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Economy of Estonia

The economy of Estonia is an advanced economy and the country is a member of the European Union and of the eurozone. Estonia's economy is influenced by developments in the Finnish and Swedish economies. Before the Second World War, Estonia's economy was based on agriculture, but there was a significant knowledge sector, with the university city of Tartu known for scientific contributions, a growing industrial sector, similar to that of neighbouring Finland. Products, such as butter and cheese were known in the west European markets; the main markets were Germany and the United Kingdom, only 3% of all commerce was with the neighbouring USSR. Estonia and Finland had a similar standard of living; the USSR's annexation of Estonia in 1940 and the ensuing Nazi and Soviet destruction during World War II crippled the Estonian economy. The subsequent Soviet occupation and post-war Sovietization of life continued with the integration of Estonia's economy and industry into the USSR's centrally planned structure.

Estonia's GDP per capita was just $100 in 1991. After Estonia moved away from communism in the late 1980s, restored its independence in 1991 and became a market economy, it emerged as a pioneer in the global economy. In 1992, the country adopted the Estonian kroon as its own currency, this stabilised the economy. In 1994, it became one of the first countries in the world to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income. Estonia received more foreign investment per capita in the second half of the 1990s than any other country in Central and Eastern Europe. Between 2005 and 2008, the personal income tax rate was reduced from 26% to 21% in several steps; the country has been catching up with the EU-15. It is rated a high-income country by the World Bank; the GDP per capita of the country, a good indicator of wealth, was $35,974 in 2018 according to the World Bank, between that of Lithuania and Cyprus, but below that of most long-time EU members such as Spain or Italy.

Because of its economic performance after the Soviet breakup, Estonia has been termed one of the Baltic Tigers. In 2008, Estonia was ranked 12th of 162 countries in the Index of Economic Freedom 2008, the best of any former Soviet republic; the same year, the country was at the bottom of the list of European states by labour market freedom, but the government is drafting improvements. For Estonia, the financial crisis of 2007–2008 was comparatively easier to weather, because Estonia's budget has been kept balanced, this meant that Estonia's public debt relative to the country's GDP has remained the lowest in Europe; the economy recovered in 2010. On 1 January 2011, Estonia joined the euro, became the first ex-Soviet republic to join the eurozone. In 2013, the World Bank Group rated Estonia as 21st on the Ease of Doing Business Index; until the early 13th century, the territory, now known as Estonia was independent. The economy was an agricultural one, but Estonia being a country with a long coastline, there were many maritime activities.

Autonomous development was brought to an end by the Northern Crusades undertaken by the King of Denmark, the German Livonian and the Teutonic military orders. The Estonian world was transformed by military conquest; the war against the invaders lasted from 1208–1227. The last Estonian county to fall was the island of Saaremaa in 1261. Thereafter, through many centuries until WWI, Estonian agriculture consisted of native peasants working large feudal-type estates held by ethnic German landlords. In the decades prior to independence, centralised Czarist rule had created a rather large industrial sector dominated by the Kreenholm Manufacturing Company the world's largest cotton mill. After declaring independence in 1918, the Estonian War of Independence and the subsequent signing of the Treaty of Tartu in 1920, the new Estonian state inherited a ruined post-war economy and an inflated ruble currency. Despite considerable hardship and unemployment, Estonia spent the first decade of independence transforming its economy.

In 1918, The Czarist ruble was replaced by the Estonian mark, in circulation until 1927. By 1929, a stable currency, the kroon, had been established, it was issued by the Bank of the country's central bank. Compensating the German landowners for their holdings, the government confiscated the estates and divided them into small farms, which subsequently formed the basis of Estonian prosperity. Trade focused on the local market and the West Germany and the United Kingdom. Only 3% of all commerce was with the USSR; the USSR's forcible annexation of Estonia in 1940 and the ensuing Nazi and Soviet destruction during World War II crippled the Estonian economy. Post-war Soviet occupation and Sovietisation of life continued with the integration of Estonia's economy and industry into the USSR's centrally planned structure. More than 56% of Estonian farms were collectivised in the month of April 1949 alone after mass deportations to Siberia the previous month. Moscow expanded on those Estonian industries which had locally available raw materials, such as oil shale mining and phosphorites.

Since reestablishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia's market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON area. A balanced budget non-existent public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime convertible currency backed by currency board and a strong peg to the euro, competitive commercial banking sector, hospitable environment for

Tommy Lee James

Tommy Lee James is an American country music songwriter and record producer with Still Working Music Group. Based in Nashville, Tennessee, he is from Roanoke, Virginia, he graduated from Northside High School attended Radford University, where he studied voice. He moved to Nashville with dreams of becoming an artist, but became a full-time songwriter. James is the writer of a number of hit songs, including Reba McEntire's "And Still", Brooks & Dunn's "A Man This Lonely", Reba McEntire and Brooks & Dunn's duet "If You See Him/If You See Her", Martina McBride's "Wrong Again", Cyndi Thomson's "What I Really Meant to Say", Tim McGraw's "She's My Kind of Rain". All these songs went to number one on the charts. James had an additional chart topping success with "I Wish" recorded by Jo Dee Messina and "Let's Be Us Again" recorded by Lonestar, a top 4 hit, he co-wrote the critically acclaimed single by Gary Allan entitled "Life Ain't Always Beautiful". James has had many other cuts with artists such as Cliff Richard, 98 Degrees, Pam Tillis, Blue County, Emerson Drive, Jedd Hughes, Little Big Town, Delta Goodrem, Pussycat Dolls.

In addition to being a writer, James produced albums for Capitol Records recording artists Cyndi Thomson, Susan Ashton and Emily West, Big Machine artist Danielle Peck, former Lonestar vocalist Richie McDonald. James' success continues in 2012 with Joe Walsh's new album, Analog Man, released on June 5, 2012, One Direction's new record, Take Me Home. Interview with Tommy Lee James

Hewison v Meridian Shipping Services Pte

Hewison v Meridian Shipping Services Pte EWCA 1821 is an English tort law case, concerning an employer's liability for an employee's illegal acts. Mr Hewison needed anti-convulsant drugs, he concealed his illness so that he could do offshore work with his employer, Meridian Shipping, as a crane operator. Meridian Shipping was responsible for a workplace accident, contrary to Employer's Liability Act 1969, whereby Mr Hewison was struck in the head by a gangway. Mr Hewison started to suffer from seizures with his medication. Meridian Shipping dismissed he could get no further work at sea. Mr Hewison submitted that, despite his failure to declare his illness, it would be an affront to public conscience were he denied a remedy for Meridian Shipping's negligence and breach of statutory duty, he argued that without the accident his epilepsy would not have been heightened, he would have remained at sea and would not have suffered a considerable loss of future earnings. Tuckey LJ and Clarke LJ held; the principle from Clunis v Camden and Islington Health Authority applied here, so that a claimant cannot rely on an unlawful act to enable recovery in tort.

Though a claim itself is not barred, loss attributable to an illegal act is. Mr Hewison's offence under the Theft Act 1968 was an essential part of his future employment at sea, it was added that the court would not deny restitution if the illegality was collateral or insignificant, but it rejected the notion that recovery should be allowed because denial might affront "public conscience". Ward LJ dissented. Disability Discrimination Act 1995 Tinsley v Milligan 1 AC 340 Reeves v Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis QB 169 Holman v Johnson 1 Cowp 341, 343, Lord Mansfield CJ, “The objection, that a contract is immoral or illegal as between plaintiff and defendant, sounds at all times ill in the mouth of the defendant, it is not for his sake, that the objection is allowed. The principle of public policy is this. No court will lend its aid to a man who founds his cause of action upon an immoral or an illegal act. If, from the plaintiff's own standing or otherwise, the cause of action appears to arise ex turpi causa, or the transgression of a positive law of this country, there the court says he has no right to be assisted.

It is upon that ground. So if the plaintiff and defendant were to change sides, the defendant was to bring his action against the plaintiff, the latter would have the advantage of it. Moore Stephens v Stone Rolls Ltd UKHL 39

BiZZdesign Enterprise Studio

BiZZdesign Enterprise Studio BiZZdesign Architect, is a visual modeling and design tool for Enterprise Architecture, that supports the application of ArchiMate and TOGAF, as well other enterprise architecture frameworks. The platform supports the modelling, visualisation and documentation of enterprise architecture from different viewpoints and with multiple views. Additionally it supports the modeling business requirements, it supports automatic data collection, can import data from office applications. BiZZdesign Enterprise Studio is developed by BiZZdesign and first released in 2004 as BiZZdesign Architect, its development is based on the results of the ArchiMate project, intends to offer a high value enterprise architecture modelling tool which business management itself can control. In 2012 it is recognized by Gartner and Forrester Research as one of the leading enterprise architecture tools. Support of enterprise architecture frameworks, such as: ArchiMate DYA framework Integrated Architecture Framework Pragmatic Enterprise Architecture framework.

Tapscott TOGAF Zachman frameworkAnd other related frameworks. Besides these architecture frameworks the tool has native support for and interoperability with: Business Process Model and Notation BiZZdesign Enterprise Studio at

American Society of News Editors

The American Society of News Editors is a membership organization for editors, producers or directors in charge of journalistic organizations or departments, deans or faculty at university journalism schools, leaders and faculty of media-related foundations and training organizations. The American Society of Newspaper Editors formed after two United States publications took the newspaper industry to task. In January 1922 The Atlantic Monthly featured two articles by Frederick Lewis Allen and Moorfield Storey were critical and requested change in how newspapers were published. After reading the articles Casper Yost saw the need for forming an organization of editors willing to combat criticism. Yost wrote to a few dozen editors soliciting support; the responses were positive and, just a month in February 1922, a small meeting was held in Chicago. Attendees included Yost and editors from Cleveland and Chicago, they gathered to discuss action they could take for the advancement of the news and editorial side, to develop a constitution and a code of ethics and to launch a recruiting campaign for the group.

The editors called a meeting in New York that April, when editors would be joining their publishers and congregating for the annual ANPA meeting. Their efforts were so successful; the organization amended its bylaws and changed its name to the American Society of News Editors in April, 2009. In October 1922, ASNE was launched with officers; the founders decided that ASNE would be an organization of individual editors of big-city papers — limiting membership to editors of newspapers in cities of 100,000 or more. Since rules have been loosened extensively; the convention is held annually - with the exception of 1945 and 2009 - in Washington. Every U. S. president has spoken at the organization's convention and it is considered a premier venue for politicians to appear. Notable examples are President Coolidge's Press Under a Free Government speech and President Eisenhower's Chance for Peace speech. ASNE has several initiatives carried out by its committees; the Diversity Committee was formed to evaluate employee diversity using the Newsroom Employment Census.

The census queries every daily newspaper and online news site in the United States to determine the number of news staffers as well as their gender and race as part of the organization's yearly census. The ASNE Awards are another key initiative of the organization, they include the Batten Medal, the Osborn Award for Editorial Leadership, the Sulzberger Award for Online Storytelling, the Howell Award for Nondeadline Writing, the Royko Award for Commentary/Column Writing, the Distinguished Writing on Diversity Award, the Local Accountability Reporting Award, the Community Service Photojournalism Award and the Breaking News Writing award. ASNE runs several projects carried out by staff with advice from committees. Projects subject areas have included diversity and readership; the association started the national Sunshine Week initiative promoting the importance of open government. Sunshine laws were enacted to make sure. Official website Sunshine Week website

Graeme Hart

Graeme Richard Hart is a New Zealand billionaire businessman and the country's wealthiest person. He makes few public appearances. Much like other leveraged buyout private equity investors, Hart has a preference for buying underperforming and undervalued companies with steady cash flows which can be turned around through better cash management, cost-cutting and restructuring with other businesses. Since his 2006 purchase of Carter Holt Harvey he has focused his acquisitions on the paper packaging sector, his largest acquisition to-date was for Alcoa's Packaging & Consumer group in 2008 for US$2.7bn renamed Reynolds Packaging Group. He does not directly manage his businesses, is focused on the financing related to re-capitalization of the companies. Hart worked as a tow-truck driver and as a panel beater after leaving school at 16. In 1987, Hart completed an MBA from the University of Otago, his research thesis outlines the strategy for Rank a small hire company, to grow. This strategy relies on using the cash flow of well-performing companies to fund debt, which as it gets paid off, increases the equity value of the initial investors.

Hart gained a big break when he purchased the Government Printing Office for less than its capital value in 1990. The purchase was 1.4x earnings and Hart was provided generous payment terms. New Zealand Prime Minister David Lange refused to sign off on the transaction; the following year he bought Whitcoulls Group which at that time included a retail chain of bookstores as well as office and stationery concerns. He has since sold off these interests. Forbes stated that Hart was the 178th richest person in the world as of March 2016. Rank Group Ltd is Hart's private investment company, it is the 100 % owner of Burns Philp and Carter Holt Harvey. Rank had assets of NZ$3 billion in cash after selling the assets of Burns Philp and floating Goodman Fielder in 2004. In December 2006 he agreed to purchase International Paper's drinks packaging business Evergreen Packaging for NZ$725 million. In May 2007 he bought Swiss packaging company SIG for NZ$3.2 billion. The SIG division Combibloc is the second largest food and drink carton packaging company in the world after Swedish giant Tetra Laval.

In August 2007 Hart completed his US$450 million purchase of US paper packaging company Blue Ridge Paper Products of North Carolina which he intends to merge with Evergreen Packaging of Arkansas. These acquisitions make Rank Group the world's second biggest company in the paper products business. In March 2015 Reynolds Group Holdings completed the sale of SIG to Onex Corporation. Hart's "company vehicle" is a Gulfstream G650-ER, registered N946JB. Burns Philp and Company Limited was an Australian and New Zealand food manufacturing company dual listed on the ASX and NZX. Hart has been the chairman since September 2004 and a member of the board of directors since September 1997. In 2003 Burns Philp performed a A$2.4 billion hostile takeover of the much larger food group Goodman Fielder before relisting it through an IPO. Following the sale of its yeast and spices business to UK firm Associated British Foods, Uncle Toby's to Nestle for NZ$1.1 billion and Bluebird Foods to PepsiCo for NZ$245 million the company became a cashed up shell.

In December 2006, Hart completed a A$1.6 billion takeover of the 42 per cent of Burns Philp he did not own. After the successful takeover Burns Philp was delisted from the ASX and NZX; the deal gave him total control of A$2.9 billion of Burns Philp cash, net of debt, which he could use to further build on his Carter Holt Harvey empire. Hart sold Burn Philp's 20% stake in Goodman Fielder for NZ$675.8 million in October 2007. In 2006 Hart paid NZ$3.3 billion for a New Zealand timber and paper business. Soon after completing the purchase he began restructuring the struggling company starting with the sale of CHH's forests to US-based Hancock Timber Group for up to NZ$2 billion. Hart has sold CHH's head office property, various sawmills and packaging plants for over NZ$300 million. In 2007 he announced the sale of CHH's building supplies business which some estimate could fetch NZ$2.3bn, but was unsuccessful in the selling of it. Hart had been seeking a purchaser for the packaging side of CHH since October 2010.

In April 2014, CHH announced the sale of its Pulp, Paper & Packaging business to a Japanese consortium for NZ$1.037 billion, with the deal closing in the second half of 2014. In 2008 Hart paid US$2.7 billion for Alcoa Consumer group. He spun off the company and renamed it Reynolds Packaging Group, now headquartered in Lake Forest, Illinois, USA. While this business is within the packaging industry, it is not paper packaging related, being in the aluminium foil and plastic closure business. Since the purchase from Alcoa, Hart has cut more than 20% of the workforce within Reynolds through plant shutdowns, including the flagship Reynolds Wrap Foil Plant in Richmond and restructuring efforts; this has resulted in significant savings and profit margin jump for the company, allowing him to issue more debt on behalf of the company in October 2009 and get a high return on his initial investment. In November 2009 and May 2010, through additional debt financing has combined the packaging groups he owns into Reynolds Group Holdings Limited.

RGHL is the combination of four operating segments: SIG, Closure Systems International, Evergreen Packaging, Reynolds Consumer Products (an aluminium foil and other packaging mat