Egyptian pound

The Egyptian pound is the currency of Egypt. It is divided into ersh, or 1,000 milliemes; the Egyptian pound is abbreviated as LE or L. E. which stands for livre égyptienne. E£ and £E are used on the internet; the name Genēh is derived from the Guinea coin, which had the same value of 100 piastres at the end of the 19th century. In 1834, a khedival decree was issued, adopting an Egyptian currency based on a bimetallic standard on the basis of the Maria Theresa thaler, a popular trade coin in the region; the Egyptian pound, known as the geneih, was introduced, replacing the Egyptian piastre as the chief unit of currency. The piastre continued to circulate as ​1⁄100 of a pound, with the piastre subdivided into 40 para. In 1885, the para ceased to be issued, the piastre was divided into tenths; these tenths were renamed milliemes in 1916. The legal exchange rates were fixed by force of law for important foreign currencies which became acceptable in the settlement of internal transactions; this led to Egypt using a de facto gold standard between 1885 and 1914, with E£1 = 7.4375 grams pure gold.

At the outbreak of World War I, the Egyptian pound was pegged to the British pound sterling at GB£1 = EG£0.975. Egypt remained part of the Sterling Area until 1962, when Egypt devalued and switched to a peg to the United States dollar, at a rate of EG£1 = US$2.3. This peg; the pound was itself devalued in 1978 to a peg of GB£1 = US$1.42857. The pound floated in 1989. However, until 2001, the float was managed by the Central Bank of Egypt and foreign exchange controls were in effect; the Central Bank of Egypt ended the managed-float regime and allowed the pound to float on 3 November 2016. The official rate fell twofold; the Egyptian pound was used in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan between 1899 and 1956, Cyrenaica when it was under British occupation and an independent emirate between 1942 and 1951. It circulated in Mandatory Palestine from 1918 to 1927, when the Palestine pound was introduced, equal in value to the pound sterling; the National Bank of Egypt issued banknotes for the first time on 3 April 1899.

The Central Bank of Egypt and the National Bank of Egypt were unified into the Central Bank of Egypt in 1961. Several unofficial popular names are used to refer to different values of Egyptian currency; these include nekla for 2 milliemes, ta'rifa for 5 milliemes, shelen for 5 piastres, bariza for 10 piastres, reyal for 20 piastres. Since the piastre and millieme are no longer legal tender, the smallest denomination minted being the 25-piastre coin, these terms have fallen into disuse and survive as curios. A few have survived to refer to pounds: bariza now refers to a ten-pound note and reyal can be used in reference to a 20-pound note. Different sums of EGP have special nicknames, for example: 1 EGP Bolbol meaning nightingale or Gondi meaning soldier, 1,000 EGP baku "pack". Between 1837 and 1900, copper 1 and 5 para*, silver 10 and 20 para, 1, 5, 10 and 20 piastre, gold 5, 10 and 20 piastre and 1 pound coins were introduced, with gold 50 piastre coins following in 1839. Copper 10 para coins were introduced in 1853.

Copper 10 para coins were again introduced in 1862, followed by copper 4 para and 2​1⁄2 piastre coins in 1863. Gold 25 piastre coins were introduced in 1867. In 1885, a new coinage was introduced consisting of bronze ​1⁄4, ​1⁄2, 1, 2 and 5 millieme, silver 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins; the gold coinage ceased, with only small numbers of 5 and 10 piastre coins issued. In 1916 and 1917, a new base metal coinage was introduced consisting of bronze ​1⁄2 millieme and holed, cupro-nickel 1, 2, 5 and 10 millieme coins. Silver 2, 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins continued to be issued, a gold 1 pound coin was reintroduced. Between 1922 and 1923, the gold coinage was extended to include 20 and 50 piastre and 1 and 5 pound coins. In 1924, bronze replaced cupro-nickel in the 1 millieme coin and the holes were removed from the other cupro-nickel coins. In 1938, bronze 5 and 10 millieme coins were introduced, followed in 1944 by silver, hexagonal 2 piastre coins. Between 1954 and 1956, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of aluminium-bronze 1, 5 and 10 millieme and silver 5, 10 and 20 piastre coins, with the size of the silver coinage reduced.

An aluminium-bronze 2 millieme coin was introduced in 1962. In 1967 the silver coinage was abandoned and cupro-nickel 5 and 10 piastre coins were introduced. Aluminium replaced aluminium-bronze in the 1, 5 and 10 millieme coins in 1972, followed by brass in the 5 and 10 millieme coins in 1973. Aluminium-bronze 2 piastre and cupro-nickel 20 piastre coins were introduced in 1980, followed by aluminium-bronze 1 and 5 piastre coins in 1984. In 1992, brass 5 and 10 piastre coins were introduced, followed by holed, cupro-nickel 25 piastre coins in 1993; the size of 5 piastre coins was reduced in 2004, 10 and 25 piastre coins - in 2008. On June 1, 2006, 50 piastre and 1 pound coins dated 2005 were introduced, its equivalen

Philippine Science High School Bicol Region Campus

Philippine Science High School Bicol Region Campus is a campus of the Philippine Science High School System, a specialized public high school in the Philippines. Founded in 1998, it caters to scientifically and mathematically gifted high school students of the Bicol Region, it is located in Camarines Sur. The Bicol Region Campus is the seventh PSHS campus to open since the PSHS's inception in 1964; the PSHS Bicol Region Campus is situated at a six-hectare lot in Barangay Tagontong, Camarines Sur. It accepts students coming from the provinces belonging to the Bicol Region: Albay, Camarines Sur, Camarines Norte, Catanduanes and Sorsogon, it serves the cities of Naga, Legazpi, Tabaco and Masbate. The campus houses students from other regions and provinces as far as Cavite and from Mega Manila; the signing of Republic Act 8304 in 1996 as amended by Republic Act 8619 in 1998 made official the conversion of San Rafael National High School at Tigaon, Camarines Sur under the Department of Education Culture and Sports into the Philippine Science High School - Camarines Sur Campus under the Philippine Science High School System and the Department of Science and Technology.

The campus was located at San Rafael, Camarines Sur, it started operations in July 1998, with an initial enrolment of 29 scholars. However, due to numerous problems involving the conversion, the Philippine Congress passed another law restoring the SRNHS while allowing the campus, now called the Philippine Science High School - Bicol Region Campus, to exist. After School Year 1999-2000, the school, with Dr. Gregilda Pan as its first campus director moved to the neighboring town of Goa, where it temporarily stayed at the Partido State University campus from 2000 to 2002. In 2002, the school, now using its present name moved to its permanent site, a six-hectare lot donated by the Goa municipal government, at Barangay Tagontong, Goa. PSHS Bicol Region Campus official website

Tobin Sprout

Tobin Sprout is an American artist and musician. He is best known as being the secondary major writer and member of indie rock group Guided by Voices, he was a founding member of the band fig.4 who enjoyed the Dayton "New Wave" scene in the mid 80s playing at bars such as The 1001 Club. A self-taught musician, Sprout played with and was a major collaborator to the Dayton band Guided By Voices. Employing a four-track recorder and a home studio he contributed to the unique lo-fi sound of Guided by Voices and he was a member of the band from 1987 through 1997, again from 2010 to 2014; the band recorded in Sprout's home studio, as a member of the band he contributed as a co-writer, multi-instrumentalist and studio engineer. Guided by Voices songs written by Sprout include "It's Like Soul Man," "Awful Bliss," and "Atom Eyes". Between the 1997 split and the 2010 reunion, he appeared on three more Guided by Voices recordings, contributing piano to the Isolation Drills song "How's My Drinking?" and guitar to the Half Smiles of the Decomposed tracks "Girls of Wild Strawberries" and "Huffman Prairie Flying Field" the latter of, the final track on the album.

Although a visual artist by trade, he has continued to write his own music, releasing Carnival Boy in 1996, Moonflower Plastic in 1997 and Let's Welcome the Circus People in 1999. He wrote, his Demos and Outtakes collection was released in the following year. In 2001, Sprout rejoined with Robert Pollard to form Airport 5, independently releasing numerous singles and 2 full-length albums, Tower in the Fountain of Sparks and in 2002, Life Starts Here, he has continued writing and composing independently, from his home in Leland, Michigan and releasing his fourth solo effort Lost Planets & Phantom Voices. In 2009, Sprout released his first children's book, published by Mackinac Island Press. In 2010 Sprout released his fifth solo effort, The Bluebirds Of Happiness Tried To Land On My Shoulder, on his personal record label Moonflower Records. In July 2010, Robert Pollard announced that the "Classic Lineup" of Guided By Voices would reunite for a U. S. tour, with a lineup featuring Pollard, Mitch Mitchell, Kevin Fennell, Greg Demos.

The tour culminated with a performance in at Irving Plaza in New York City on New Year's Eve, 2010. They went on to release six new studio albums before splitting up again in 2014. In 2017 Sprout released his sixth solo effort, The Universe & Me changing from his personal label to the independent label Burger Records from Fullerton, California. Sprout was born in Dayton and graduated from Centerville High School in 1974. After graduating from high school, Sprout studied graphic design and illustration at Ohio University. American actor Tim Allen has stated he is a collector and admirer of Sprout's artwork and illustrations. Popstram - Recordhead Wax Nails - Recordhead "Let Go Of My Beautiful Balloon" - Wigwam Records Untitled - Split with The Minders - Sprite Recordings Sentimental Stations - Recordhead Tobin Sprout: 1996 - Carnival Boy 1997 - Moonflower Plastic 1999 - Let's Welcome the Circus People 2003 - Lost Planets & Phantom Voices 2010 - The Bluebirds Of Happiness Tried To Land On My Shoulder 2017 - The Universe & Me As Eyesinweasel: 1999 - Demos & Outtakes 2000 - Wrinkled Thoughts 2001 - Live In The Middle East As Airport 5: 2001 - Tower in the Fountain of Sparks 2002 - Life Starts Here Official website