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Economy of Egypt

The economy of Egypt was a centralized economy focused on import substitution under President Gamal Abdel Nasser. In the 1990s, a series of International Monetary Fund arrangements, coupled with massive external debt relief resulting from Egypt's participation in the Gulf War coalition, helped Egypt improve its macroeconomic performance. Since 2000, the pace of structural reforms, including fiscal, monetary policies, taxation and new business legislations, helped Egypt move towards a more market-oriented economy and prompted increased foreign investment; the reforms and policies have strengthened macroeconomic annual growth results which averaged 8% annually between 2004 and 2009 but the government failed to equitably share the wealth and the benefits of growth have failed to trickle down to improve economic conditions for the broader population with the growing problem of unemployment and underemployment. Egypt in the past and today has a rather stable mixed economy enjoying average growth, averaging 3%–5% in the past quarter-century.

The economy embarked on various stages of development during which the public and private sectors played roles varying in relative importance as follows: Import Substitution and Nationalization: during which the first programme of industrialization in 1957 was established and led by the public sector in heavy industries such as iron and steel, chemical industries, heavy machinery. Nationalization reduced the relative importance of the private sector. There was no stock trading to speak of, all banks and financial institutions were under the public sector, foreign direct investment was banned. Inter-War: adversely affected the performance of the economy and public sector role in import substitution. Openness Euphoria: during which policies were introduced to encourage Arab and foreign investment through a series of incentives and liberalizing trade and payment. External Debt Crisis: the external debt crisis and Paris Club rescheduling and debt reduction. Economic Reform: reform policies were introduced to meet the terms of international institutions and donors, including wider incentives to the role of the private sector in all economic activities.

The Post Global Financial Crisis: soaring food prices for grains, led to calls for the government to provide more immediate assistance to the population of more than 40% in the "poverty tunnel" and to strike a "new deal" on agriculture policy and reform. Egypt faced the long term supply- and demand-side repercussions of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Post-Revolution: the Egyptian economy suffered from a severe downturn following the 2011 revolution and the government faced numerous challenges to restore growth and investor confidence. Egypt's foreign exchange reserves fell from $36 billion in December 2010 to only $16.3 billion in January 2012 as a result of propping up the Egyptian pound against the dollar. Concerns about social unrest and the country's ability to meet its financial targets provoked rating agencies to lower the country's credit rating on several occasions. In 2016 Egypt floated its currency and embarked on a homegrown economic reform program supported by a $12 billion IMF loan in a bid to restore macroeconomic stability and growth.

By early, 2019, Egypt had received 10 of the 12 billion requested. Under comprehensive economic reforms initiated in 1991, Egypt has relaxed many price controls, reduced subsidies, reduced inflation, cut taxes, liberalized trade and investment. Manufacturing had become less dominated by the public sector in heavy industries. A process of public sector reform and privatization has begun to enhance opportunities for the private sector. Agriculture in private hands, has been deregulated, with the exception of cotton and sugar production. Construction, non-financial services, domestic wholesale and retail trades are private; this has promoted a steady increase of the annual growth rate. The Government of Egypt tamed inflation bringing it down from double-digit to a single digit. GDP is rising smartly by 7% per annum due to successful diversification. Gross domestic product per capita based on purchasing-power-parity increased fourfold between 1981 and 2006, from US$1355 in 1981, to US$2525 in 1991, to US$3686 in 2001 and to an estimated US$4535 in 2006.

Based on national currency, GDP per capita at constant 1999 prices increased from EGP 411 in 1981, to EGP 2098 in 1991, to EGP 5493 in 2001 and to EGP 8708 in 2006. Based on the current US$ prices, GDP per capita increased from US$587 in 1981, to US$869 in 1991, to US$1461 in 2001 and to an estimated US$1518 in 2006. According to the World Bank Country Classification, Egypt has been promoted from the low income category to lower middle income category; as of 2013, the average weekly salaries in Egypt reached LE641, which grew by 20% from the previous year. The reform programme is a work in progress. Noteworthy that the reform record has improved since Nazif government came to power. Egypt has made substantial progress in developing its legal and investment infrastructure. Indeed, over the past five years, Egypt has passed and admitted over 15 legislative pieces; the economy is expected to grow by about 4% to 6% in 2009/2010. Surging domestic inflationary pressures from both economic growth and elevated international food prices led the Central Bank of Egypt to increase th

Friedrich Schorr

Friedrich Schorr, was a renowned Austrian-Hungarian bass-baritone opera singer of Jewish origin. He became a naturalized American. Schorr is recognized as the greatest Wagnerian bass-baritone of his generation, arguably of the entire 20th century, was famous for his profound portrayals of Wotan in Der Ring des Nibelungen and Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, he was celebrated, for his appearances as Don Pizarro in Beethoven's Fidelio. His voice was powerful and rich-toned, with a beautiful mezza voce, he placed a special emphasis on maintaining a smooth, legato line in his singing, with no trace of Sprechgesang. Towards the end of Schorr's career, his extreme top notes became somewhat'wooden', however, as the result of many years of strenuous usage; the son of a cantor Mayer Schorr, who had a fine voice himself, Schorr was born in Oradea. He studied in Vienna with Adolf Robinson, he made his stage debut in Graz, singing there in 1912-1916. Afterwards he worked in Prague, Berlin, he made acclaimed appearances in London at Covent Garden, at New York's Metropolitan Opera and the Bayreuth Festival.

Schorr emigrated to the United States in 1931. He lived in New York City and performed at the Metropolitan Opera until 1943; some of the outstanding Wagnerian singers that he appeared with during his career included Frida Leider, Lotte Lehmann, Elisabeth Rethberg, Lauritz Melchior, Kirsten Flagstad, Helen Traubel. After his retirement from performance he gave concerts, he taught singing privately. One of his students was mezzo-soprano Nell Tangeman, he died in Connecticut. Schorr made a number of recordings both in Europe and America by both the acoustic and electrical processes. Although some of them those recorded in America, were produced after he had passed his artistic zenith, these records still prove Schorr's vocal strength and solidity, his clear diction, his excellent breathing, the great emotional expressiveness of his interpretations. Most of his records are available on CD transfers issued by various companies, including a number of live operatic performances dating from the 1930s. Kennedy, The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4 Warrack and West, The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, 782 pages, ISBN 0-19-869164-5 Biography and photographs

Geoff Plant

Geoff Plant, QC is a British Columbia lawyer and retired politician known for his interest in citizen's legal and electoral rights and aboriginal rights. As of 2010, he is chair of the board for Providence Health Care. In May 2015 appointment as Emily Carr University of Art + Design's Chancellor. Raised in Vancouver, Plant received a B. A. from Harvard University in 1978 and law degrees from the University of Southampton in England in 1980, Dalhousie University in Halifax in 1981, from the University of Cambridge in 1989. For a year, Plant was a clerk in the Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa prior to being called to the bar in 1982. Plant was counsel in a number of leading aboriginal rights and title cases, including the 1997 landmark case of Delgamuukw v. British Columbia where the Supreme Court of Canada made its most definitive statement on the nature of Aboriginal title in Canada. Plant has lived in Richmond since 1984 and represented the riding of Richmond-Steveston in the British Columbia Legislature for the BC Liberal Party.

He was first elected as a Member of the Legislative Assembly in the 1996 election with 56 per cent of the vote. He served as Opposition Justice Critic and was Opposition Leader's Gordon Campbell's roommate in Victoria. Plant was re-elected with 69 per cent of the vote in the 2001 election as part of Campbell’s first-term government, he served as the Attorney General of British Columbia and Minister responsible for Treaty Negotiations from 2001 to 2005. He was regarded as a moderate within Campbell’s centre-right coalition, keen on reforms for the legal, aboriginal treaty negotiation and electoral systems, he oversaw the province-wide British Columbia Treaty Referendum in 2002 and the creation and oversight of the Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform. A policy change that affected whether domestic violence complaints would be automatically prosecuted did receive criticism from women's centres and was noted by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. Cuts to legal aid prompted the Law Society to censure him.

On the issue of polygamy in Bountiful, Plant cited constitutional concerns for religious rights but formed an investigative team to research the situation. When Plant chose not to run for a second term in government, he cited a wish to spend more time with his wife, experiencing breast cancer. Upon his exit from provincial politics, he joined the law firm of Heenan Blaikie while maintaining government appointments as senior advisor in land and resource negotiations with the Council of the Haida Nation and for Campus 2020: a review of post-secondary education, he has accepted a position as a sessional instructor at the University of Victoria Faculty of Law. Plant was appointed as a Special Advisor to the Premier and Minister of Advanced Education to lead a project called Campus 2020: Looking Ahead, the first comprehensive review of post-secondary education in British Columbia in over 40 years. In May 2007, Plant was appointed by Vancouver Mayor Sam Sullivan to the newly created position of Civil City Commissioner, a part-time job with a budget of $300,000.

The position will lead Project Civil City, the mayor's effort to enhance public order in Vancouver's public areas by reducing homelessness, aggressive panhandling and the open drug market by at least 50 per cent by 2010. There has been controversy regarding this position, with some expressing doubt as to its usefulness. Plant has visible results of corrective surgery; the congenital disorder's effect on his speech was not a barrier to his succeeding in law and politics, two careers that require skillful verbal communication

Robert Fellowes (philanthropist)

Robert Fellowes, LL. D. was an English clergyman and philanthropist. His father was the eldest son of William Fellowes of Norfolk. After attending Felsted School in Essex Fellowes was educated for the church at St Mary Hall, where he graduated with a BA on 30 June 1796, an MA on 28 January 1801, he seems to have held no preferment. For over six years he edited The Critical Review, he was a close friend of Samuel Parr, who introduced him to the embattled Queen Caroline of Brunswick, whose cause he supported. He is said to have written all her replies to the numerous addresses presented to her in 1820. Francis Maseres left Fellowes at his death in 1824 nearly £200,000. Fellowes erected to the memory of Maseres a monument in Reigate churchyard, with a eulogistic inscription in Latin, he used this fortune in forwarding benevolent schemes. In 1826 he gave benefactions to encourage the study of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, he was one of the promoters of London University. Out of gratitude for the professional services of Dr John Elliotson, who held a chair of medicine at University College London he provided there two annual gold medals, the Fellowes Medals, for proficiency in clinical medicine.

Fellowes interested himself in the opening of Regent's Park to the public, in the emancipation of the Jews. He drew the line at universal suffrage. In 1828 he made Albany Fonblanque editor, he lectured at the opening of the chapel of the Beaumont Philosophical Institution. Fellowes died in Dorset Square on 6 February 1847, he was buried at Kensal Green on 13 February. His son, Robert Fellowes of Shotesham Hall was High Sheriff of Norfolk in 1874. A list of Fellowes's publications is given in the Gentleman's Magazine, they include: A Picture of Christian Philosophy, or … Illustration of the Character of Jesus, 1798. An Address to the People, &c. 1799. Morality united with Policy, &c. 1800. The Rights of Property Vindicated, &c. 1818. Poems, … Original and Translated, &c. 1806. His religious publications advocated practical philanthropy. By degrees he abandoned the distinctive Anglican tenets, in his work The Religion of the Universe, he aimed to divest religion of most of its supernatural elements. Major writings were: The Anti-Calvinist, Warwick, 1800.

Religion without Cant, &c. 1801. The Guide to Immortality, &c. 1804, 3 vols.. A Body of Theology, &c. 1807. The Religion of the Universe, &c. 1836. 1864. A Lecture delivered on Opening the Chapel … in Beaumont Square, 1841. Common-sense Truths, &c. 1844. Fellowes translated from the Latin John Milton's Familiar Epistles and Second Defence of the People of England for an 1806 edition; some of his publications were issued under the pseudonym Philalethes A. M. Oxon. "Fellowes, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Fellowes, Robert". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900

International Women's Health Coalition

The International Women's Health Coalition is a non governmental organization founded in 1984 based in New York City. It focuses on issues relating to women and girls' human rights and equality and represents part of the women's movement that recognizes that many challenges to gender equality lie in challenges in health issues and in raising families; the IWHC is one of the oldest active global feminist groups. Joan Dunlop was the first president and served from 1984 to 1998. Dunlop took over the National Women's Health Coalition created by Merle Goldberg and changed its mission to become more international in scope; the original NWHC was small, with a staff of three, funded abortion training and other health services projects in various countries. Adrienne Germain was involved in co-founding IWHC with Dunlop. Germain became vice president of IWHC in 1985. Germain and Dunlop created a unique approach to women's health initiatives by investing in "local women-led organisations that provide services and influence national policies, advocating for global policy and funding.

IWHC attended the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo where they asked for the inclusion for access to contraception, safe abortion, maternity care, better access to women's health services and comprehensive sex education. In preparation for the conference, Dunlop and 15 colleagues developed a set of guidelines called "Women's Declaration on Population Policies," which focused on women's rights in family planning; the "Women's Declaration" was reviewed and finalized with the help of 100 different women's organizations around the world. The "Women's Declaration" was adopted by the conference in Cairo. One of the main goals of the "Women's Declaration" was to "shift the focus of population programs from goals and targets" to considering the whole of a woman's life. Dunlop with the IWHC argued that working towards gender equality in addition to sex education would help reduce birth rates. Demographic goals and targets, led to programs that included forced or unwanted sterilizations and "inappropriate methods of family planning" for women.

Dunlop called demographic and target methods to population control "basically racist" because she felt there was a subtext that "those black and brown people should not have more children."At the U. N. Women's Conference in Beijing in 1995, IWHC lobbied to include the idea that women have a right to control their sexuality "free of coercion and violence." Dunlop, said, "It moves beyond sexuality as a means of reproduction." This agreement at the women's conference marked the first time women's sexuality was acknowledged as a right for women to control. It gave women a legal tool in countries where husbands were still able to force their wives to have sex. IWHC sponsored women's groups from poorer nations to be able to attend the Beijing conference. IWHC held a symposium in 1997, it was found that women's health issues had been undermined by economic policies by the United States. By the time Dunlop retired in 1998, the IWHC had a $4 million annual budget; the IWHC was "playing a leading role in influencing government and UN agency policies to ensure women's human rights were at the core of population policies."

Germain became the next president of IWHC after Dunlop in 1998. Françoise Girard succeeded Germain as president of IWHC in 2012. IWHC remains staunch on the idea that giving women better access to health care and sex education is the right and ethical way to help stabilize the world's population growth; the IWHC publishes books relating to research and reviews of various policies relating to women's health. IWHC supports "50 health projects in eight countries." IWHC works cooperatively with the World Bank. Casterline, John B.. "Unmet Need for Family Planning in Developing Countries and Implications for Population Policy". Population and Development Review. 26: 691–723. Doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2000.00691.x. JSTOR 172400. Rogers, Anissa Taun. Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Perspectives on Development and the Life Course. Routledge. ISBN 9781317591993. Official site IWHC Youtube Channel


Hemojuvelin known as repulsive guidance molecule C or hemochromatosis type 2 protein, is a membrane-bound and soluble protein in mammals, responsible for the iron overload condition known as juvenile hemochromatosis in humans, a severe form of hemochromatosis. In humans, the hemojuvelin protein is encoded by the HFE2 gene. Hemojuvelin is a member of the repulsive guidance molecule family of proteins. Both RGMa and RGMb are found in the nervous system, while hemojuvelin is found in skeletal muscle and the liver. For many years the signal transduction pathways that regulate systemic iron homeostasis have been unknown; however it has been demonstrated that hemojuvelin interacts with bone morphogenetic protein as a co-receptor, may signal via the SMAD pathway to regulate hepcidin expression. Associations with BMP2 and BMP4 have been described. Mouse HJV knock-out models confirmed. Hepcidin levels in the liver are depressed in these knockout animals. A soluble form of HJV may be a molecule. RGMs may play inhibitory roles in prostate cancer by suppressing cell growth, adhesion and invasion.

RGMs can coordinate Smad-dependent and Smad-independent signalling of BMPs in prostate cancer and breast cancer cells. Furthermore, aberrant expression of RGMs was indicated in breast cancer; the perturbed expression was associated with poor prognosis. TAR syndrome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome RGMc/HJV is a 4-exon gene in mammals that undergoes alternative RNA splicing to yield 3 mRNAs with different 5’ untranslated regions. Gene transcription is induced during myoblast differentiation. There are three critical promoter elements responsible for transcriptional activation in skeletal muscle, comprising paired E-boxes, a putative Stat and/or Ets element, a MEF2 site, muscle transcription factors myogenin and MEF2C stimulate RGMc promoter function in non-muscle cells; as these elements are conserved in RGMc genes from multiple species, these results suggest that RGMc has been a muscle-enriched gene throughout its evolutionary history. RGMc/HJV, is transcriptionally regulated during muscle differentiation.

Two classes of GPI-anchored and glycosylated HJV molecules are targeted to the membrane and undergo distinct fates. Full-length HJV is released from the cell surface and accumulates in extracellular fluid, where its half-life exceeds 24 hours. There appears to be two membrane-associated isoforms; the predominant membrane-associated isoform, a disulfide-linked two-chain form composed of N- and C-terminal fragments, is not found in the extracellular fluid, is short-lived, as it disappears from the cell surface with a half-life of < 3 hours after interruption of protein synthesis. RGMc appears to undergo a complex processing that generates 2 soluble, single-chain forms, two membrane-bound forms found as a single-chain, two-chain species which appears to be cleaved at a site within a partial von Willebrand factor domain. Using a combination of biochemical and cell-based approaches, it has demonstrated that BMP-2 could interact in biochemical assays with the single-chain HJV species, could bind to cell-associated HJV.

Two mouse HJV amino acid substitution mutants, D165E and G313V could bind BMP-2, but less than wild-type HJV, while G92V could not. In contrast, the membrane-spanning protein, neogenin, a receptor for the related molecule, RGMa, preferentially bound membrane-associated heterodimeric RGMc and was able to interact on cells only with wild-type RGMc and G92V; these results show that different isoforms of RGMc/HJV may play unique physiological roles through defined interactions with distinct signaling proteins and demonstrate that, in some disease-linked HJV mutants, these interactions are defective. In 2009, the Rosetta ab initio protein structure prediction software has been used to create a three-dimensional model of the RGM family of proteins. In 2011, a crystal structure of a fragment of hemojuvelin binding to neogenin was completed showing similar structures to the ab initio model and further informing the view of the RGM family of proteins. Furin-like proprotein convertases are responsible for conversion of 50 kDa HJV to a 40 kDa protein with a truncated COOH-terminus, at a conserved polybasic RNRR site.

This suggests a potential mechanism to generate the soluble forms of HJV/hemojuvelin found in the blood of rodents and humans. Mutations in HJV are responsible for the vast majority of juvenile hemochromatosis patients. A small number of patients have mutations in the hepcidin gene; the gene was positionally cloned. Hemojuvelin is expressed in skeletal muscle and heart, to a lesser extent in the liver. One insight into the pathogenesis of juvenile hemochromatosis is that patients have low to undetectable urinary hepcidin levels, suggesting that hemojuvelin is a positive regulator of hepcidin, the central iron regulatory hormone; as a result, low hepcidin levels would result in increased intestinal iron absorption. Thus, HJV/RGMc appears to play a critical role in iron metabolism. Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Wallace SE, Amemiya A, Bean LJH, Bird TD, Fong CT, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, Goldberg YP. "Juvenile Hereditary Hemochromatosis". GeneReviews. PMID 20301349. Hemojuvelin,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q6ZVN8 at the PDBe-KB