The economy of Kenya is a market-based economy with a liberalised external trade system and a few state enterprises. Major industries include agriculture, fishing, manufacturing, energy and financial services; as of 2019, Kenya had an estimated GDP of $99.246 billion and per capita GDP of $2,010 making it the 62nd largest economy in the world. The government of Kenya is investment-friendly and has enacted several regulatory reforms to simplify both foreign and local investment, including the creation of an export processing zone. An significant portion of Kenya's foreign financial inflows are remittances by non-resident Kenyans who work in the US, Middle East and Asia; as of September 2018, economic prospects were positive with above 6% GDP growth expected because of expansions in the telecommunications and construction sectors, a recovery in agriculture. These improvements are supported by a large pool of educated professional workers. There is a high level of IT literacy and innovation among young Kenyans.
In 2020, Kenya ranked 56th in the World Bank ease of doing business rating, up from 61st in 2019. Compared to its neighbors, Kenya has a well-developed physical infrastructure; the Kenyan coastal strip was integrated into the world economy by ancient world trade routes that spanned Africa and Europe between 70 AD and 1500 AD. Foreign merchants left with African goods. In 1499 AD, Vasco da Gama returned from discovering the sea route to India through South Africa; this new route allowed European nations to dominate the trade economy of the East African coast, with the Portuguese entrenching themselves in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the 18th century the Portuguese were replaced in this East African economic corridor by Omani Arabs; the British replaced the Omani Arabs. In 1895 they dominated the coastal strip, by 1920 they had followed the interior trade routes all the way to the Buganda Kingdom. To make this ancient economic trade route more profitable, the British used Indian laborers to build a railway from Mombasa at the coast to Kampala, the capital of Buganda kingdom, following the old trade route.
Major towns were founded along the railway line, backed by European settler farming communities. The Indian laborers who did not return to India after railway construction ended were the first to establish shops in these towns. During the colonial period, the European settler farming community and the Indian dukawallahs established the foundations of the modern formal Kenyan economy. Prominent examples of Asian-Kenyan business owners whose businesses started as dukawallahs include Manu Chandaria and Madatally Manji. While Europeans and Indians enjoyed strong economic growth between 1920 and 1963, Africans were deprived of their land and forced to work for minimal pay under poor working conditions through a well-established system of racial segregation. Kenya regained its independence in 1963. Under President Jomo Kenyatta, the Kenyan government promoted africanization of the Kenyan economy, generating rapid economic growth through public investment, encouragement of smallholder agricultural production, incentives for private foreign, industrial investment.
An influential sessional paper authored by Tom Mboya and Mwai Kibaki in 1965 stressed the need for Kenya to avoid both the capitalistic economy of the West and the communism of the East. The paper argued that Kenya should instead concentrate on African socialism, while avoiding linking Kenya's economic fortunes to any country or group of countries. From 1963 to 1973 gross domestic product grew at an annual average rate of 6.6%, during the 1970s it grew at an average rate of 7.2%. Agricultural production grew by 4.7% annually during the same period, stimulated by redistributing estates, distributing new crop strains, opening new areas to cultivation. However the rate of GDP growth declined to 4.2% per year in the 1980s, 2.2% a year in the 1990s. Kenya's policy of import substitution, which started in 1946 with European and Asian enterprises, did not achieve the desired result of transforming Kenya's industrial base, in the late 1970s rising oil prices began to make Kenya's manufacturing sector noncompetitive.
In response, the government began a massive intervention in the private sector. Lack of export incentives, tight import controls, foreign exchange controls made the domestic environment for investment less attractive. From 1991 to 1993, Kenya had its worst economic performance since independence. Growth in GDP stagnated, agricultural production shrank at an annual rate of 3.9%. Inflation reached a record of 100% in August 1993, the government's budget deficit was over 10% of GDP; as a result of these issues and multilateral donors suspended their aid programs in Kenya in 1991. In the 1980s and 1990s, at the height of the Daniel arap Moi administration, the introduction of structural adjustment programs sponsored by the IMF and World Bank contributed to the decline and two-decade stagnation of Kenya's economy; some of the conditions of the SAPs, such as structural adjustment loans and strict conditions regarding government policy, resulted in a decrease in government spending on economic and social services, a decrease in educational enrollment, an increase in unemployment.
The loans were used to pay off other debts. As a result, the formal economy gave way to the growth of the informal economy, living standards began to decline, Kenya opened up to the global economy. In 1993, the Government of Kenya began a major program of
Babs Gonzales, born Lee Brown, was an American bebop vocalist and self-published author. His books portrayed the jazz world that many black musicians struggled in, portraying disk jockeys, club owners, liquor and racism. "There are jazz people whose influence can be described as minor," wrote Val Wilmer, "yet who are well-known to musicians and listeners alike... You'd have to be hard-pressed to ignore the wealth of legend that surrounds Babs Gonzales." Jazz writer Jack Cooke explained that Gonzales "assumed the role of spokesman for the whole hipster world... something more than just a good and original jazz entertainer: the incarnation of a whole social group." Gonzales was born Lee Brown in New Jersey. He was raised by his mother Lottie Brown alongside two brothers. Of his nickname, Gonzales explained, "my brothers are basketball players... There was a basketball star in America named Big Babbiad, so they were called Big Babs, Middle Babs, I'm Little Babs." As a young man, Gonzales worked as band boy for swing bandleader Jimmie Lunceford, after which he relocated to Los Angeles.
To circumvent racial segregation, Gonzales wore a turban and used the pseudonym Ram Singh, passing as an Indian national. Using this identity, Gonzales worked at the Los Angeles Country Club until becoming a private chauffeur to movie star Errol Flynn. Whilst hospitalized for appendicitis in 1944, he assumed the Spanish surname Gonzales as he "didn't want to be treated as a Negro," explaining that "they was Jim Crowing me in ofay hotels and so I said if it's just simple enough to change my last name, why not?" After the outbreak of World War II, Gonzales was forced to return home to Newark to report for military duty, but was declared unfit for service after arriving to his inspection dressed as a woman. After working with Charlie Barnet and Lionel Hampton's big bands, Gonzales moved to New York and became involved with the burgeoning sound of bebop, a style which confused him. "I didn't understand what Charlie Parker was playing," said Gonzales, "I did not understand anything about bebop Dizzy who - showing me chords, explaining to me what the melodic lines were that he was playing - opened up the music to me."
Despite being a trained pianist and drummer, Gonzales preferred to sing rather than play an instrument, stating that "it's easier to sing and, above all, it's less tiring. We don't sweat while playing and we always look handsome. Plus, a singer earns more money than an instrumentalist."Gonzales formed his own group, Babs' Three Bips and A Bop, releasing a number of 78rpm singles for Blue Note and Apollo labels in the late 1940s. Tadd Dameron, Sonny Rollins, Roy Haynes, Wynton Kelly, Bennie Green were among the musicians who performed at these recording sessions. "I formed the Bips because I felt bebop needed a bridge to the people," said Gonzales, "The fire was there... but it wasn't reaching the people."The most notable of Babs' Three Bips and A Bop singles was "Oop-Pop-A-Da". Its prominent scat singing was credited with originating "an easy route to vocal improvisation, still employed by jazz aspirants the world over." A cover version of "Oop-Pop-A-Da" became a one of Dizzy Gillespie's first commercial successes.
Gonzales himself rejected being labelled a "scat" singer. Scat is a technical way of interpreting a melody by paraphrasing it by means of onomatopoeia; the scat singers do not improvise. I do not stop improvising, like an instrumentalist; as composer and arranger, Gonzales provided music for Bennie Green, Johnny Griffin, James Clay and David "Fathead" Newman, Paul Gonsalves and others. As a guest vocalist he appeared on releases by James Moody, Eddie Jefferson, Jimmy Smith, Bennie Green, Johnny Griffin, Savoy Records supergroup The Bebop Boys, where he appeared alongside musicians such as Fats Navarro and Bud Powell. From 1958, Gonzales operated a nightclub called Babs' Insane Asylum, located in Sugar Hill, New York at 155th Street and St. Nicholas Place; the house band included Hank Jones, Roy Haynes, Milt Hinton. "These guys could have made some crazy money in the studios or with another orchestra, but they preferred to work at home for $100 a week," said Gonzales, "simply because it was a great place where all the jazzmen came."
Gonzales refusal to work with a talent broker or manager caused social tension. "Joe Glaser hates me", claimed Gonzales, "he could not understand that Armstrong or Hampton come to my house to play while I'm independent. And all the other impresarios hate me because I never wanted to fall under the thumb of any one of them. I am free and I owe nothing to anyone." Columnist Dorothy Kilgallen helped to promote the club, however it closed in 1959 due to a rent dispute. Gonzales explained, "I quit after two years when the guy who owned the building asked for a bigger cut. We threw his piano out the window!"Gonzales attempted to open a similar club in Paris, named Le Maison Du Idiots, but lost access to his $10,000 investment after a general strike. He explained, "in America when a group calls a strike you pay it no mind, but in France, nobody works. At the conclusion, the people told me that the security I'd put up was gone with the old regime, that if I wanted to reopen I would have to put up fresh security.
There I was, ten grand gone and broke." Gonzales wrote and self-published two books, I Paid My Dues: Good
The 1961 World Chess Championship was played between former champion Mikhail Botvinnik and champion Mikhail Tal in Moscow from March 15 to May 13, 1961. Tal had unseated Botvinnik in the 1960 match, thus Botvinnik was entitled to this rematch the next year. Tal was strong favourite due to his heavy win the previous year, being 25 years younger. Botvinnik won convincingly, by a 13-8 margin. Although Tal suffered kidney illness in 1962, there was no hint of it at the time, commentators put the victory down to Botvinnik playing a superior strategy, being able to combat Tal's attacking style. However, in 2002, Yuri Averbakh revealed that Tal was having health issues, his doctors in Riga advised that he should postpone the match for health reasons; when Botvinnik would agree to a postponement only if Tal was certified unfit by Moscow doctors, Tal decided to play, thinking he would win anyway. The win made Botvinnik the first person to have three separate reigns as World Champion. At 49 years of age, it makes him the oldest player since 1891 to win a World Championship match.
The match was played as best of 24 games. If it ended 12–12, the title holder, would retain the Championship. World Chess Championship 1960 1961 World Chess Championship at the Internet Archive record of Graeme Cree's Chess Pages
Jeff Jahn is a curator, art critic, historian and composer based in Portland, United States. He coined the phrase declaring Portland "the capital of conscience for the United States," in a Portland Tribune op-ed piece, reiterated in The Wall Street Journal. Jahn's cultural activities in Portland receive attention outside the region from media outlets such as CNN, Art in America, The Art Newspaper, The Wall Street Journal, ARTnews. Described in the press as "outspoken and provocative", curatorially as, "a clarion call for Portland's new guard of serious artists—the ones creating a dialog that exceeds the bounds of so-called regional art." He took up art criticism when then-Modern Painters editor Karen Wright asked him to contribute to the then-London based magazine in the late 1990s. In 2005, he co-founded a noted visual art blog, he lectures on art history or critiques at Portland Art Museum, University of Oregon, Pacific Northwest College of Art, Portland State University, Oregon College of Art and Craft and Lewis & Clark College.
In 2010 he was a juror for the Andy Warhol Art Writing Grants. as well as the 2016 Precipice Fund Awards. From 2002-2008 Jahn served as a board member of the Portland Art Museum's Contemporary Art Council and was elected to the vice president's post for a three-year term from 2005 to 2008. In 2006, he launched the visual arts non-profit Organism, which has hosted the work of artists Jarrett Mitchell Pipilotti Rist, Yoram Wolberger, Weppler & Mahovsky and Hank Willis Thomas. In 2008, he shut down Organism as the scope of his projects fell outside of its more narrow mission of living artists. One of Jahn's most memorable curatorial projects was a scholarly conference and exhibition dedicated to the work of Donald Judd with Robert Storr as keynote speaker at the University of Oregon's Portland campus. In April 2016 Jahn co-curated Habitats as an extension of his new media art interests for the What Is? Media Conference at the University of Oregon, featuring Lynn Hershman-Leeson, Agatha Haines and Brenna Murphy among many other noted new media artists as well as virtual reality and other large scale installation works.
As a curator, Jahn has been behind exhibitions like: "Play", "The Best Coast", "Symbiont Synthetic", "Fresh Trouble", "Model Behavior", "Volume" and Donald Judd. Jahn's art has been exhibited in the United States and Germany. Since 2007, his photography, spatial installations have received increasing attention. One solo show Eutrophication took place at Pacific Northwest College of Art's Manuel Izquierdo Sculpture Gallery in April 2008, his most recent solo show Vection at the New American Art Union presented installation art and photography and was picked by the Huntington Post as a top show on the West Coast. Jahn's installation work was selected for the 10th Northwest Biennial at the Tacoma Art Museum where it was noted by numerous critics. One Seattle critic, Jen Graves, described the work as, "a faux forest canopy made of jagged pieces of plywood that create a small, localized environment of green-tinted shadows where you can hide out to think." Jahn has been published, reviewed and or interviewed in, Art in America, Art News, CNN, Modern Painters, The Wall Street Journal, Art Critical, NYArts, Clear Cut Press, The Oregonian, Oregon Public Broadcasting, Portland Tribune, Portland Mercury, Willamette Week, The Stranger and Diesel music magazine.
As publisher and chief critic of PORT, he prompted Stuart Horodner to state, "In the ecology of Portland he is an important independent player.... He's calling for a level of seriousness." His critical writings and photos for Northwest Drizzle and PORT are detailed documentation of the developments in the Portland art scene. On September 5, 2002, The Oregonian said, "…Jahn's laser focus on the present moment emphasizes one important thing about him: He's the voice of right now." On December 20, 2006 Richard Speer stated, "Jeff Jahn has the smarts to mount quirky conceptual shows by nationally known artists…" The Seattle Post-Intelligencer described "Fresh Trouble" as "impressive." Official website PORT Archive of Jahn's Critical i articles from the nw drizzle
Happy99 is a computer worm for Microsoft Windows. It first appeared in mid-January 1999, spreading through usenet; the worm runs in the background of a victim's machine, without their knowledge. It is considered the first virus to propagate by email, has served as a template for the creation of other self-propagating viruses. Happy99 has spread on multiple continents, including North America and Asia. Happy99 was described by Paul Oldfield as "the first virus to spread by email". In the Computer Security Handbook, Happy99 is referred to as "the first modern worm". Happy99 served as a template for the creation of ExploreZip, another self-spreading virus; the worm first appeared on 20 January 1999. Media reports of the worm started coming in from the United States and Europe, in addition to numerous complaints on newsgroups from users that had become infected with the worm. Asia Pulse reported 74 cases of the virus from Japan in February, 181 cases were reported in March—a monthly record at the time.
On 3 March 1999, a Tokyo job company accidentally sent 4000 copies of the virus to 30 universities in Japan. Dan Schrader of Trend Micro said that Happy99 was the single most reported virus in their system for the month of March. A virus bulletin published in February 2000 reported that Happy99 caused reports of file-infecting malware to reach over 16% in April 1999. Sophos listed Happy99 among the top ten viruses reported in the year of 1999. Eric Chien, head of research at Symantec, reported that the worm was the second most reported virus in Europe for 2000. Marius Van Oers, a researcher for Network Associates, referred to Happy99 as "a global problem", saying that it was one of the most reported viruses in 1999; when virus researcher Craig Schmugar posted a fix for the virus on his website, a million people downloaded it. The worm spreads through usenet; when executed, animated fireworks and a "Happy New Year" message display. The worm modifies a Windows communication library, to allow itself to spread.
The worm attaches itself automatically to all subsequent emails and newsgroup posts sent by a user. The worm modifies a registry key to automatically start itself. In some cases, the program may cause several error messages to appear; the worm was written by a French virus writer known as "Spanska". Other than propagating itself, the worm does no further damage to an infected computer; the worm uses port 25 to spread, but uses port 119 if port 25 is not available. The executable of the worm is 10,000 bytes in size; the worm spreads. List of computer worms Timeline of computer viruses and worms Comparison of computer viruses E-mail spam Malware CERT Incident Note IN-99-02 Viruslist - Email-Worm. Win32. Happy
James Vee is a Scottish actor and stunt performer. He is best known for playing a number of Doctor Who monsters and aliens including Bannakaffalatta in the 2007 Christmas special Voyage of the Damned, as well as the Graske in the Doctor Who spin-off series The Sarah Jane Adventures, he is well known as the actor for R2-D2 in Star Wars: The Last Jedi, replacing the late Kenny Baker, who died in 2016. Vee started his career as a stunt double/performer for various small actors and extras in films such as Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. Vee starred as Cheeky the dwarf in the King's Theatre, Glasgow adaptation of Snow White and the Seven Dwarves. Vee was original auditioned for R2D2 in Star Wars: The Force Awakens, although filming clashed with Pan at the time and Vee was not used. In November 2015, he was cast as R2-D2 in Star Wars: The Last Jedi, succeeding Kenny Baker before Baker's death in August 2016, he is a dwarf, standing 1.12 metres tall, the same height as Kenny Baker, who played R2-D2.