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Economy of Israel

The economy of Israel is a advanced free-market knowledge-based economy. Israel ranks 22 on the latest report of the UN's Human Development Index, which places it in the category of "Very Highly Developed", allowing the country to enjoy a higher standard of living than many other Western countries; the prosperity of Israel's advanced economy allows the country to have a sophisticated welfare state, a modern infrastructure, a high-technology sector competitively on par with Silicon Valley. Israel has the second-largest number of startup companies in the world after the United States, the third-largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies after the U. S. and China. Intel and Apple built their first overseas research and development facilities in Israel, other high-tech multi-national corporations, such as IBM, Google, HP, Cisco Systems and Motorola have opened R&D centres in the country; the country's major economic sectors are high-technology and industrial manufacturing. Poor in natural resources, Israel depends on imports of petroleum, raw materials, motor vehicles, uncut diamonds and production inputs, though the country's nearly total reliance on energy imports may change in the future with recent discoveries of natural gas reserves off its coast on the one hand and the leading role of the Israeli solar energy industry on the other.

Israel's quality university education and the establishment of a motivated and educated populace is responsible for ushering in the country's high technology boom and rapid economic development. With its strong educational infrastructure and high quality incubation system for new cutting edge ideas to create value driven goods and services has allowed the country to create a high concentration of high-tech companies across the country financially backed by a strong venture capital industry, its central high technology hub "Silicon Wadi" is considered second in importance only to its Californian counterpart. Numerous Israeli companies have been acquired by global corporations for their reliable and quality corporate personnel. With such an impressive track record for creating profit driven technologies, Israel has become the first choice for many of world's leading entrepreneurs and industry giants; the economic dynamism of Israel has attracted attention from international business leaders such as Microsoft founder Bill Gates, investor Warren Buffett, real estate developer and U.

S. President Donald Trump and telecommunications giant Carlos Slim; each entrepreneur has praised Israel's economy and invested across numerous Israeli industries beyond their traditional business activities and investments back in their home nations. In 2007, American investor Warren Buffett's holding company Berkshire Hathaway bought an Israeli company, its first acquisition outside the United States, for $4 billion; the country was the destination for Berkshire Hathaway's first investment outside the United States when it acquired ISCAR Metalworking. In September 2010, Israel was invited to join the OECD. Israel has signed free trade agreements with the European Union, the United States, the European Free Trade Association, Mexico, Ukraine, Egypt, on 18 December 2007, became the first non-Latin-American country to sign a free trade agreement with the Mercosur trade bloc. Israel is a major tourist destination, with 3.6 million foreign tourists visiting it in 2017. The British Mandate of Palestine that came into effect in 1920 aimed at restricting land purchases by Jewish immigrants.

For this reason the Jewish population was more urban and had a higher share in industrial occupations. This particular development resulted economically in one of the few growth miracles of the region whereby the structure of firms was determined by private entrepreneurs rather than by the government; the first survey of the Dead Sea in 1911, by the Russian Jewish engineer Moshe Novomeysky, led to the establishment of Palestine Potash Ltd. in 1930 renamed the Dead Sea Works. In 1923, Pinhas Rutenberg was granted an exclusive concession for the production and distribution of electric power, he founded the Palestine Electric Company the Israel Electric Corporation. Between 1920 and 1924, some of the countries largest factories were established, including the Shemen Oil Company, the Societe des Grand Moulins, the Palestine Silicate Company and the Palestine Salt Company. In 1937, there were 86 spinning and weaving factories in the country, employing a workforce of 1,500. Capital and technical expertise were supplied by Jewish professionals from Europe.

The Ata textile plant in Kiryat Ata, which went on to become an icon of the Israeli textile industry, was established in 1934. The industry underwent rapid development during World War II, when supplies from Europe were cut off while local manufacturers were commissioned for army needs. By 1943, the number of factories had grown to 250, with a workforce of 5,630, output increased tenfold. From 1924, trade fairs were held in Tel Aviv; the Levant Fair was inaugurated in 1932. After statehood, Israel faced a deep economic crisis; as well as having to recover from the devastating effects of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, it had to absorb hundreds of thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe and a million from the Arab world. Israel was financially overwhelmed and faced a deep economic crisis, which led to a policy of austerity from 1949 to 1959. Unemployment was high, foreign currency reserves were scarce. In 1952, Israel and West Germany signed an agreement stipulating that West Germany was to pay Israel for the persecution of Jews during the H

Paul Herzberg

Paul Herzberg is a South African actor and writer, known for My Week with Marilyn, Room 36 and Blood. He has been married to Oona Kirsch since 1988, they have two children. Born in Cape Town, he studied acting at the University of Cape Town and scriptwriting at the University of Pretoria, he moved to the UK in 1976, after having served as a conscripted soldier on the Namibian border, during the period of the Angolan war. He studied at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art; as an actor, his film and television appearances include Cry Freedom, Smiley's People, Agatha Christie's Poirot - Dumb Witness and The Life and Loves of a She-Devil. He starred in the feature film, Almost Heaven. On stage, played Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire at the Mermaid Theatre, he is a regular at Manchester's Royal Exchange where his roles have included Bluntschli in Arms And The Man, Shorty in People Are Living There, Colbert in While The Sun Shines, Captain Papa Louw in his award-winning play The Dead Wait and as Capulet in Romeo and Juliet.

He has appeared twice at the Chichester Festival theatre, first as Gratiano in The Merchant of Venice. In 2003, he played John Vorster in Sir Antony Sher's play I. D. at the Almeida theatre. Herzberg first began writing for BBC Radio in 1992 with the 60 minute play The Song Of My Father, his short radio play Where's The Bull?, won the London Radio playwright's festival in 1992 and was broadcast on LBC Radio. His stage play The Dead Wait is based on the story of a young South African athlete, a conscripted soldier in the Angolan Civil War and was shortlisted for the Verity Bargate Award in 1997; the story reflects Herzberg's own experiences as a conscripted soldier before leaving South Africa. The Dead Wait was broadcast on BBC Radio and received its theatrical world premiere' at the Barney Simon Theatre at the Market, in 1997. In 2002 it received its British premiere' at the Royal Exchange in Manchester, with Herzberg in the role of Captain Papa Louw, where it was nominated for three Manchester Evenings News Awards winning in the last category.

The play was published by Oberon books. His godson is Pretty Little Liars actor Julian Morris The Dirty Dozen: Next Mission, - as Private Reynolds Murder City, Just Seventeen - as Max Edwards Heartbeat, Music of the Spheres - as Marek Starosta The Inspector Lynley Mysteries, Well Schooled in Murder - as Barry Summers The Famous Five, Five Have a Mystery to Solve - Emilio Agatha Christie's Poirot - Dumb Witness - as Jacob Tanios Soldier Soldier, Staying Together - as Kurt Lovejoy, Benin Bronze - as Andre Cry Freedom - as Beukes Smiley's People - as Villem Craven The Professionals, Mixed Doubles - as Serpoy Tales of the unexpected - neck - as John Bannister Wild Discovery Narrator Arms And The Man - as Bluntschli, Royal Exchange Theatre A Streetcar Named Desire - as Stanley Kowalski, Mermaid Theatre The Merchant Of Venice - as Gratiano, Chichester Festival Theatre Carrington - as Mark Gertler, Chichester Festival Theatre Dancing At Lughnasa - as Gerry Evans, Abbey Theatre, Dublin I. D. - as John Vorster, Almeida The Merchant Of Venice - as Shylock, Arcola Sweet LIke Suga - Old Red Lion, Centaur Montreal, Theatre 2000 Ottawa, stage play The Song Of My father - BBC Radio 4 60 minute play The Crackwalker - BBC Radio 4 short story Where's The Bull?

- LBC Winner London Radio Playwrights Festival Dreaming Up Laura - BBC Radio 4 90 minute play The Dead Wait - Royal Exchange Theatre, stage play Almost Heaven - Feature Film Paul Herzberg on IMDb Paul Herzberg at the Contemporary Africa Database The Dead Wait at the Royal Exchange Theatre

Northern Light (clipper)

Northern Light was an American clipper ship. In 1853 she sailed from San Francisco, California to Boston, Massachusetts via Cape Horn with Captain Freeman Hatch at the helm in a record-setting 76 days, 6 hours; the record still stands for a single hull vessel. In 1993 the record was soundly broken by a multi-hull sailing vessel Great American II with no cargo. Sailing around Cape Horn is regarded as one of the most challenging routes in yachting, due to extreme weather, strong currents, a historical reputation for mountainous seas and frequent severe storms. Northern Light was designed by Boston-based naval architect Samuel Hartt Pook and built by the Briggs Brothers in South Boston in 1851; the ship was 1,021 tons register and it measured 180 feet long, 36 feet wide, 21 feet 6 inches deep. Northern Light left Boston for San Francisco on October 29, 1852 under the command of Captain Freeman Hatch of Eastham, Massachusetts; the return journey was part of a competition with another clipper, bound for New York.

Contest departed San Francisco for New York on March 12, 1853. Northern Light sailed for Boston the next day. After 38 days Northern Light came within sight of Contest off Cape Horn. Northern Light ′ s crew overtook their rival. Northern Light reached Boston Light on May 29, 1853, after 76 days, 5 hours, arriving in Boston an hour two days ahead of Contest′s arrival in New York, it was the shortest run on the 15,000-mile San Francisco-to-Boston passage on record. It beat previous around-Cape-Horn speed records of 84 days and 85 days held by the New York-based Comet and Flying Dutchman respectively; the Boston Post noted. The San Francisco-to-Boston sailing record by Northern Light still stands for a single-hull vessel. In 1993 the multi-hull 53-foot trimaran Great American II broke the record and completed the passage in 69 days, 19​3⁄4 hours. Northern Light made her first transatlantic voyage in 1861, sailing to Le Havre and departed Le Havre bound for New York on December 25, 1861. On January 2, 1862, the ship sank the French brig Nouveau St. Jacques.

Northern Light was abandoned at sea. Notes Sources Northern Light, from Clipper Ships in San Francisco: The Maritime Heritage Project Captain Freeman Hatch at Find a Grave

Lookout tree

A lookout tree is a simple fire lookout tower created by attaching a ladder or a series of spikes to a tall straight tree with a view of the surrounding lands, allowing rangers or fire crews to conveniently climb the tree to survey their surroundings. The simplest kind consist only of a ladder to a suitable height: this kind was called a "ladder tree." Some ladder trees had platforms on the ground next to them for a fire finder. A more elaborate version created a platform on top of the tree trunk by cutting off the last 10 feet of the treetop and building a railed wooden platform on the resulting stump; these "platform trees" were equipped with telephones, fire finder tables and guy wires. Accommodation for the watcher was provided by a shelter at the bottom of the tree. Lookout trees were used in the Kaibab National Forest of northern Arizona, Washington, USA as well as in Australia; the Dave Evans Bicentennial Tree in Western Australia reaches 75m, while the tallest lookout in the United States was the Cook Creek Spar Tree near Lake Quinault, Washington, USA, at 179 feet high from 1927 to 1955.

Eight karri trees were adapted as lookout trees in Western Australia in the 1940s. The 72-metre Gloucester Tree features a cabin in its top and may be climbed by visitors, as can the taller 75-metre Dave Evans Bicentennial Tree; the Diamond Tree continues in occasional use as a fire lookout. Lookout trees were used as ad hoc towers throughout the American West in the early 20th century; the most significant concentrations were in northern Arizona and the Coast Range of Washington and Oregon. Many of the surviving lookout trees in Arizona have been placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lookout trees in Kaibab National Forest were used from about 1916 until the 1960s; some of the early trees were replaced by towers built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s. The Look See Tree in Coleman, Arkansas was used as a fire lookout for ten to fifteen years from c. 1930 to c. 1940. Although the Cook Creek Spar Tree was cut down in 1955 due to rot, another lookout tree remains, constructed in 1918 near Darrington, Washington.

Abandoned as a lookout in the 1930s, it can be reached by the Lookout Tree Trail. List of fire lookout towers Pemberton's Climbing Trees

Pollicipes polymerus

Pollicipes polymerus known as the gooseneck barnacle or leaf barnacle, is a species of stalked barnacle. It is found in great numbers, on rocky shores on the Pacific coasts of North America. Barnacles are classified with shrimps, crabs and amphipods in the subphylum Crustacea, they are included in the class Maxillopoda, though this class does not appear to be a monophyletic grouping. They are included in the infraclass Cirripedia, the barnacles, members of which are sessile suspension feeders with two active swimming larval stages, the nauplius and the cyprid; the order Pedunculata includes barnacles attached to the substrate by stalks, the goose barnacles. The attachment is made by the cementing of the antennules of the cyprid larvae to the substrate and the elongation of that region into a stalk. Pedunculata is not itself a single monophyletic group but forms a transitional series of lineages moving towards the sessile acorn barnacles. Pollicipes polymerus is included in the family Pollicipedidae.

Pollicipes polymerus is attached to rocks or other objects by a strong, rubbery stalk, the peduncle, up to 10 centimetres long. It has a muscular interior and the leathery surface is covered in bands of minute spiny scales on short stalks; the capitulum, at the end of the peduncle, is up to 5 centimetres long and contains the rest of the body including all the limbs and other appendages except the first pair of antennae. The outside of the capitulum bears five strengthening calcareous plates corresponding with the plates that protect an acorn barnacle; the largest of these is the carina, on the morphologically dorsal side of the capitulum, with a pair of smaller scuta and terga on either side below. Further calcification occurs from other centres on the capitulum with the formation of many small scales; the thoracic crustacean appendages are modified into feather-like cirri. They are used for feeding. Pollicipes polymerus is found in the north eastern Pacific Ocean, its range extending from southern Alaska to Baja California.

It occurs on rocky coasts in the intertidal zone and favours exposed areas where there is much wave action. It tends to occur in associated groups and is abundant. Pollicipes polymerus is a hermaphrodite. Reproduction takes place during the summer and there may be several broods per year; the ovaries are in the upper part of the peduncle and liberate from 104,000 to 240,000 eggs at a time into the mantle cavity. Here they stick together to form egg masses; the numerous small testes lie alongside the gut. Sperm from these is passed along the extensible penis into the mantle cavity of an adjoining individual where fertilisation takes place. Self-fertilisation does not seem to occur and any individual, more than 20 cm from its nearest neighbour is sterile; the eggs are brooded for 3 to 4 weeks until they hatch into nauplius larvae and are liberated into the sea. There they become feed on phytoplankton, they undergo 6 moults in about 40 days before becoming non-feeding cyprid larvae. These search out suitable places to settle where they undergo metamorphosis and attach themselves permanently to the substrate.

They do this by secreting a strong adhesive substance from glands on the antennules. Settlement is stimulated by the presence of peduncles of other gooseneck barnacles, may take place on the peduncles themselves. Pollicipes polymerus is an omnivore, it feeds by unfurling them. The posterior three pairs form a net to trap particles, they are held at a suitable angle to intercept moving water and are periodically withdrawn into the capitulum with any food items that have been trapped. Here particles are scraped off by the other three, shorter pairs of cirri which have overlapping setae; the particles are transported to the mouth where they are manipulated and sorted into edible and inedible items by the maxillae and palps. This may be done with the help of chemoreceptors found near the mouth. Examination of the animal's gut contents show that it feeds on copepods, barnacle larvae, small clams, polychaete worms and hydrozoans as well as detritus and algae. Predators on gooseneck barnacles include the glaucous-winged gull, the black oystercatcher, the ochre sea star and the six-rayed star.

A research study undertaken by Robert T. Paine in Makah Bay, Washington State in 1966 showed the importance of predators in maintaining a biodiverse community. Paine excluded the ochre sea star from an area of seabed where gooseneck barnacles and sea mussels predominated and found that the number of invertebrate species associated with them fell from fifteen to eight. Paine proposed the hypothesis that "Local species diversity is directly related to the efficiency with which predators prevent the monopolization of the major environmental requisites by one species"; the distribution of both gooseneck barnacles and sea mussels is quite patchy. In an effort to understand this better, another study, undertaken by Wooten in 1994, excluded birds from an area where these two species were found on Tatoosh Island, Washington. In a designed series of experiments they recorded the direct and indirect results on the numbers of goose barnacles, sea mussels, acorn barnacles and predatory whelks present in the area.

Their results demonstrated the important part that predation by birds can play in the dynamics of invertebrate populations. Gooseneck barnacles compete with a number of other organisms in a complex struggle for survival in the li

Archaeological Museum of Eretria

The Archaeological Museum of Eretria is a museum in Eretria, in the Euboea regional unit of Central Greece. The museum was established in 1960, but was enlarged between 1961 and 1962, it underwent further renovation and extension between 1987 and 1991 by the 11th Ephorate of Antiquities of the Greek Archaeological Service in collaboration with the Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece. The museum, located adjacent to the archaeological site of Eretria, contains artifacts unearthed at Xeropolis, the cemetery of Skoumbri, Palaia Perivolia, Toumba in Lefkandi, at Paliochora and Geraki hill in Amarynthos and at Eretria and Magoula. Many artifacts found at Eretria though are on display at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens and in the Louvre in Paris. Of major note is the terracotta centaur from Lefkandi, dated to the second half of the 10th century BC; the figurine was discovered broken in two parts, each of, placed in a different grave. Found at Lefkandi is a straight-sided Mycenaean alabastron with three handles, dated to the 12th century BC.

The decoration is in matt white paint on a dark surface, the shoulder and body are covered with the figures of a griffin, a roe and a deer. The museum has a black-figure epinetron from Amarynthos dated to the end of the 6th century BC; the funerary amphora, depicting geometric patterns and birds, contained the bones of a child and is a product of a local Euboean workshop of the Geometric period, dated to the 8th century BC. There are many more amphoras and vases, including a funerary amphora from the coastal necropolis of Eretria dated to 560 BC which depicts the battle between Herakles and Centaurs on the front and Potnia Theron on the rear, a Panathenaic amphora dated to around 363-362 BC; the front side of the amphora depicts the armed goddess Athena, while the rear illustrates a scene from the Panathenaic contest for which the vase was the prize. Is the terracotta gorgoneion dated from the 4th century BC which belonged to the decoration of the House with the Mosaics at Eretria. Excavation at Eretria has unearthed some notable sculptures which are on display in the museum, including those from the west pediment of the archaic temple of Apollo Daphnephoros that depict an Amazonomachy.

Of particular note is the sculpture representing Theseus and Antiope, believed to have been made by the famous Athenian sculptor Antenor in the 6th century BC. The museum contains Archaic relief pithos fragments decorated with representations of birds devouring bodies dated to the 7th century BC and a necklace made of faience beads representing Isis and Horos from Cyprus and dating from the Protogeometric period, 11th-10th centuries BC. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism / in Greek ancient-greece.org Gallery www.planetware.com