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Economy of Peru

The economy of Peru is an upper middle income economy as classified by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world by total GDP. Peru was one of the world's fastest-growing economies in 2012, with a GDP growth rate of 6.3%. As of 2018 the GDP growth rate has slowed to 3.99%. It has a high human development index of 0.741 and per capita GDP above $12,000 by PPP. Neo-classical economists would interpret Peru's sound economic performance as a combination of: Macroeconomic stability Prudent fiscal spending High international reserve accumulation External debt reduction Achievement of investment grade status Fiscal surplusesHowever, Post-Keynesian economists would argue that what neo-classical economics considers to be "prudent" fiscal spending is nothing more than a means to restrict government spending in order to make Peru dependent on export income and thus encourage it to open the Peruvian economy to free trade to the benefit of other western countries. Though growth has been significant, income inequality remains, much of Peru's rain-forests have been damaged in the mining of gold and silver.

All of these factors have enabled Peru to make great strides in development, with improvement in government finances, poverty reduction and progress in social sectors. Poverty has decreased in the past decade, from nearly 60% in 2004 to 20.5% in 2018. Peru is social market economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade; the inequality of opportunities has declined: between 1991 and 2012 Peru's rating on The World Bank's Human Opportunity Index improved as increased public investment in water and electric power has sustained the downward trend in inequality of opportunities. Its economy is diversified, although commodity exports still make up a significant proportion of economic activity and thus subject the economy to the risks of price volatility in the international markets. Trade and industry are centralized in Lima but agricultural exports have led to development in all the regions. Peruvian economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.

Peru's main exports are copper, zinc, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and fish meal. Although exports have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. Services account for 43% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing, extractive industries, taxes. Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, rising investment and consumption. China has become Peru's largest trading partner following a free trade agreement with the People's Republic of China signed on April 28, 2009 additional free trade agreements have being signed with the United States of America free trade agreement with the United States signed on April 12, 2006, the European Union June 26, 2012; the EU and Peru Sign Trade Promotion Agreement, with Japan free trade agreement with the constitutional monarchy of Japan signed on May 31, 2011Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose.

The unemployment rate has fallen in recent years, as of 2012 stands at 3.6%. The Tahuantinsuyo or known around the world as The Inca Empire was the largest empire/civilization which arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century; the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina and central Chile, a small part of southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia; the official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects of Quechua were spoken.. The Inca Empire, was organized in dominions with a stratified society, in which the ruler was the Inca, it was supported by an economy based on the collective property of the land.

In fact, the Inca Empire was conceived like an ambitious and audacious civilizing project, based on a mythical thought, in which the harmony of the relationships between the human being and gods was essential. The economy was agricultural, though it reached some animal husbandry and mining development; the primary goal of the Incan economy was substinence, with a system based on reciprocity and exchange of products. The colonial-era sources are not clear or in agreement about the nature of the structure of the Inca government. However, its basic structure can be spoken of broadly if the exact duties and functions of government positions cannot be told. At the top of the chain of administration sat the Sapa Inca. Next to the Sapa Inca in terms of power may have been the Willaq Umu the "priest who recounts", the High Priest of the Sun. However, it has been noted that beneath the Sapa Inca sat the Inkap rantin, at the least a confidant and assistant to the Sapa Inca along the lines of a prime minister.

From the time of Topa Inca Yupanqui on, there existed a "Council of the Realm" composed of sixteen nobles: two from hanan Cusco. This weighting of

Trevallyn Power Station

The Trevallyn Power Station is a run-of-the-river hydroelectric power station located in the northern Midlands region of Tasmania, Australia. The power station is situated on the Great Lake and South Esk catchment and is owned and operated by Hydro Tasmania. Part of the Great Lake and South Esk scheme that comprises three hydroelectric power stations, the Trevallyn Power Station is the final station and is located adjacent to the Tamar River north of Launceston, making use of daily flows down the South Esk River. A dam on the South Esk River diverts water through a 3.3-kilometre -long penstock pipeline to the power station. Water flows underground for its entirety except for a short, 100-metre -long, portion that leaves the ground near Pitt Avenue due to a valley intersecting the tunnel's course; the pipeline splits underground into four smaller pipes before entry into the station's turbines. The water enters the penstock tunnel 130 metres above sea level and leaves the power station at sea level, entering the Tamar River via the Tailrace Bay on Tie-Tree Bend.

Trevallyn and Poatina are the only hydroelectric power stations located in the drainage basin of the South Esk River. The tunnel through which the pipeline runs is cut through dolerite and was excavated by a French tunnelling company; the bay that the used water is discharged into was excavated using steam driven equipment and tram ways with the two tailing mounds now forming the Tailrace Park and the Tailrace Convention Center. The Tailrace Bay has been adapted to serve recreational purposed and provides a safe anchorage for yachts; the power station was commissioned in 1955 by the Hydro Electric Corporation, replacing the Duck Reach Power Station. The station has two 20.9-megawatt English Electric Francis-type turbines and two 27-megawatt English Electric Francis-type turbines, with a combined generating capacity of 95.8 megawatts of electricity. Within the station building, each turbine has a embedded spiral casing. A main inlet valve is located in the station upstream of each turbine for maintenance and security purposes.

No. 1 and no. 2 machines are equipped with a turbine relief valve to reduce pressure rise in the turbine and penstock during rapid guide vane closure. The station output, estimated to be 492 gigawatt-hours annually, is fed to TasNetworks' transmission grid via two three-phase Alstom generator transformers and two 3-phase English Electric generator transformers to the outdoor switchyard. Water is discharged into the Tamar River at sea level by an open tailrace channel; the construction village, named Marrawaylee, is now part of the suburb of West Riverside and is accessed by Pomona Road. The power station and the open land for the transmission lines now serves as a border between the Launceston suburbs of Riverside and Trevallyn. List of power stations in Tasmania Hydro Tasmania page on the Trevallyn Power Development

2002 San Diego Padres season

The 2002 San Diego Padres season was the 34th season in franchise history. December 27, 2001: Alan Embree was signed as a Free Agent with the San Diego Padres. February 24, 2002: Trenidad Hubbard was signed as a Free Agent with the San Diego Padres. March 16, 2002: Mark Sweeney was signed as a Free Agent with the San Diego Padres. D'Angelo Jiménez – 2B Mark Kotsay – CF Ron Gant – LF Phil Nevin – 1B Bubba Trammell – RF Deivi Cruz – SS Wiki González – C Ramon Vazquez – 3B Kevin Jarvis – SP June 26, 2002: Alan Embree was traded by the San Diego Padres with Andy Shibilo to the Boston Red Sox for Dan Giese and Brad Baker. July 15, 2002: Mark Sweeney was released by the San Diego Padres. July 31, 2002: Jason Bay was traded by the New York Mets with Josh Reynolds and Bobby Jones to the San Diego Padres for Steve Reed and Jason Middlebrook. August 13, 2002: Mark Sweeney was Signed as a Free Agent with the San Diego Padres. August 16, 2002: Mark Sweeney was released by the San Diego Padres. September 4, 2002: Trenidad Hubbard was released by the San Diego Padres.

Note: Pos = Position. = Batting average. = Batting average.


Vokle was an embeddable Internet microsite application that allows speakers to broadcast live video to a virtual auditorium of viewers and take live video calls and text questions from the audience. VOKLE launched a prototype in March 2009, PC Magazine noted that VOKLE was a "web-based platform for video conversations" that seemed to be "adding voice to social networking." VOKLE refined its alpha version and launched its current version to the public on December 11, 2009. The beta version of VOKLE allows for remote co-hosts, screening of video calls and live video editing, is aimed "to help you take social to the next step by providing you with your own customized, branded video chat platform." The application is web-based, can be embedded on external websites, does not require plug-ins or downloads. In July 2011, VOKLE launched a unique recording feature that automatically divides video and text questions into specific chapters, which can be browsed and selected before the viewer plays the recording.

These chapters can be shared on Twitter or Facebook through buttons, can be embedded on external websites. In March 2013, staff pick Binyamin Goldman posted an article on the tech blog The Verge directed toward the VOKLE staff; the article explained that people have been unable to broadcast on the site since November, that the VOKLE team has not responded to his personal emails, tweeted, or put something on Facebook in the past 4 months. The website has never been functional since November 2013. Visiting the website will result in a "503" error. After their initial seed round in 2008, VOKLE began raising Angel funds. In April 2010, Co-Founder Edward Dekeratry confirmed that VOKLE had secured a small round that allowed the company to pay for basic engineering. In August 2010, Tech Coast Angels, Southern California's largest angel investment group, confirmed they had invested in Vokle. Angel funding continued until April 2011, when VOKLE closed its angel round with an extra $767,000 from investors including Imogen Heap, Rafe Furst and Tech Coast Angels, "bringing Vokle’s total funding to $1.26 million."

Vokle website

Top Gun

Top Gun is a 1986 American action drama film directed by Tony Scott, produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer, in association with Paramount Pictures. The screenplay was written by Jim Cash and Jack Epps Jr. and was inspired by an article titled "Top Guns" published in California magazine three years earlier. The film stars Tom Cruise, Kelly McGillis, Val Kilmer, Anthony Edwards, Tom Skerritt, it marked the debut of actor Adrian Pasdar. Cruise plays Lieutenant Pete "Maverick" Mitchell, a young naval aviator aboard the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise, he and his Radar Intercept Officer, Nick "Goose" Bradshaw are given the chance to train at the US Navy's Fighter Weapons School at Naval Air Station Miramar in San Diego, California. Top Gun was released on May 16, 1986. Upon its release, the film received mixed reviews from film critics but many praised the action sequences, the effects, the aerial stunts, the acting performances with Cruise and McGillis receiving the most praise. Four weeks after release, the number of theaters showing it increased by 45 percent.

Despite its initial mixed critical reaction, the film was a huge commercial hit grossing US$356 million against a production budget of only US$15 million. The film maintained its popularity over the years and earned an IMAX 3D re-release in 2013. Additionally, the film won an Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Take My Breath Away" performed by Berlin. In 2015, the United States Library of Congress selected the film for preservation in the National Film Registry, finding it "culturally or aesthetically significant". A sequel, titled Top Gun: Maverick is scheduled for release on June 26, 2020. United States Naval Aviator LT Pete "Maverick" Mitchell and his Radar Intercept Officer LTJG Nick "Goose" Bradshaw fly the F-14A Tomcat aboard USS Enterprise. During an interception with two hostile MiG-28 aircraft, Maverick gets missile lock on one, while the other hostile aircraft locks onto Maverick's wingman, Cougar. While Maverick drives off the remaining MiG-28, Cougar is too shaken to land, Maverick, defying orders, shepherds him back to the carrier.

Cougar gives up his wings, citing his newborn child. Despite his dislike for Maverick's recklessness, CAG "Stinger" sends him and Goose to attend Topgun, the Naval Fighter Weapons School at Naval Air Station Miramar. At a bar the day before Topgun starts, assisted by Goose, unsuccessfully approaches a woman. Maverick learns the next day that she is Charlotte "Charlie" Blackwood, an astrophysicist and civilian Topgun instructor. Charlie becomes interested in Maverick upon learning of his inverted maneuver with the MiG-28, which disproves US intelligence on the enemy aircraft's performance. During Maverick's first training sortie he defeats instructor LCDR Rick "Jester" Heatherly but through reckless flying breaks two rules of engagement and is reprimanded by chief instructor CDR Mike "Viper" Metcalf. Jester confides that he admires Maverick's skill, but wouldn't trust him as a teammate in combat. Maverick becomes a rival to top student LT Tom "Iceman" Kazansky, who considers Maverick's attitude "dangerous"—as Maverick's tendency to abandon his team and pursue reckless objectives makes him "unsafe" to fly with.

In class, Charlie objects to Maverick's aggressive tactics but admits to him that she admires his flying and omitted it from her reports to hide her feelings for him, the two begin a romantic relationship. During a training sortie, Maverick abandons his wingman "Hollywood" to chase Viper, impressed with his flying abilities but is defeated when Viper maneuvers Maverick into a position from which his wingman Jester can shoot down Maverick from behind, demonstrating the value of teamwork over individual prowess. Jester publicly tells Maverick that his flying is excellent, but that he should "never leave wingman." Maverick and Iceman, now direct competitors for the Topgun Trophy, chase an A-4 in a training engagement. Maverick pressures Iceman to break off his engagement so he can shoot it down, but Maverick's F-14 flies through the jet wash of Iceman's aircraft and suffers a flameout of both engines, going into an unrecoverable flat spin. Maverick and Goose eject. Although the board of inquiry clears Maverick of responsibility for Goose's death, he is overcome by guilt and his flying skill diminishes.

Charlie and others attempt to console him. He seeks advice from Viper, who reveals that he served with Maverick's father Duke Mitchell on USS Oriskany and was in the air battle in which Mitchell was killed. Contrary to official reports which faulted Mitchell, Viper reveals classified information that proves Mitchell died heroically and informs Maverick that he can succeed if he can regain his self-confidence. Maverick chooses to graduate. During the graduation party, Viper calls in the newly graduated aviators with the orders to deploy. Iceman and Maverick are ordered to return to Enterprise to deal with a "crisis situation", providing air support for the rescue of a stricken ship that has drifted into hostile waters. Maverick and Merlin are assigned as back-up for F-14s flown by Iceman and Hollywood, despite Iceman's reservations over Maverick's state of mind; the subsequent hostile engagement with six MiGs sees. Upon rejoining Iceman, the two are still badly outnumbered, but Maverick vocally refuses to leave Iceman wit

Valdemar Riise

Valdemar Riise, was the proprietor of A. H. Riise Rum and Pharmacy, founded by his father Albert Heinrich Riise in 1838 on the island of St. Thomas in the Danish West Indies. Valdemar sold the pharmacy in 1913 and returned to Copenhagen because he was suffering from string of disease attacks. After returning to Copenhagen in 1913 he died 1 year after in 1914. Valdemar was named Knight of Dannebrog. Knights were asked to write a vitae and Valdemar Riise's vitae dated September 24th 1907. King Haakon of Norway appointed Valdemar Riise as Norwegian consul in the Danish West Indies, in 1912 Valdemar Riise was honored with the Norwegian St. Olav's Order of 1st class, awarded as "reward for excellent merits of the fatherland and humanity". King Haakon the 7th of Norway started his life as Prince Carl of Denmark, he built up his career in the Royal Danish Navy, which led to him serving on the vessel, Fregatten Jylland. The national treasure “Frigate Jylland” – which shares its name with another variation of A.

H. Riise NAVY Rum– led the prince to the West Indian Isles. Here he met Valdemar Riise, son of A. H. Riise. King Haakon and Riise established a close friendship over the years and enjoyed each other’s company on several occasions when King Haakon visited the A. H. Riise Pharmacy and Riise’s private home; the friendship began when the Prince Karl served on the frigates Jutland and Fyen, acting as maritime protection vessels in the Danish West Indies and which moored off Saint Thomas. Slægtsforskning på Ærø AH Riise Labels Source