click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Economy of Jordan

The economy of Jordan is classified as an emerging market economy. Jordan's GDP per capita rose by 351% in the 1970s, declined 30% in the 1980s, rose 36% in the 1990s. After King Abdullah II's accession to the throne in 1999, liberal economic policies were introduced. Jordan's economy has been growing at an annual rate of 8% between 1999 and 2008. However, growth has slowed to 2% after the Arab Spring in 2011. Substantial increase of the population, coupled with slowed economic growth and rising public debt led to a worsening of poverty and unemployment in the country; as of 2015, Jordan boasts a GDP of US$37.6 billion. Jordan has Free Trade Agreements with the United States, Singapore, the European Union, Algeria, Libya and Syria. More FTA's are planned with Iraq, the Palestinian Authority, the GCC, Pakistan. Jordan is a member of the Greater Arab Free Trade Agreement, the Euro-Mediterranean free trade area, the Agadir Agreement, enjoys advanced status with the EU. Jordan's economic resource base centers on phosphates and their fertilizer derivatives.

These are its principal sources of hard currency earnings. Lacking coal reserves, hydroelectric power, large tracts of forest or commercially viable oil deposits, Jordan relies on natural gas for 93% of its domestic energy needs. Jordan used to depend on Iraq for oil until the American-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. Jordan has a plethora of industrial zones producing goods in the textile, defense, ICT, cosmetic sectors. Jordan is an emerging knowledge economy; the main obstacles to Jordan's economy are scarce water supplies, complete reliance on oil imports for energy, regional instability. Just over 10% of its land is arable and the water supply is limited. Rainfall is low and variable, much of Jordan's available ground water is not renewable. In the last few years Jordan's economic growth has slowed, averaging around 2%. Jordan's total foreign debt in 2011 was $19 billion, representing 60% of its GDP. In 2016, the debt reached $35.1 billion representing 93.4% of its GDP. This substantial increase is attributed to effects of regional instability causing: decrease in tourist activity.

According to the World Bank, Syrian refugees have cost Jordan more than $2.5 billion a year, amounting to 6% of the GDP and 25% of the government's annual revenue. With the presence of Syrian refugees in Jordan, wage growth went down as a result of competition for jobs between refugees and Jordan citizens; the downturn that began in 2011, continued to 2018. The country's top five contributing sectors to GDP, government services, manufacturing and tourism and hospitality were badly impacted by the Syrian civil war. Foreign aid covers only a small part of these costs, 63% of the total costs are covered by Jordan. An austerity programme was adopted by the government which aims to reduce Jordan's debt-to-GDP ratio to 77% by 2021; the programme succeeded in preventing the debt from rising above 95% in 2018. This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Jordan at market prices by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Jordanian Dinars. For purchasing power parity comparisons, the Jordanian Dinar is exchanged per US dollar at 0.359.

Jordan's population is 6,342,948 and mean wages were $4.19 per man-hour in 2009. Jordan is classified by the World Bank as an "upper middle income country." According to the Heritage Foundation's Index of Economic Freedom, Jordan has the third freest economy in the Middle East and North Africa, behind only Bahrain and Qatar, the 32nd freest in the world. Jordan ranked as having the 35th best infrastructure in the world, according to the World Economic Forum's Index of Economic Competitiveness; the Kingdom scored higher than many of its peers in the Europe like Kuwait, Israel. And Ireland; the 2010 AOF Index of Globalization ranked Jordan as the most globalized country in the Middle East and North Africa region. Jordan's banking sector is classified as "highly developed" by the IMF along with the GCC economies and Lebanon The official currency in Jordan is the Jordanian dinar and divides into 100 qirsh or 1000 fils. Since 23 October 1995, the dinar has been pegged to the IMF's special drawing rights.

In practice, it is fixed at 1 US$ = 0.709 dinar, which translates to 1 dinar = 1.41044 dollars. The Central Bank buys US dollars at 0.708 dinar, sell US dollars at 0.7125 dinar, Exchangers buys US dollars at 0.708 and sell US dollars at 0.709. The Jordanian market is considered one of the most developed Arab market outside the Persian Gulf states. Jordan ranked 18th on the 2012 Global Retail Development Index which lists the 30 most attractive retail markets in the world. Jordan was ranked as the 19th most expensive country in the world to live in 2010 and the most expensive Arab country to live in. Jordan has been a member of the World Trade Organization since 2000. In the 2009 Global Enabling Trade Report, Jordan ranked 4th in the Arab World behind the UAE, Qatar; the Free Trade Agreement with the United States that went into effect in December 2001 would phase out duties on nearly all goods and services by 2010. The flows of remittance to Jordan had experienced rapid growth rates during the end of the 1970s and 1980s, where Jordan had started exporting high skilled labour to the Persian Gulf States.

The money that migrants send home

James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy

Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy known as the Baker Institute, is an American think tank on the campus of Rice University in Houston, Texas. Founded in 1993, it functions as a center for public policy research, it is named for James A. Baker, III, former United States Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, White House Chief of Staff, it is directed by Ambassador Edward P. Djerejian and funded by donor contributions and research grants; the institute employs researchers from a variety of backgrounds. Its current research includes centers for different areas: the Center for Energy Studies, the Center for Health and Biosciences, the Center for the Middle East, the Center for Public Finance, the McNair Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation, the Mexico Center. Other programs include Biomedical Research, China Studies, Domestic Health Policy Analysis, Drug Policy, Global Health, International Economics, the Latin America Initiative, Presidential Elections, Religion & Public Policy, Science & Technology Policy, Space Policy, Women's Rights in the Middle East.

The University of Pennsylvania's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program ranked the Baker Institute third among university-affiliated think tanks from 2017 to 2018. Alongside the institute's focus on research, it provides programs for undergraduate and graduate students to engage with the world of policy and organizes events in which political and community leaders speak on Rice's campus. With the appearance of President Barack Obama in November 2018 at a gala commemorating the institute's twenty-fifth anniversary, the institute has, since its inception, hosted every living former president of the United States; the Baker Institute was founded in 1993. The idea for a public policy institute on campus came from Rice University Political Science professor Richard Stoll. James Baker stated a wish for the institute to bring together “statesmen and students” and to be “a bridge between the world of ideas and the world of action.” In 1994, a ceremony to honor the groundbreaking for the new building brought together four U.

S. presidents. Bush and Ford were present, while Reagan contributed video messages. In 1994, Ambassador Djerejian was selected as the institute's founding director; the Baker Institute Center for the Middle East has been involved in conflict resolution projects. The focus of the Center includes the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Levant, Women and Human Rights in the Middle East. Research has focused on the civil war in Syria, security in Afghanistan, U. S. relations in the region, energy as it relates to the Middle East, analysis of the Iran nuclear deal. The program brings together well-known speakers and researchers to offer their insights into the complex challenges facing the Middle East. Staff in the Center for the Middle East include Yair Hirschfeld; the Center for Energy Studies was founded in October 2012 and provides policymakers, corporate leaders and the public with "data-driven analysis of issues that influence energy markets." In 2017 and 2018, the CES was ranked the No. 1 energy- and resource-based think tank according to the University of Pennsylvania's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program's Global Go To Think Tank Index The Transnational China Project studies contemporary China and the changes that the nation is undergoing.

The Transnational China project is working on transcribing public service announcements from various cities in China. The transcripts are available at the Center for Digital Scholarship at Fondren Library at Rice University; the Drug Policy Program focuses on implications of the War on Drugs and “pursues research and open debate on local and national drug policies based on common sense, driven by human rights interests, focused on reducing the death, disease and suffering associated with drug use.” The Center for Health and Biosciences focuses on developing health policy recommendations. It combines researchers from Rice University and the Texas Medical Center, who are intended to address four major research themes: U. S. health care, global health, public health and the future of medicine. Staff include Peter Hotez; the International Economics Program focuses on emerging markets, but on debt, China's economic growth, governing the global economy. Policy recommendations are produced on “how global economic trends are developing, what policies can optimally address the challenges that arise.”

The Latin America Initiative has two main projects, the Americas Project and the Vecinos Lecture Series. The initiative focuses on the challenges and opportunities that face the region and “brings together leading stakeholders from government, the private sector and civil society to exchange their views on pressing issues confronting the region.” The McNair Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation aims to provide policymakers and the general public with comprehensive analyses of the issues that affect entrepreneurship and innovation at three levels: federal and state policy, municipal ecosystems, academic entrepreneurship and innovation. The center was founded with a gift of $8m from Robert McNair and his wife Janice, through the Robert and Janice McNair Foundation; the Mexico Center works to create policy research on issues that affect the Mexico and the United States. The center's research agenda focuses on eight major issues: trade, telecommunications, health care, education, human mobility and the administration of justice/security.

The Presidential Elections program focuses on nonpartisan analysis of presidential elections. Staff include John P. Williams and

Alwynne Cooper Wheeler

Alwynne Wheeler was a British ichthyologist, a curator at the Natural History Museum in London. He was educated at St Egbert's College and Chingford County High School to Higher School Certificate level, was unusual in that his subsequent scientific career was achieved despite his never having obtained a University degree, he joined the London Natural History Society at the age of 13 and served his National Service as a radiographer and medical photographer in the Royal Army Medical Corps in both the United Kingdom and Jamaica, where he joined the Natural History Society of Jamaica. On leaving the army he applied to the British Museum for a post as an Assistant in the Department of Zoology, starting on 1 June 1950 as an assistant in the Fish Section, he spent his whole career in the Natural History Museum, retiring in 1989. His two main specialisms were the taxonomy of European fish and studies of historical collections of taxonomic importance, he produced over a hundred different scientific publications and his most important work was The fishes of the British Isles and north-west Europe, published in 1969 and became the standard, modern British ichthyology text.

Other important publications included Key to the Fishes of Northern Europe in 1978, Fishes of the World in 1975 and The World Encyclopedia of Fishes in 1985. He was a central figure in the monitoring of the clean up of the River Thames and the return of life to the river and he produced The Tidal Thames. Wyn Wheeler was a founding member of the Fisheries Society of the British Isles; as well as scientific publications Wheeler wrote columns in the more popular angling press giving biological information to anglers. He adjudicated many rod caught records and in 1997 he announced that the many of the largest specimens of Crucian carp Carassius carassius were invalid as they referred to wild goldfish Carassius auratus, he developed expertise in the identification of fish bone from archaeological sites, co-authoring a manual in 1989 on the identification of fish remains in archaeological sites. He was an editor of, helped to develop, the Journal of the Society for the Bibliography of Natural History.

He served as honorary editor from 1967 to 1974, from 1978 to 1986, was again formally elected as honorary editor in 1989. Wheeler retired in 1999 after the publication of volume 26, he retired from the Natural History Museum in 1989. After retirement he worked at Epping Forest Conservation Centre and continued his association with the Museum in his capacity as an official Scientific Associate, he sometimes published under the pen name Allan Cooper when publishing non-technical, popular articles and books. In 1992 he published A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles, this was being revised when he contracted Alzheimer's disease and was completed by Nigel Merrett and Declan Quigley, being published in 2004; the Alwyne Wheeler Bursary was established in 1999, on the occasion of Alwyne Wheeler's retirement as the Society for the History of Natural History's honorary editor. The bursary was established to facilitate original contributions to the study of the history of natural history by young scholars.

The name of the African goby genus. Following his passing in June 2005, in recognition of this role as a founding member of the FSBI as well as his post-retirement research activity, the FSBI established the Wyn Wheeler Research Grant in December 2005 to provide retired members of the FSBI with financial support for continued activity in fish biology. Crimmen, Oliver Obituary Alwyne Wheeler 5 Oct. 1929—19 June 2005, The Linnean, Volume 22 27-33. Crimmen, Oliver Obituary Alwyne Wheeler 5 Oct. 1929—19 June 2005, Archives of Natural History, Volume 33 354-362 Nelson, E. Charles Obituary Alwyne Cooper Wheeler, Archives of Natural History, Volume 33 363-365

Airdrome Fokker D-VI

The Airdrome Fokker D-VI is an American amateur-built aircraft and produced by Airdrome Aeroplanes, of Holden, Missouri. The aircraft is supplied as a kit for amateur construction; the aircraft is a 3/4 scale replica of the First World War German Fokker D. VI fighter, built from modern materials and powered by modern engines; the Airdrome Fokker D-VI features a strut-braced biplane layout, a single-seat open cockpit, fixed conventional landing gear and a single engine in tractor configuration. The aircraft is made from bolted-together aluminum tubing, with its flying surfaces covered in doped aircraft fabric; the kit is made up of twelve sub-kits. The Airdrome Fokker D-VI has a wingspan of 17.9 ft and a wing area of 110 sq ft. It can be equipped with engines ranging from 46 to 65 hp; the standard engine is the 50 hp Rotax 503 two stroke engine, with a Volkswagen air-cooled engine optional. Building time from the factory-supplied kit is estimated at 400 hours by the manufacturer. Fourteen examples had been completed by December 2011.

Data from Kitplanes and Airdrome AeroplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: one Length: 15 ft Wingspan: 17.9 ft Wing area: 110 sq ft Empty weight: 297 lb Gross weight: 568 lb Fuel capacity: 14 U. S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 503 two cylinder, air-cooled, two stroke aircraft engine, 50 hp Propellers: 2-bladed woodenPerformance Maximum speed: 78 mph Cruise speed: 73 mph Stall speed: 30 mph Range: 120 mi Rate of climb: 750 ft/min Wing loading: 5.2 lb/sq ft

Frank Calabro

Francesco "Frank" Calabro, AM was an Australian politician. He was a Liberal member of the New South Wales Legislative Council from 1970 to 1988, he was the first Italian-born person of Italian descent elected to any Australian parliament. Calabro was born in Sant'Alessio in Aspromonte near Reggio Calabria, Italy, to Antonio, a master bootmaker, Maria Romeo, he arrived in Australia in 1934. In 1948 the family purchased a bus run at Bonnyrigg. In 1959 he was elected to Fairfield Councill, in which year he became President of the Cabramatta Chamber of Commerce, he married Rosa Polimeni on 20 November 1963. In 1966, Calabro was Mayor of Fairfield, in that year was made a Commander of the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity by the Italian Government, he became active in the Liberal Party, having formed the Cabramatta branch in 1965. He left Fairfield Council in 1971 but returned in 1974, serving until 1977. In 1970, Calabro was appointed to the New South Wales Legislative Council as a Liberal member.

He served on the Council until 1988. After leaving the Council, he continued to be active in the community. In May 2013,Frank was added to the New South Wales Government Multicultural Honor Roll for his role in assisting new migrants settle in Australia. Sydney Morning Herald obituary

David Stannard

David Edward Stannard is an American historian and Professor of American Studies at the University of Hawaii. He is known for his book American Holocaust, in which he argues that the genocide against the Native American population was the largest genocide in history, he was born to David L. Stannard, a businessman, he served in the armed forces and worked in the publishing industry between 1959 and 1968. In 1966 he married Valerie M. Nice; the couple, subsequently divorced, have two sons. After returning to college in 1968, Stannard graduated magna cum laude from San Francisco State University in 1971, he went to Yale and obtained an M. A. degree in history, a Master of Philosophy in American Studies, a Ph. D. in American Studies in 1975. He has taught at Yale University, Stanford University, the University of Colorado, the University of Hawaii, he has lectured throughout the United States, in Europe, in Asia. He is a writer and professor in the Department of American Studies at the University of Hawaii, where he was awarded the Regents' Medal for Excellence in teaching.

He has contributed dozens of articles to scholarly journals in a variety of fields. Stannard's research on the indigenous peoples of North and South America has produced the conclusion that Native Americans had undergone the "worst human holocaust the world had witnessed, roaring across two continents non-stop for four centuries and consuming the lives of countless tens of millions of people." While acknowledging that the majority of the indigenous peoples fell victim to the ravages of European disease, he estimates that 100 million died in what he calls the American Holocaust. In response to Stannard's figures, political scientist Rudolph Rummel has estimated that over the centuries of European colonization about 2 million to 15 million American indigenous people were the victims of what he calls democide, which excludes military battles and unintentional deaths in Rummel's definition; the vast majority of the victims of democide were in Latin America. "Even if these figures are remotely true," writes Rummel, "then this still make this subjugation of the Americas one of the bloodier, centuries long, democides in world history."

According to Guenter Lewy, Stannard's perspective has been joined by scholars Kirkpatrick Sale, Ben Kiernan, Lenore A. Stiffarm, Phil Lane, Jr. and Ward Churchill. Samuel R. Cook of The American Indian Quarterly wrote: American Holocaust is a substantial addition to the library of injustice toward American Natives.... From an ethical standpoint, works such as Stannard's are necessary to counterbalance the ethnocentricities of past historical works on Natives. From an academic standpoint, the book is an interdisciplinary monument; the author has taken an incredible amount of data and applied contemporary anthropological and historical techniques to synthesize a comprehensive piece of scholarship. American Holocaust will provide a desirable textbook for students at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. Scholars of Indian-white relations from various disciplines will find the book a valuable resource in terms of method and content." Alfred Crosby of The Boston Sunday Globe wrote: An important work that will have canonized by some and pilloried by others by the end of the Quincentennial Year.

It is the product of massive reading in the important sources, years of pondering, fury at what Europe hath wrought in America.... His convincing claim is that what happened was the worst demographic disaster in the history of our species, that Old World diseases and Old World brutality reduced the number of Indians enormously and drove away many Native American peoples over the brink of extinction. How convincing are his evidence and reasoning? I am unhappy to say.... Nothing can be done to improve the past. David Stannard insists that we do."—Alfred Crosby, The Boston Sunday Globe Stannard is the longtime partner of writer Haunani-Kay Trask. Stannard's published books include: Death in America, The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion and Social Change, Shrinking History: On Freud and the Failure of Psychohistory, Before the Horror: The Population of Hawaii on the Eve of Western Contact, American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World, Honor Killing: How the Infamous "Massie Affair" Transformed Hawaii.

The Puritan Way of Death was referred to in The New York Review of Books as one of the handful of books—and the only one by an American—that together constituted "the most original and important historical advance of the 1970s."Shrinking History, published in 1980, was chosen by Psychology Today as one of the'best books of the year'. His other writings have been translated into German, Spanish, Italian and Japanese. In American Holocaust, he argues that the destruction of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas, in a "string of genocide campaigns" by Europeans and their descendants, was the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world. Although praised by Howard Zinn, Vine Deloria, Dee Brown and others, Stannard's argument generated a great deal of critical commentary, he responded to much of it in a lengthy essay entitled "Uniqueness as Denial: The Politics of Genocide Scholarship", published in Is the Holocaust Unique?, edited by Alan S. Rosenbaum. Before the Horror has focused on the Pacific.

Having and upwardly revised the estimated population of Hawaii at the time of Western contact fro