Richard McKay Rorty was an American philosopher. He subsequently came to reject the tradition of philosophy according to which knowledge involves correct representation of a world whose existence remains wholly independent of that representation. Among his most influential books are Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, Consequences of Pragmatism, and Contingency, Rorty saw the idea of knowledge as a mirror of nature as pervasive throughout the history of western philosophy. Richard Rorty was born on October 4,1931, in New York City and his parents and Winifred Rorty, were activists and social democrats. His maternal grandfather, Walter Rauschenbusch, was a figure in the Social Gospel movement of the early 20th century. His father experienced two nervous breakdowns in his life, the second breakdown, which he had in the early 1960s, was more serious and included claims to divine prescience. Consequently, Richard Rorty fell into depression as a teenager and in 1962 began a six-year psychiatric analysis for obsessional neurosis, Rorty wrote about the beauty of rural New Jersey orchids in his short autobiography and the Wild Orchids.
He describes Rorty as an ironist, Nothing is sacred to Rorty the ironist, Rorty enrolled at the University of Chicago shortly before turning 15, where he received a bachelors and a masters degree in philosophy, continuing at Yale University for a PhD in philosophy. He married another academic, Amélie Oksenberg Rorty, with whom he had a son, after two years in the United States Army, he taught at Wellesley College for three years until 1961. Rorty divorced his wife and married Stanford University bioethicist Mary Varney Rorty in 1972 and they had two children and Patricia. While Richard Rorty was a strict atheist, Mary Varney Rorty was a practicing Mormon, Rorty was a professor of philosophy at Princeton University for 21 years. In 1997 Rorty became professor of literature, at Stanford University. During this period he was popular, and once quipped that he had been assigned to the position of transitory professor of trendy studies. However, he became acquainted with the American philosophical movement known as pragmatism.
Pragmatists generally hold that the meaning of a proposition is determined by its use in linguistic practice, Rorty wrote in his Contingency and Solidarity, Truth cannot be out there—cannot exist independently of the human mind—because sentences cannot so exist, or be out there. The world is out there, but descriptions of the world are not, only descriptions of the world can be true or false. The world on its own unaided by the activities of humans cannot. Views like this led Rorty to question many of philosophys most basic assumptions—and have led to him being apprehended as a postmodern/deconstructionist philosopher
It is a political position which incorporates support for civil liberties and capitalism, along with some social-conservative positions. As both conservatism and liberalism have had different meanings over time and across countries, the liberal conservatism has been used in quite different ways. It usually contrasts with aristocratic conservatism, which rejects the principle of equality as something in discordance with human nature, consequently, in the United States the term liberal conservatism is not used and American modern liberalism happens to be quite different from the European brand. The opposite is true in Latin America, where economically liberal conservatism is often labelled under the rubric of neoliberalism both in culture and academic discourse. In much of central and northwestern Europe, especially in Germanic and traditionally Protestant countries, often this involves stressing free-market economics and the belief in individual responsibility together with the defense of civil rights, and support for a limited welfare state.
In the modern European discourse, liberal conservatism usually encompasses centre-right political outlooks that reject, at least to some extent and this position is associated with support for moderate forms of social safety net and environmentalism. Historically, in the 18th and 19th centuries, conservatism comprised a set of principles based on concern for established tradition, respect for authority, and religious values. This form of traditionalist or classical conservatism is often considered to be exemplified by the writings of Joseph de Maistre, contemporaneous liberalism – now recalled as classical liberalism – advocated both political freedom for individuals and a free market in the economic sphere. The maxim of liberal conservatism, according to scholar Andrew Vincent, is economics is prior to politics, nonetheless, in most countries the term liberal is used to describe those with free-market economic views. This is the case, for example, in continental Europe and Latin America
Natural and legal rights
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights. Legal rights are those bestowed onto a person by a legal system. Natural rights are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs of any culture or government. The concept of law is closely related to the concept of natural rights. Conversely, the concept of rights is used by others to challenge the legitimacy of all such establishments. Natural rights, in particular, are considered beyond the authority of any government or international body to dismiss, the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an important legal instrument enshrining one conception of natural rights into international soft law. Natural rights were traditionally viewed as exclusively negative rights, whereas human rights comprise positive rights, even on a natural rights conception of human rights, the two terms may not be synonymous. The proposition that animals have natural rights is one that gained the interest of philosophers and legal scholars in the 20th century, the existence of natural rights has been asserted by different individuals on different premises, such as a priori philosophical reasoning or religious principles.
For example, Immanuel Kant claimed to derive natural rights through reason alone, the United States Declaration of Independence, meanwhile, is based upon the self-evident truth that all men are. Endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, different philosophers and statesmen have designed different lists of what they believe to be natural rights, almost all include the right to life and liberty as the two highest priorities. H. L. A. Hart argued that if there are any rights at all, there must be the right to liberty, for all the others would depend upon this. T. H. Green argued that “if there are things as rights at all, there must be a right to life and liberty, or, to put it more properly to free life. ”John Locke emphasized life. However, despite Lockes influential defense of the right of revolution, leaders are seen as representative of God on earth, but they deserve allegiance only as long as they have farr, a kind of divine blessing that they must earn by moral behavior.
The Stoics held that no one was a slave by nature, of fundamental importance to the development of the idea of natural rights was the emergence of the idea of natural human equality. Carlyle notes, There is no change in theory so startling in its completeness as the change from the theory of Aristotle to the philosophical view represented by Cicero. We think that this cannot be better exemplified than with regard to the theory of the equality of human nature, charles H. Cicero argues in De Legibus that we are born for Justice, and that right is based, not upon opinions, but upon Nature. Centuries later, the Stoic doctrine that the part cannot be delivered into bondage re-emerged in the Reformation doctrine of liberty of conscience. Martin Luther wrote, every man is responsible for his own faith, preservation of the natural rights to life and property was claimed as justification for the rebellion of the American colonies
Internationalism is a political principle which transcends nationalism and advocates a greater political or economic cooperation among nations and people. In 19th-century UK there was a liberal internationalist strand of political thought epitomized by Richard Cobden and Bright were against the protectionist Corn Laws and in a speech at Covent Garden on September 28,1843 Cobden outlined his utopian brand of internationalism, Free Trade. Cobden believed that Free Trade would pacify the world by interdependence, a belief in the idea of the moral law and an inherent goodness in human nature inspired their faith in internationalism. One of the first international organisations in the world was the International Workingmens Association, in this sense, the socialist understanding of internationalism is closely related to the concept of international solidarity. From this perspective, it is in the ruling class interest to promote nationalism in order to hide the inherent class conflicts at play within a given society, socialists see nationalism as a form of ideological control arising from a societys given mode of economic production.
The First, Second and Fourth Internationals were socialist political groupings which sought to advance workers revolution across the globe and achieve international socialism. Socialist internationalism is anti-imperialist, and therefore supports the liberation of peoples from all forms of colonialism and foreign domination, socialists have often aligned themselves politically with anti-colonial independence movements, and actively opposed the exploitation of one country by another. In socialist theory, world peace can only come once economic competition has been ended, in proportion as the antagonism between classes within the nation vanishes, the hostility of one nation to another will come to an end. The idea was reiterated by Lenin and advanced as the policy of the Bolshevik party during World War I. But our attitude towards war is different from that of the bourgeois pacifists. Figures such as Karl Marx and anarchist revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin would play prominent roles in the First International, one faction, with Marx as the figurehead, argued that workers and radicals must work within parliaments in order to win political supremacy and create a workers government.
The Socialist International, known as the Second International, was founded in 1889 after the disintegration of the International Workingmens Association, unlike the First International, it was a federation of socialist political parties from various countries, including both reformist and revolutionary groupings. The parties of the Second International were the first socialist parties to win support among the working class and have representatives elected to parliaments. Ostensibly committed to peace and anti-imperialism, the International Socialist Congress held its meeting in Basel, Switzerland in 1912. This betrayal led the few anti-war delegates left within the Second International to organize the International Socialist Conference at Zimmerwald, known as the Zimmerwald Conference, its purpose was to formulate a platform of opposition to the war. The conference was unable to reach agreement on all points, but ultimately was able to publish the Zimmerwald Manifesto, the most left-wing and stringently internationalist delegates at the conference were organized around Lenin and the Russian Social Democrats, and known as the Zimmerwald Left.
The Zimmerwald Left resolutions urged all socialists who were committed to the internationalist principles of socialism to struggle against the war and it was an association of communist political parties from throughout the world dedicated to proletarian internationalism and the revolutionary overthrow of the world bourgeoisie. A variety of still active left-wing political organizations claim to be the successors of Trotskys original Fourth International
The Third Way is promoted by some social democratic and social liberal movements. Major Third Way social democratic proponent Tony Blair claimed that the socialism he advocated was different from conceptions of socialism. Blair said My kind of socialism is a set of values based around notions of social justice, socialism as a rigid form of economic determinism has ended, and rightly. Blair in 2009 publicly declared support for a new capitalism, the Third Way has been criticized by some conservatives and libertarians who advocate laissez-faire capitalism. It has heavily criticized by many social democrats, democratic socialists and communists in particular as a betrayal of left-wing values. Specific definitions of Third Way policies may differ between Europe and America, the term Third Way has been used to explain a variety of political courses and ideologies in the last few centuries. These ideas were implemented by progressives in the early 20th century, the term Third Way was picked up again in the 1950s by German ordoliberal economists such as Wilhelm Röpke, resulting in the development of the concept of the social market economy.
Later Röpke distanced himself from the term and located the market economy as first way in the sense of an advancement of the free market economy. Most significantly, Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister from 1957 to 1963, based his philosophy of government on what he entitled in a book, the Third Way has been defined as. Something different and distinct from liberal capitalism with its belief in the merits of the free market and democratic socialism with its demand management. Anthony Giddens of the LSE the Third Way rejects top down socialism as it rejects traditional neo liberalism, a variant of the Third Way exists which approaches the centre from a social democratic perspective. It advocates ethical socialism, gradualism - that includes advocating the humanization of capitalism, an economy, political pluralism. It has been advocated by proponents as a competition socialism - an ideology in between traditional socialism and capitalism, in defining the Third Way, Tony Blair once wrote “The Third Way stands for a modernized social democracy, passionate in its commitment to social justice.
Keating proposed a Goods and Services Tax in 1985, however this was scrapped due to its unpopularity amongst both Labor and electorate, the Whitlam government was first to use the term economic rationalism. The Gough Whitlam Labor government from 1972 to 1975 changed from a democratic socialism platform to social democracy, under the Whitlam government, tariffs across the board were cut by 25 percent after 23 years of Labor being in opposition. Former Labor Prime Minister Kevin Rudds first speech to parliament in 1998 stated, Competitive markets are massive and they must therefore have a central place in the management of the economy. But markets sometimes fail, requiring direct government intervention through instruments such as industry policy, there are areas where the public good dictates that there should be no market at all. We are not afraid of a vision in the Labor Party, parties of the Centre Left around the world are wrestling with a similar challenge—the creation of a competitive economy while advancing the overriding imperative of a just society
Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is the right to articulate ones opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship, or societal sanction. The term freedom of expression is used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking and imparting information or ideas. The right to freedom of expression includes the right to take, concepts of freedom of speech can be found in early human rights documents. Englands Bill of Rights 1689 legally established the right of freedom of speech in Parliament which is still in effect. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted during the French Revolution in 1789, specifically affirmed freedom of speech as an inalienable right. The Declaration provides for freedom of expression in Article 11, which states that, The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, speak and print with freedom, freedom of speech, or the freedom of expression, is recognized in international and regional human rights law.
This means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right not only the content. The right to freedom of speech and expression is related to other rights. As a general freedom of expression may not limit the right to privacy, as well as the honor. However greater latitude is given when criticism of public figures is involved, the right to freedom of expression is particularly important for media, which plays a special role as the bearer of the general right to freedom of expression for all. However, freedom of the press is not necessarily enabling freedom of speech, lichtenberg argues that freedom of the press is simply a form of property right summed up by the principle no money, no voice. Freedom of speech is understood to be fundamental in a democracy, the norms on limiting freedom of expression mean that public debate may not be completely suppressed even in times of emergency. One of the most notable proponents of the link between freedom of speech and democracy is Alexander Meiklejohn and he argues that the concept of democracy is that of self-government by the people.
For such a system to work an informed electorate is necessary, in order to be appropriately knowledgeable, there must be no constraints on the free flow of information and ideas. According to Meiklejohn, democracy will not be true to its essential ideal if those in power are able to manipulate the electorate by withholding information, Meiklejohn acknowledges that the desire to manipulate opinion can stem from the motive of seeking to benefit society. However, he argues, choosing manipulation negates, in its means, eric Barendt has called this defense of free speech on the grounds of democracy probably the most attractive and certainly the most fashionable free speech theory in modern Western democracies. Emerson expanded on this defense when he argued that freedom of speech helps to provide a balance between stability and change, Freedom of speech acts as a safety valve to let off steam when people might otherwise be bent on revolution
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. Another manifestation of secularism is the view that public activities and decisions, especially political ones, the purposes and arguments in support of secularism vary widely. In European laicism, it has argued that secularism is a movement toward modernization. This type of secularism, on a social or philosophical level, has occurred while maintaining an official state church or other state support of religion. Within countries as well, differing political movements support secularism for varying reasons, the term secularism was first used by the British writer George Jacob Holyoake in 1851. Although the term was new, the notions of freethought on which it was based had existed throughout history. Holyoake invented the term secularism to describe his views of promoting a social order separate from religion, an agnostic himself, Holyoake argued that Secularism is not an argument against Christianity, it is one independent of it.
It does not question the pretensions of Christianity, it advances others, Secularism does not say there is no light or guidance elsewhere, but maintains that there is light and guidance in secular truth, whose conditions and sanctions exist independently, and act forever. Barry Kosmin of the Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society, according to Kosmin, the hard secularist considers religious propositions to be epistemologically illegitimate, warranted by neither reason nor experience. In political terms, secularism is a movement towards the separation of religion and this can refer to reducing ties between a government and a state religion, replacing laws based on scripture with civil laws, and eliminating discrimination on the basis of religion. This is said to add to democracy by protecting the rights of religious minorities, what all secular governments, from the democratic to the authoritarian, share is a concern about the relationship between the church and the state. Each secular government may find its own unique policy prescriptions for dealing with that concern, maharaja Ranjeet Singh of the Sikh empire of the first half of the 19th century successfully established a secular rule in the Punjab.
Ranjit Singh extensively funded education and arts of various different religions, Secularism is most often associated with the Age of Enlightenment in Europe and it plays a major role in Western society. The principles, but not necessarily the practices, of separation of church and state in the United States, Secular states existed in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages. Due in part to the belief in the separation of church and state, the most significant forces of religious fundamentalism in the contemporary world are Christian fundamentalism and Islamic fundamentalism. At the same time, one significant stream of secularism has come from religious minorities who see governmental and political secularism as integral to the preservation of equal rights, in studies of religion, modern democracies are generally recognized as secular. This is due to the freedom of religion, and the lack of authority of religious leaders over political decisions. Nevertheless, religious beliefs are considered by many people to be a relevant part of the political discourse in many of these countries
The question of the relation between natural and legal rights, therefore, is often an aspect of social contract theory. The term takes its name from The Social Contract, a 1762 book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau that discussed this concept, the starting point for most social contract theories is an examination of the human condition absent any political order that Thomas Hobbes termed the state of nature. In this condition, individuals actions are only by their personal power. Each solved the problem of authority in a different way. Grotius posited that human beings had natural rights. Thomas Hobbes famously said that in a state of nature, human life would be solitary, nasty, though the sovereigns edicts may well be arbitrary and tyrannical, Hobbes saw absolute government as the only alternative to the terrifying anarchy of a state of nature. Hobbes asserted that humans consent to abdicate their rights in favor of the authority of government. Pufendorf disputed Hobbess equation of a state of nature with war, the central assertion of social contract approaches is that law and political order are not natural, but are instead human creations.
According to Hobbes citizens are not obligated to submit to the government when it is too weak to act effectively to suppress factionalism, the Lockean concept of the social contract was invoked in the United States Declaration of Independence. The concept of the contract is posed by Glaucon, as described by Plato in The Republic. They say that to do injustice is, by nature, good, to suffer injustice, for no man who is worthy to be called a man would ever submit to such an agreement if he were able to resist, he would be mad if he did. Such is the account, Socrates, of the nature. The social contract theory appears in Crito, another dialogue from Plato, Social contract formulations are preserved in many of the worlds oldest records. The Buddhist text of the second century BCE, Mahāvastu, recounts the legend of Mahasammata, gradually the process of cosmic decay began its work, and mankind became earthbound, and felt the need of food and shelter. As men lost their glory, distinctions of class arose, and they entered into agreements with one another, accepting the institution of private property.
He was called the Great Chosen One, and he received the title of raja because he pleased the people, in his rock edicts, the Buddhist king Asoka was said to have argued for a broad and far-reaching social contract. Natural justice is a pledge of reciprocal benefit, to prevent one man from harming or being harmed by another. There never was such a thing as justice, but only agreements made in mutual dealings among men in whatever places at various times providing against the infliction or suffering of harm
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media through various mediums, such as electronic media and published materials. Wherever such freedom exists mostly implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state, with respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. Many governments are subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest. This philosophy is usually accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of research, publishing. The depth to which laws are entrenched in a countrys legal system can go as far down as its constitution. The concept of freedom of speech is often covered by the laws as freedom of the press, thereby giving equal treatment to spoken. This idea was famously summarized by the 20th century American journalist, A. J. Liebling, Freedom of the press gives the printer or publisher exclusive control over what the publisher chooses to publish, including the right to refuse to print anything for any reason.
If the author cannot reach a agreement with a publisher to produce the authors work. CPJ shares information on breaking cases with other press freedom organizations worldwide through the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, CPJ tracks journalist deaths and detentions. CPJ staff applies strict criteria for each case, researchers independently investigate, so the concept of independence of the press is one closely linked with the concept of press freedom. Every year, Reporters Without Borders establishes a ranking of countries in terms of their freedom of the press, the survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press, such as non-governmental groups. RWB is careful to note that the only deals with press freedom. In 2016, the countries where press was the most free were Finland, Norway and New Zealand, followed by Costa Rica, Sweden and Jamaica. The country with the least degree of freedom was Eritrea, followed by North Korea, Syria, Vietnam.
The problem with media in India, the worlds largest democracy, is enormous, India doesnt have a model for a democratic press. The report written by Ravi S Jha says Indian journalism, with its lack of freedom and self-regulation, cannot be trusted now—it is currently known for manipulation, levels of freedom are scored on a scale from 1 to 100. Depending on the basics, the nations are classified as Free, Partly Free, in 2009 Iceland, Finland and Sweden topped the list with North Korea, Myanmar, Eritrea at the bottom. According to Reporters Without Borders, more than a third of the people live in countries where there is no press freedom
History of liberalism
Liberalism is the belief in freedom and equal rights generally associated with such thinkers as John Locke and Montesquieu. A few years later, the French Revolution overthrew the hereditary aristocracy, with the liberty, fraternity. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Liberalism fully exploded as a comprehensive movement against the old order during the French Revolution, which influenced events on the European continent and around the world. Isolated strands of thought that had existed in Western philosophy since the Ancient Greeks. Disputes between the Parliament and King Charles I over political supremacy sparked a civil war in the 1640s, which culminated in Charles execution. No man hath power over my rights and liberties, and I over no mans, sidney firmly rejected the Filmers reactionary principles and argued that the subjects of the monarch were entitled by right to share in the government through advice and counsel. These ideas were first drawn together and systematized as an ideology, by the English philosopher John Locke.
His influential Two Treatises, the text of liberal ideology. And this is that, and that only, which did or could give beginning to any government in the world. Locke had other intellectual opponents besides Hobbes, in the First Treatise, Locke aimed his guns first and foremost at one of the doyens of 17th century English conservative philosophy, Robert Filmer. Locke disagreed so thoroughly and obsessively with Filmer, that the First Treatise is almost a sentence-by-sentence refutation of Patriarcha, reinforcing his respect for consensus, Locke argued that conjugal society is made up by a voluntary compact between men and women. Locke maintained that the grant of dominion in Genesis was not to men over women, as Filmer believed, Locke originated the concept of the separation of church and state. For Locke, this created a right in the liberty of conscience. He formulated a general defence for religious toleration in his Letters Concerning Toleration, Locke was influenced by the liberal ideas of Presbyterian politician and poet John Milton, who was a staunch advocate of freedom in all its forms.
Milton argued for disestablishment as the effective way of achieving broad toleration. Rather than force a mans conscience, government should recognise the persuasive force of the gospel, as assistant to Oliver Cromwell, Milton took part in drafting a constitution of the Independents that strongly stressed the equality of all humans as a consequence of democratic tendencies. His central argument was that the individual is capable of using reason to distinguish right from wrong. To be able to exercise this right, everyone must have unlimited access to the ideas of his men in “a free and open encounter