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Economy of Greenland

The economy of Greenland can be characterized as small and vulnerable. Greenland's economy consists of comprehensive foreign trade; this has resulted in an economy with periods of strong growth, considerable inflation, unemployment problems and extreme dependence on capital inflow from the Kingdom Government. GDP per capita is close to the average for European economies, but the economy is critically dependent upon substantial support from the Danish government, which supplies about half the revenues of the Self-rule Government, which in turn employs 10,307 Greenlanders out of 25,620 in employment. Unemployment nonetheless remains high, with the rest of the economy dependent upon demand for exports of shrimp and fish. Except for an abortive royal colony established under Major Claus Paarss between 1728 and 1730, colonial Greenland was administered by companies under royal charter until 1908. Hans Egede's Hope Colony was organized under the auspices of the Bergen Greenland Company prior to its bankruptcy in 1727.

Early hopes of mineral or agricultural wealth were dashed, open trade proved a failure owing to other nations' better quality, lower priced goods and hostility. Kale and other vegetables were introduced, but repeated attempts to cultivate wheat or clover failed throughout Greenland, limiting the ability to raise European livestock. After government-funded whaling failed, the KGH settled on maintaining the native Greenlanders in their traditional pursuits of hunting and whaling and enforced a monopoly on trade between them and Europe. Repeated attempts to open trade were opposed on both commercial and humanitarian grounds, although minor reforms in the 1850s and 60s lowered the prices charged to the natives for "luxuries" like sugar and coffee. During the years before World War I, the KGH's independence was curtailed and the company folded into the Ministry of the Interior. Climate change, apparent since the 1920s, disrupted traditional Kalaallit life as the milder weather reduced the island's seal populations but filled the waters offshore with cod.

After World War II, reforms were enacted by the Danish Greenland Commission composed of Greenland Provincial Council members and Danish economists. The report outlined a program to end the KGH model and establish a modern welfare state on the Danish model and supported by the Kingdom Government; the KGH monopolies were ended in 1950. The KGH had long opposed urbanization of the Kalaallit Greenlanders, but during the 1950s and 1960s the Danish government introduced an urbanization and modernization program aimed at consolidating existing settlements; the program was intended to reduce costs, improve access to education and health care, provide workers for modernized cod fisheries, which were growing at the time. The program faced a number of problems including the collapse of the fisheries and the shoddy construction of many of the buildings the infamous Blok P, produced a number of problems of its own, including continuing unemployment and alcoholism. Greenland left the European Economic Community in February 1985, principally due to EEC policies on fishing and sealskin.

Most EU laws do not apply to Greenland. In the same year, Greenland exercised its new control over the Royal Greenland Trading Company to reestablish it as KNI. Over the next few decades, divisions of the conglomerate were spun off and competition within the Greenlandic economy somewhat increased. Following the closure of the Maarmorilik lead and zinc mine in 1990 and the collapse of the cod fisheries amid colder ocean currents, Greenland faced foreign trade deficits and a shrinking economy, but it has been growing since 1993; the Greenland economy is dependent on exports of fish and on support from the Danish Government, which supplies about half of government revenues. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in the economy; the largest employers in Greenland are the various levels of administration, including the central Kingdom Government in Denmark, the Local Greenland Self-Rule Government, the municipalities. Most of these positions are in the capital Nuuk.

In addition to this direct employment, the government subsidizes other major employers in other areas of the economy, including Great Greenland's sealskin purchases, Pilersuisoq's rural stores, some of Air Greenland and Royal Arctic's regional routes. The second-largest sector by employment is Greenland's fishing industry; the commercial fishing fleet consists of 5,000 dinghies, 300 cutters, 25 trawlers. While cod was the main catch, today the industry centers on cold-water shrimp and Greenland halibut; the fish processing industry is entirely centered on Royal Greenland, the world's largest retailer of cold-water shrimp. Whaling and seal hunting were once traditional mainstays of Greenland's economy. Greenlanders still kill an estimated 170,000 seals a year and 175 whales a year, ranking them second and third in the world respectively. Both whaling and sealing have become controversial, limiting the potential market for their products; as such, the only seal tannery in the country – Great Greenland in Qaqortoq – is heavil

Black Lake (Michigan)

Black Lake is located in Cheboygan and Presque Isle counties in northern Michigan, United States. With a surface area of 10,130 acres, it is the seventh largest inland lake in Michigan; the largest body of water in the Black River watershed, it drains through the Lower Black and Cheboygan rivers into Lake Huron. Black Lake is a summer destination for many families from the suburban Detroit area and from other nearby states as well as residents of the neighboring town of Onaway. Onaway State Park, at the southeastern end of the lake, offers camping and fishing, its buildings, built during the Great Depression by the Civilian Conservation Corps, have been deemed eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. Businesses on or near the lake include the Black River Marina, The Bluffs Restaurant and the 211 Outpost. Since the late 1960s, the United Auto Workers Union has maintained the Walter and May Reuther Family Education Center on the site of a former private estate. Black Lake is noted for its unusual fishing season.

A limited lake sturgeon ice fishing season is permitted in the winter. The fishery is limited to six total fish taken each year, each over 36 inches and taken through the ice with fishing spears. 25 anglers are given a flag to raise when they have caught a fish. When five flags have been raised the season is closed for the year. Seasons have lasted as little as a few hours; the early history of the area was dominated by mining. The remains of a long-abandoned limestone quarry are still visible on the south shore of the lake; the Black Lake Association, founded in 1920, works to maintain the lake's water quality, to promote and improve its walleye and sturgeon fisheries, to keep its members informed about environmental issues that affect them, their property, the lake itself, to maintain a record of the lake's vital statistics. During the tornado outbreak of October 17, 2007, Black lake was impacted by an EF1 tornado that lasted 10 minutes on the ground. No deaths were recorded, but a barn and some land was ruined in the wake.

List of lakes in Michigan Michigan DNR map of Black Lake

Walter Yeo

Walter Ernest O'Neil Yeo was an English sailor in the First World War, thought to have been one of the first people to benefit from advanced plastic surgery, namely a skin flap. Yeo was born in Devon, to Petty Officer Francis Yeo and his wife Rhoda Sarah Yeo, he had two elder sisters and Elsie. Three weeks after his birth, his father was killed aboard HMS Serpent while en route to Sierra Leone, after hitting rocks off Cape Vilan, Spain. Three of the 150 people on board survived the shipwreck, his mother was an alemaker at the Royal William Victualling Yard. Yeo enlisted into the marine navy aged 12, serving as a bugler until 1911, he was promoted to leading seaman in 1912, becoming a petty officer in 1915 and a warrant officer in June 1917. Yeo was wounded on 31 May 1916, during the Battle of Jutland, while manning the guns aboard the battleship HMS Warspite, he sustained terrible facial injuries, including the loss of lower eyelids. There is some uncertainty as to where he was first admitted to hospital, due to the poor documentation.

However, he is known to have been admitted to Plymouth Hospital while waiting for a place at Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup, granted on 8 August 1917. He was treated by Sir Harold Gillies, the first man to transfer skin from undamaged areas on the body. Gillies' notes on this case indicate that the main disfigurement was severe ectropion as well as waxy scar tissue of the forehead and nose. Gillies opened a specialist ward at Queen Mary's Hospital for the treatment of the facially-wounded. Walter Yeo is thought to have been one of the first patients to be treated with this newly developed technique. During the long process of surgery, a'mask' of skin was transplanted across Yeo's face and eyes, including new eyelids; the operation to replace the skin of the midface and forehead took place in multiple stages. The first stage was the outlining of the graft as well as placement of a stent to contour for the nasal dorsum on 12 November 1917. On post-operative day five, a serious infection was noted as well as complications with the stent requiring surgical intervention.

On 30 November, the second stage of the surgery was performed which consisted of excision of the scar tissue of the face and transfer of the graft. Again, post-operative infection was a major complication. Gillies described the flap as "floating in pus at one point" which required extensive care to salvage most of the tissue. In January 1918, the pedicles were returned to the chest with the surgery deemed a success. Minor revisions were performed in the following months to improve the aesthetics of the graft. By July 1919, he was found to be fit for active service again and was recorded as having completed courses in September 1919, he underwent a further operation in August 1921, after which his disfigurement was recorded as'improved, but still severe', he was recommended for medical discharge, which took place on 15 December 1921. Walter received further treatment for a corneal ulcer at the Royal Naval Hospital in Plymouth in 1938. Walter married Ada Edwards in 1914, had two daughters with her: Lilian Evelyn Yeo, born 21 October 1914, Doreen Y.

Yeo, born in 1919. He died in his hometown, where he had spent the majority of his life, in 1960 at the age of seventy

1895 Boston mayoral election

The Boston mayoral election of 1895 occurred on Tuesday, December 10, 1895. Democratic candidate Josiah Quincy defeated Republican candidate and incumbent Mayor of Boston Edwin Upton Curtis, one other contender, to win election to his first term. Due to a change of the city charter in June 1895, this was the first Boston mayoral election for a two-year term. Quincy was inaugurated on Monday, January 6, 1896, his grandfather Josiah Quincy IV and great-grandfather Josiah Quincy III had served as Mayors of Boston. Edwin Upton Curtis, incumbent Mayor of Boston, former City Clerk of Boston Frank Parsons, "lecturer on insurance at Boston University"—referred to as the candidate for the "municipal reform party", "a fusion of prohibitionists, labor and socialists" Parsons was a Populist. Josiah Quincy, former member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, United States Assistant Secretary of State List of mayors of Boston, Massachusetts "Democrats Carry Boston"; the New York Times. December 11, 1895.

P. 1. Retrieved March 22, 2018 – via Boston Mayor Race - Dec 10, 1895 at

Craig Douglas

Craig Douglas is an English pop singer, popular in the late 1950s and early 1960s. His sole UK chart-topper, "Only Sixteen", sold more copies in the UK than Sam Cooke's original version. Born a twin, in Newport, Isle of Wight the former Terence Perkins was employed as a milkman before becoming a professional singer, was known to many as the'Singing Milkman', his manager was Bunny Lewis. Lewis saw the name outside a house in Scotland. Douglas said there were a number of Terrys around at the time and not many Craigs, and, one of the reasons his name was changed. Voted'Best New Singer' in 1959 in the British music magazine, NME, Douglas went on to record eight cover versions of former American hit songs, in his total of nine Top 40 UK singles. Amongst that tally, Douglas had a Number One single in 1959 with "Only Sixteen", which outsold Sam Cooke's original version in the UK, it was recorded at EMI's Abbey Road studios, with whistling by Mike Sammes, released through Top Rank records. Douglas had four consecutive Number 9 placings on the UK Singles Chart.

In 1961 Douglas entered the A Song For Europe contest with his song "The Girl Next Door", but did not do well. Douglas starred in the 1962 film It's Trad, Dad! He topped the bill on the Beatles' first major stage show, although their emergence spelt the end of Douglas's chart career, his final chart entry came in February 1963, when "Town Crier" flopped at Number 36. He continues to perform, with bookings on cruise ships; until 2010, Douglas toured venues including the Medina Theatre on the Isle of Wight. He appeared at the Amersham Roll Club on 11 December 2010, an event in his benefit. John Leyton, Mike Berry and the Flames all took part, while Jet Harris and other celebrities attended. Douglas sang three songs from his wheelchair at the close of the concert, he suffers from a rare condition. Sky News filmed the event. On 18 April 2011, a rare Douglas recording, saw a limited 7" vinyl reissue of "Don't Mind If I Cry", produced by Tony Hatch, on the UK-based Spoke Records label; this had been the B-side to Douglas' 1969 release, "Raindrops Keep Fallin' On My Head", a cover of the B.

J. Thomas song. Douglas' 2011 album, The Craig Douglas Project, included his versions of "Auberge" and "Creep". "A Teenager in Love" – 1959 – Number 13 "Only Sixteen" – 1959 – Number 1 "Pretty Blue Eyes" – 1960 – Number 4 "The Heart of a Teenage Girl" – 1960 – Number 10 "Oh! What a Day" – 1960 – Number 43 "A Hundred Pounds of Clay" – 1961 – Number 9 "Time" – 1961 – Number 9 "When My Little Girl is Smiling" – 1962 – Number 9 "Our Favourite Melodies" – 1962 – Number 9 "Oh Lonesome Me" – 1962 – Number 15 "Town Crier" – 1963 – Number 36 BUY049: Craig Douglas – album – UK Albums Chart – Number 17 35/103: Bandwagon Ball – album JAR110: "Come Softly to Me" / "Golden Girl" – single JAR133: "A Teenager in Love" / "The 39 Steps" – single JAR159: "Only Sixteen" / "My First Love Affair" – single JAR204: "Wish It Were Me" / "The Riddle of Love" – single JAR268: "Pretty Blue Eyes" / "Sandy" – single JAR340: "The Heart of a Teenage Girl" / "New Boy" – single JAR406: "Oh What a Day" / "Why Why Why" – single JAR515: "Where's the Girl" / "My Hour of Love" – single JAR543: "The Girl Next Door" / "Hey Mister Conscience" – single JAR555: "A Hundred Pounds of Clay" / "Hello Spring" – single JAR556: "A Hundred Pounds of Clay" / "Hello Spring" – single JAR569: "Time" / "After All" – single JAR589: "No Greater Love" / "We'll Have a Lot to Tell the Children" – single JAR603: "A Change of Heart" / "Another You" – single JAR610: "When My Little Girl is Smiling" / "Ring-A-Ding" – single JKR8033: "Craig Sings For Roxy" – EP List of NME covers List of artists who reached number one on the UK Singles Chart List of number-one singles from the 1950s United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest 1961 UK No.1 Hits of 1959 Douglas's entry at Allmusic page

Waterville Township, Le Sueur County, Minnesota

Waterville Township is a township in Le Sueur County, United States. The population was 742 at the 2000 census. Waterville Township as organized in 1858, named after Waterville, Minnesota. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 33.8 square miles, of which 30.4 square miles of it is land and 3.4 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 742 people, 265 households, 214 families residing in the township; the population density was 24.4 people per square mile. There were 396 housing units at an average density of 13.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.38% White, 0.13% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.81% from other races, 0.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population. There were 265 households out of which 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 75.8% were married couples living together, 1.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.2% were non-families.

15.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.79 and the average family size was 3.14. In the township the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.3 males. The median income for a household in the township was $53,929, the median income for a family was $59,000. Males had a median income of $37,321 versus $22,321 for females; the per capita income for the township was $19,604. About 1.8% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over