The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, the 12th-largest by GDP. Italy has a major advanced economy, is a founding member of the European Union, the Eurozone, the OECD, the G7 and the G20. Italy is the eighth largest exporter in the world with $514 billion exported in 2016, its closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. The largest trading partners, in order of market share, are Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain. In the post-World War II period, Italy was transformed from an agricultural based economy, affected by the consequences of the World Wars, into one of the world's most advanced nations, a leading country in world trade and exports. According to the Human Development Index, the country enjoys a high standard of living, has the world's 8th highest quality of life according to The Economist. Italy owns the world's third-largest gold reserve, is the third net contributor to the budget of the European Union.
Furthermore, the advanced country private wealth is one of the largest in the world. Italy is a large manufacturer and exporter of a significant variety of products including machinery, pharmaceuticals, food and robots. Italy has therefore a significant trade surplus; the country is well known for its influential and innovative business economic sector, an industrious and competitive agricultural sector, for its creative and high-quality automobile, industrial and fashion design. Italy is the largest hub for luxury goods in the third luxury hub globally. Despite these important achievements, the country's economy today suffers from structural and non-structural problems. Annual growth rates have been below the EU average with Italy being hit hard by the late-2000s recession. Massive government spending from the 1980s onwards has produced a severe rise in public debt. In addition, Italian living standards have a considerable North–South divide: the average GDP per capita in Northern and Central Italy exceeds the EU average, while some regions and provinces in Southern Italy are below.
In recent years, Italy's GDP per capita growth caught-up with the Eurozone average while its employment rate still lags behind. The economic history of Italy can be divided in three main phases: an initial period of struggle after the unification of the country, characterised by high emigration and stagnant growth. Prior to unification, the economy of the many Italian statelets was overwhelmingly agrarian. After the birth of the unified Kingdom of Italy in 1861, there was a deep consciousness in the ruling class of the new country's backwardness, given that the per capita GDP expressed in PPS terms was half of that of Britain and about 25% less than that of France and Germany. During the 1860s and 1870s, the manufacturing activity was backward and small-scale, while the oversized agrarian sector was the backbone of the national economy; the country lacked large coal and iron deposits and the population was illiterate. In the 1880s, a severe farm crisis led to the introduction of more modern farming techniques in the Po valley, while from 1878 to 1887 protectionist policies were introduced with the aim to establish a heavy industry base.
Some large steel and iron works soon clustered around areas of high hydropower potential, notably the Alpine foothills and Umbria in central Italy, while Turin and Milan led a textile, chemical and banking boom and Genoa captured civil and military shipbuilding. However, the diffusion of industrialisation that characterised the northwestern area of the country excluded Venetia and the South; the resulting Italian diaspora concerned up to 26 million Italians, the most part in the years between 1880–1914. During the Great War, the still frail Italian state fought a modern war, being able of arming and training some 5 million recruits, but this result came at a terrible cost: by the end of the war, Italy had lost 700,000 soldiers and had a ballooning sovereign debt amounting to billions of lira. Italy emerged from World War I in a weakened condition; the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922, at the end of a period of social unrest. However, once Mussolini acquired a firmer hold of power, laissez-faire and free trade were progressively abandoned in favour of government intervention and protectionism.
Antoine Albalat was a French writer and literary critic. Fiction. Nella, Simple Histoire en Vers. Brignoles: Impr. de A. Vian.. Inassouvie, Roman Intime. Paris: Paul Ollendorff.. Un Adultère, Roman intime. Paris: Paul Ollendorff.. La Faute d'une Mère. Paris: Paul Ollendorff.. Une Fleur des Tombes. Histoire d'Amour. Paris: G. Havard Fils.. Marie, Premier Amour. Paris: G. Havard Fils.. L'Impossible Pardon. Paris: Émile Petit. Non-fiction. L'Amour chez Alphonse Daudet. Paris: Paul Ollendorff.. Le Mal d'Écrire et le Roman Contemporain. Paris: Ernest Flammarion.. L'Art d'Écrire: Ouvriers et Procédés. Paris: G. Havard Fils.. L'Art d'Écrire Enseigné en Vingt Leçons. Paris: Armand Colin.. La Formation du Style par l'Assimilation des Auteurs. Paris: Armand Colin.. Le Travail du Style enseigné par les Corrections Manuscrites des Grands Écrivains. Paris: Armand Colin.. Les Ennemis de l'Art d'Écrire. Paris: Librairie Universelle.. Frédéric Mistral, son Génie, son Œuvre. Paris: E. Sansot.. Lacordaire. Paris: Librairie Catholique Emmanuel Vitte..
Comment il Faut Lire les Auteurs Classiques Français. Paris: Armand Colin.. Joseph de Maistre. Paris: Librairie Catholique Emmanuel Vitte.. Souvenirs de la Vie Littéraire. Paris: Arthème-Fayard et Cie.. Comment il ne faut pas écrire: Les ravages du style contemporain. Paris: Librairie Plon.. Comment on Devient Écrivain. Paris: Librairie Plon.. Gustave Flaubert et ses Amis. Paris: Librairie Plon.. L'Art Poétique de Boileau. Paris: Edgar Malfère Éditeur.. Trente ans de Quartier Latin. Nouveaux Souvenirs de la Vie Littéraire. Paris: Edgar Malfère Éditeur.. La Vie de Jésus d'Ernest Renan. Paris: Société Française d'Éditions Littéraires et Techniques. Miscellany. Veuillot, Louis. Pages Choisies, with an introduction by Antoine Albalat. Paris: Librairie Catholique Emmanuel Vitte.. Les Poètes de Jeanne d'Arc. Préface by Jules Lemaître. Paris: Librairie des Annales. Houdart-Merot, Violaine. La Culture Littéraire au Lycée depuis 1880. Paris: Adapt Éditions. Works by or about Antoine Albalat at Internet Archive Works by Antoine Albalat, at Hathi Trust
Frederick Ladd Wintle is a former Maine politician. A Republican, Wintle is a resident of Garland and represented six towns and villages in Penobscot and Somerset Counties in the Maine House of Representatives. Wintle is a former member of the United States Air Force and fought in both the Vietnam War and the Persian Gulf War. On May 21, 2011, Wintle was arrested for "pointing a handgun at a man at point-blank range in a Dunkin' Donuts parking lot", he began speaking with Michael G. Seamans, a photographer with the Morning Sentinel about the recent death of a toddler at a homeless shelter in Waterville and accused Seamans of being a drug dealer, he subsequently pointed it at Seamans. Wintle was arrested for criminal threatening. Wintle was indicted on two felony charges in the Waterville incident, criminal threatening with a dangerous weapon and reckless conduct, a misdemeanor charge of carrying a concealed weapon; the two former charges were dismissed in exchange for a guilty plea on the concealed weapons charge for which he was sentenced to a year in jail, serving 45 days with the rest suspended.
Wintle stated, "I believe in America. I believe in God. I believe in my family, I believe this is going to be all right," according to the Bangor Daily News. In September 2011, Wintle had resigned from the House of Representatives