools formed a faculty inside the university. The plan to merge the four institutions were in existence from as early as 2011, it was planned that the four institutions would be merged into one university in 2012. But due to several problems the merge was delayed to 2013. In August 31, 2013, the Grand Launching of Telkom University was established by Professor M. Nuh, the Minister of Education and Culture, Republic Indonesia. Telkom Institute of Technology - known as STT Telkom - is the first institution specializing in Indonesian studies program in the field of Information and Communications Technologies. Telkom is projected to prepare experts in the field of ICT, skilled and insightful business, in response to the demands of the growing ICT industry. Telkom Institute of Technology known as Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Telkom.

STT Telkom initiated the establishment of awareness Ir. Cacuk Sudarijanto that in 1990 when it served as a Director of PT. Telkom will be the rapid development of information and communication technologies must be balanced with the willingness of qualified human resources. Departing from the view that he, who by the Economic Observer referred to as the Father of Transformation Telkom, establishing STT Telkom. STT Telkom unveiled its foundation on Friday, September 28, 1990, in London Downstream Gegerkalong by the Minister of Tourism and Telecommunications at the time, Mr. Susilo Soedarman. Since its establishment, under the auspices of IT Telkom Telkom Education Foundation; the purpose of establishing this campus is rapidly to meet the need for experts in the telecommunications industry. PT Telkom is interested in the institution, so that PT Telkom and provide full scholarships to the students of bond 1991 and 1992; the existence of climate change in the telecommunications industry and with the start of PT Telkom entered the era of going public, the scholarship program and bulk bond and subsequently terminated STT Telkom became an independent college.

At the beginning stands, STT Telkom campus spread over three locations, namely Campus-1 in Jalan Soekarno Hatta, Campus-2 in Jalan Hilir Gegerkalong, Campus-3 is located at Jalan Haji Hasan Mustafa Penhollow. In 1993 STT Telkom has its own campus on Canal Street Buahbatu Telecommunications, a year all teaching and learning activities centered on the new campus. In the same year, STT Telkom Campus President Mr. Soeharto inaugurated on March 24, 1994. Occupying a land area of 48 hectares, the campus STT Telkom has good educational support facility with a beautiful arrangement of the environment, so the learning process takes place more conducive. STT Telkom improve organizational form into Telkom on November 20, 2007. In the process of merging into Telkom's University in 2013, Telkom was transformed into the Faculty of Engineering or Telkom Engineering School. Subsequently, in 2014 the Faculty of Engineering dev

Agence des participations de l'√Čtat

Agence des participations de l'État is a special agency of the French Republic managing the state's holdings in about 70 firms, including France Telecom and Air France. It was established in 2004; these firms can all be considered SOEs. The agency divides its holdings into unquoted enterprises. Major enterprises in 2015, excluding minor entities, were: Aéroports de Paris Air France-KLM Dexia EDF Engie Orange Orano Renault Safran Thales Group SOGEPA Airbus Groupe PSA Aéroport de Bâle-Mulhouse Aéroports de Lyon Aéroports de la Côte d'Azur Bpifrance Naval Group France Télévisions Nexter Systems Grand port maritime de Dunkerque Grand port maritime de Marseille Grand port maritime du Havre Imprimerie nationale La Française des jeux La Monnaie de Paris La Poste LFB Laboratoire français du fractionnement et des biotechnologies Port autonome de Paris Semmaris, in full Société d'Economie Mixte d'Aménagement et de gestion du marché d'intérêt national de Rungis SFIL Société de Financement Local SNCF Mobilités, the traffic arm of Société nationale des chemins de fer français SNCF Réseau, the network arm of Société nationale des chemins de fer français Bpifrance Caisse des dépôts et consignations Établissement public à caractère industriel et commercial Government-owned corporation Official website

Smooth Island (South Australia)

Smooth Island is an island in the Australian state of South Australia located off the west coast of Eyre Peninsula about 52 kilometres south west of the town of Ceduna. It is both part of a local group of islands known as the Isles of St Francis group and a larger group known as the Nuyts Archipelago, it has enjoyed protected area status since the 1960s and since 2011, it has been part of the Nuyts Archipelago Wilderness Protection Area. Smooth Island is an island located within the Isles of St Francis group, which itself is part of the Nuyts Archipelago, it is located about 52 kilometres south west of the town of Ceduna on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia. Several sources states that the island is located about 200 metres north of St Francis Island while the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and charts published by the Government of South Australia state and show that the island is located "almost one nautical mile N of the NE extremity of St. Francis Island"; the island is predominantly dome shaped with a summit at a height of 35 metres with steep sides rising from the surrounding waters.

The island is described as having a "teardrop" plan with its long axis oriented in a south easterly direction with overall length of about 500 metres and a width of 300 metres. The island is considered to be difficult to access via watercraft in "normal conditions" on the basis of "impressions from a brief flyover" in a helicopter during 1982. Smooth Island was formed about 7700 years ago; the island's geology consists of a "granite base and thin calcarenite mantle", "likely to be fragmented into jagged rocks and shingles, with a sandy, skeletal soil filling depressions" in areas that are "beyond the reach of storm waves". The island's steep sides drop into water of greater than 20 metres. Smooth Island is reported as being named by Matthew Flinders in 1802 and was so named because of the "island's shape"; the Baudin expedition to Australia named the island as Ile Malesherbes in 1802. As of 1996, the literature suggests that no onsite flora survey had been carried out and accordingly, contains the following description based on an extrapolation of observations carried out on nearby Egg Island.

Saltbush and nitre-bush should be present where soil pockets exist in the calcarenite capping while an open heath of twiggy daisy-bush should be present over the central part of the island. A survey carried out in 2002 found that kelp from the genus Ecklonia was the dominant plant cover on reef substrate at a depth of 22 metres while a community of Cystophora and Sargassum species were dominant on reef substrate at a depth of 5 metres; as of 1996, the literature suggests that no onsite fauna survey had been carried out as the following list is an extrapolation of species present on nearby Egg Island. Seabird species are to be represented by sooty oystercatcher, crested tern and pacific gull as well as visitors such as white-bellied sea-eagle. Land bird species that are to visit the island are the rock parrot and the richard's pipit. Reptilian species are to include the marbled gecko, the four-toed earless skink and the bull skink. Smooth Island first received protected area status as a fauna reserve declared under the Fauna Conservation Act 1964 and as a fauna conservation reserve declared under the Crown Lands Act 1929-1966 on 16 March 1967.

In 1972, it became part of the Isles of St Francis Conservation Park, declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 to "conserve island populations and habitat for endangered species". On 25 August 2011, it and the rest of the Isles of St Francis Conservation Park was transferred to the newly created Nuyts Archipelago Wilderness Protection Area; as of 2012, the waters adjoining Smooth Island are part of a sanctuary zone within the Nuyts Archipelago Marine Park. List of islands of Australia Baker, J. L. Towards a System of Ecologically Representative Marine Protected Areas in South Australian Marine Bioregions - Technical Report, Dept. for Environment and Heritage, retrieved 26 December 2014 Kelton, Greg. "West Coast island protection areas". The Advertiser. Retrieved 26 December 2014. Robinson, A. C.. "South Australia's offshore islands". Australian Heritage Commission. ISBN 978-0-644-35011-2. Retrieved 13 December 2013. South Australia. Department of Marine and Harbors, The Waters of South Australia a series of charts, sailing notes and coastal photographs, Dept. of Marine and Harbors, South Australia, ISBN 978-0-7243-7603-2 South Australia.

Department for Environment and Heritage, Management plan: island parks of western Eyre Peninsula, Dept. for Environment and Heritage, ISBN 978-1-921238-18-5 "Nuyts Archipelago Marine Park Management Plan 2012". Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2014. "Wilderness Advisory Committee Annual Report 2012-13". Government of South Australia. September 2013. ISSN 1832-9357. Retrieved 17 March 2014