The economy of Nigeria is a middle-income, mixed economy and emerging market, with expanding manufacturing, service, communications and entertainment sectors. It is ranked as the 27th-largest economy in the world in terms of nominal GDP, the 22nd-largest in terms of purchasing power parity. Nigeria has the largest economy in Africa. In addition, the debt-to-GDP ratio is 16.075 percent as of 2019. Nigerian GDP at purchasing power parity has tripled from $170 billion in 2000 to $451 billion in 2012, although estimates of the size of the informal sector put the actual numbers closer to $630 billion. Correspondingly, the GDP per capita doubled from $1400 per person in 2000 to an estimated $2,800 per person in 2012.. These figures were to be revised upwards by as much as 80% when metrics were to be recalculated subsequent to the rebasing of its economy in April 2014. Although oil revenues contribute 2/3 of state revenues, oil only contributes about 9% to the GDP. Nigeria produces only about 2.7% of the world's oil supply.
Although the petroleum sector is important, as government revenues still rely on this sector, it remains a small part of the country's overall economy. The subsistence agricultural sector has not kept up with rapid population growth, Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now imports some of its food products, though mechanization has led to a resurgence in manufacturing and exporting of food products, the move towards food sufficiency. In 2006, Nigeria came to an agreement with the Paris Club to buy back the bulk of its debts owed from them for a cash payment of US$12 billion. According to a Citigroup report published in February 2011, Nigeria will have the highest average GDP growth in the world between 2010 and 2050. Nigeria is one of two countries from Africa among 11 Global Growth Generators countries. In 2014, Nigeria changed its economic analysis to account for growing contributors to its GDP, such as telecommunications and its film industry. In 2005, Nigeria reached an agreement with the Paris Club of lending nations to eliminate all of its bilateral external debt.
Under the agreement, the lenders will forgive most of the debt, Nigeria will pay off the remainder with a portion of its energy revenues.. Moreover, human capital is underdeveloped—Nigeria ranked 151 out of countries in the United Nations Development Index in 2004—and non-energy-related infrastructure is inadequate. From 2003 to 2007, Nigeria attempted to implement an economic reform program called the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy; the purpose of the NEEDS was to raise the country's standard of living through a variety of reforms, including macroeconomic stability, liberalization, privatization and accountability. The NEEDS addressed basic deficiencies, such as the lack of freshwater for household use and irrigation, unreliable power supplies, decaying infrastructure, impediments to private enterprise, corruption. NEEDS was intended to create 7 million new jobs, diversify the economy, boost non-energy exports, increase industrial capacity utilization, improve agricultural productivity.
A related initiative on the state level is the State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy. A longer-term economic development program is the United Nations -sponsored National Millennium Goals for Nigeria. Under the program, which covers the years from 2000 to 2015, Nigeria is committed to achieving a wide range of ambitious objectives involving poverty reduction, gender equality, the environment, international development cooperation. In an update released in 2004, the UN found that Nigeria was making progress toward achieving several goals but was falling short on others. Nigeria had advanced efforts to provide universal primary education, protect the environment. A prerequisite for achieving many of these worthwhile objectives is curtailing endemic corruption, which stymies development and taints Nigeria's business environment. President Olusegun Obasanjo's campaign against corruption, which includes the arrest of officials accused of misdeeds and recovering stolen funds, has won praise from the World Bank.
In September 2005, with the assistance of the World Bank, began to recover US$458 million of illicit funds, deposited in Swiss banks by the late military dictator Sani Abacha, who ruled Nigeria from 1993 to 1998. However, while broad-based progress has been slow, these efforts have begun to become evident in international surveys of corruption. Nigeria's ranking has improved since 2001 ranking 147 out of 180 countries in Transparency International's 2007 Corruption Perceptions Index; the Nigerian economy suffers from an ongoing supply crisis in the power sector. Despite a growing economy, some of the world's largest deposits of coal and gas and the country's status as Africa's largest oil producer, power supply difficulties are experienced by residents; this is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Nigeria at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in USD billions. Figures before 2000 are backwards projections from the 2000–2012 numbers, based on historical growth rates, should be replaced when data bec
Urbane Jazz is an album by American jazz trumpeter Roy Eldridge and saxophonist Benny Carter recorded in 1955 and released on the Verve label. Allmusic awarded the album 4½ stars stating "This release features the swing-inflected trumpet of Roy Eldridge combined with the always cosmopolitan-sounding alto sax of the venerable Benny Carter; this combination was quite fortuitous because Eldridge took his main inspiration not from Louis Armstrong, but from saxophonists Carter and Coleman Hawkins, transposing that rapid arpeggio style and rich tone to his horn. This gave the trumpet player a keen awareness of harmony and unparalleled dexterity in his solos". All compositions by Roy Eldridge except as indicated "I Still Love Him So" - 5:47 "The Moon Is Low" – 6:07 "I Missed My Hat" - 5:19 "Ballad Medley: I Remember You/Chelsea Bridge/I've Got the World on a String" - 6:20 "Polite Blues" - 8:36 "Close Your Eyes" - 2:40 "Where's Art" - 4:07 "I Don't Know" - 4:37 "Striding" - 4:37 "Wailing" - 3:14 Roy Eldridge – trumpet, piano Benny Carter – alto saxophone Bruce McDonald – piano John Simmons – double bass Alvin Stoller – drums
The Flint Creek Farm is a historic farm in Field Township, United States. From 1915 to 1933 the farm was owned by executives of the area's largest lumber company as a side venture supplying food and hay to the company's lumber camps. Three buildings and a windmill tower are still standing from this period; the property was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989 as the Flint Creek Farm Historic District for its local significance in the themes of agriculture and industry. It was nominated as one of only two known surviving Minnesota farms established to supply a major lumber company, it was nominated for its associations with its two owners, influential Virginia and Rainy Lake Lumber Company executives Samuel J. Cusson and Chester H. Rogers. National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis County, Minnesota
Salvatore Maranzano was an organized crime figure from the town of Castellammare del Golfo, an early Cosa Nostra boss who led what would become the Bonanno crime family in New York City. He instigated the Castellammarese War in 1930, to seize control of the American Mafia, winning the war after the murder of rival faction head, Joe Masseria, in April 1931, he briefly became the Mafia's capo di tutti capi and formed the Five Families in New York City, but was murdered on September 10, 1931, under the orders of Charles "Lucky" Luciano, who established an arrangement in which families shared power to prevent future turf wars: The Commission. Salvatore Maranzano was the youngest of 12 children born to Domenico Maranzano and Antonina Piscotta. Five of his siblings lived to adulthood: Mariano, Nicolo and Angela; as a youngster, Maranzano had wanted to become a priest and studied to become one, but became associated with the Mafia in his homeland. Maranzano had a commanding presence and was respected by his underworld peers.
He had a fascination with Julius Caesar and the Roman Empire, enjoyed talking to his less-educated American Mafia counterparts about these subjects. Because of this, he was nicknamed "Little Caesar" by his underworld peers. Maranzano emigrated from Sicily to the United States in the 1920s; the Sicilian mafioso Don Vito Ferro decided to make a bid for control of Mafia operations in the United States. From his base in Castellammare del Golfo, Maranzano was sent to seize control. While building a legitimate business as a real estate broker, Maranzano maintained a growing bootlegging business, using the real estate company as a front for his illegal operations, he soon became involved in the illegal smuggling of narcotics. To protect the criminal empire that Maranzano had built up, he declared war on his rival Joe Masseria, the boss of all bosses, in 1930, starting the Castellammarese War. In early 1931, Lucky Luciano decided to eliminate Masseria. In a secret deal with Maranzano, Luciano agreed to engineer Masseria's death in return for receiving Masseria's rackets and becoming Maranzano's second-in-command.
On April 15, Luciano invited Masseria and two other associates to lunch in a Coney Island restaurant. After finishing their meal, the mobsters decided to play cards. At that point, according to mob legend, Luciano went to the bathroom. Four gunmen – Vito Genovese, Albert Anastasia, Joe Adonis and Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel – walked into the dining room and shot and killed Masseria. With Maranzano's blessing, Luciano became Maranzano's lieutenant. With Masseria gone, Maranzano reorganized the Italian American gangs in New York City into Five Families headed by Luciano, Gagliano, Vincent Mangano and himself; each family would have a boss, capos and associates, would be composed of only full-blooded Italian Americans, while associates could come from any background. However, Maranzano called a meeting of crime bosses in Wappingers Falls, New York, declared himself capo dei capi. Maranzano whittled down the rival families' rackets in favor of his own. Luciano appeared to accept these changes, but was biding his time before removing Maranzano.
Although Maranzano was more forward-thinking than Masseria, Luciano had come to believe that Maranzano was more greedy and hidebound than Masseria had been. Maranzano's scheming, his arrogant treatment of his subordinates and his fondness for comparing his organization to the Roman Empire did not sit well with Luciano and his ambitious friends, like Vito Genovese, Frank Costello and others. Despite his advocacy for modern methods of organization, including crews of soldiers doing the bulk of a family's illegal work under the supervision of a caporegime, at heart Maranzano was a "Mustache Pete" — an old-school mafioso too steeped in Old World ways, he was opposed to Luciano's partnership with Jewish gangsters such as Meyer Lansky and Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel. Luciano and his colleagues had intended all along to bide their time before getting rid of Maranzano. By September 1931, Maranzano realized Luciano was a threat, hired Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll, an Irish gangster, to kill him. However, Tommy Lucchese alerted Luciano.
On September 10, Maranzano ordered Luciano and Genovese to come to his office at the 230 Park Avenue in Manhattan. Convinced that Maranzano planned to murder them, Luciano decided to act first, he sent to Maranzano's office four Jewish gangsters. They had been secured with the aid of Siegel. Disguised as government agents, two of the gangsters disarmed Maranzano's bodyguards; the other two, aided by Lucchese, there to point Maranzano out, stabbed the boss multiple times before shooting him. This assassination was the first of what would be fabled as the "Night of the Sicilian Vespers." Although there would have been few objections had Luciano declared himself capo di tutti capi, he abolished the title, believing the position created trouble between the families and made himself a target for another ambitious challenger. Luciano subsequently created The Commission to serve as the governing body for organized crime. Maranzano is buried in Saint John's Cemetery, New York, near Luciano's grave; the only known photographs of Maranzano are from the scene of his death.
In 2009, Informer author David Critchley had identified the picture once cl
Glebe House and Glebe Gallery are located just outside the town of Letterkenny near Churchill. The English portrait and landscape painter Derek Hill lived and worked there from 1954 until he presented the house and his art collection to the Irish state in 1981. Hill's former studio has been converted into a modern gallery with changing exhibitions while his art collection is shown in his former home together with European and oriental furniture and William Morris wallpapers and fabrics; the collection includes works by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Louis le Brocquy, Graham Sutherland, Auguste Renoir, Jack Butler Yeats, Oskar Kokoshka, Patrick Swift and the native Tory Island painter, James Dixon. Run by the Office of Public Works the gallery is open for a limited season each year - around Easter and from June to the end of September. Access to the permanent collection in Glebe House is by guided tour only; the woodland gardens, which border Lough Gartan, are open all year round
Kēśirāja spelled Keshiraja, was a 13th-century Kannada grammarian and writer. He is known for authoring Shabdamanidarpana, an authoritative work on Kannada grammar. According to Dravidian scholar Sheldon Pollock, because of this work he is considered the "greatest theorist of Kannada grammar", he was a scholar in Sanskrit as well and a court poet in the Hoysala Court. Kesiraja was born in a literary family, his father, was a Kannada poet and brother-in-law of the epic writer Janna. Kesiraja was the grandson on his mother's side of another noted poet, Śankara, priest of the Yadava capital and poet laureate to Hoysala King Narasimha I. In some of his works, Kesiraja has referred to himself as Kesava. Shabdamanidarpana, was authored by Kesiraja in 1260 CE; this work remains a authoritative work on Kannada grammar. The rules mentioned therein were followed a vrutti style. Though Kesiraja followed the model of Sanskrit grammar of the Katantra school, that of earlier writings on Kannada grammar, his work has an originality of its own.
The text of Shabdamanidarpana begins with poetry ehalting earlier generations of writer who are cited by Kesiraja as authoritative examples: The expert way of Gajaga, Manasija, Candrabhatta, Srivijaya, Hampa, Sujanōttamsa – these provide the illustrative instances in this work. In Shabdamanidarpana, about twenty poets and thirty different works are cited, every rule is explained with quotations; this work points out the Kannada language development through the preceding three centuries. An attempt at vocabulary building is provided in several parts of the work. There is a list of verbal words containing ḷ and ḹ sounds. There is a chapter called "PrayŌgasāra" where Kesiraja has quoted a number of rare words along with their meanings. Kesiraja had a passion for grammar, evident from his writings through his work Shabdamanidarpana. Through grammar words originate. Apart from his extant grammar Shabdamanidarpana, Kesiraja authored several other writings in Kannada, though they are deemed lost: Prabodhachandra Chorapalaka Charitam Kiratam Shubhadraharana Sri Chitramale