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Economy of Rwanda

The economy of Rwanda has undergone rapid industrialisation due to a successful governmental policy. Since the early-2000s, Rwanda has witnessed an economic boom improving the living standards of many Rwandans; the Government’s progressive visions have been the catalyst for the fast transforming economy. The President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, has noted his ambition to make Rwanda the "Singapore of Africa". In the 1960s and 1970s, Rwanda's prudent financial policies, coupled with generous external aid and favorable terms of trade, resulted in sustained growth in per capita income and low inflation rates. However, when world coffee prices fell in the 1980s, growth became erratic. Compared to an annual GDP growth rate of 6.5% from 1973 to 1980, growth slowed to an average of 2.9% a year from 1980 through 1985 and was stagnant from 1986 to 1990. The crisis peaked in 1990 when the first measures of an IMF structural adjustment program were carried out. While the program was not implemented before the war, key measures such as two large devaluations and the removal of official prices were enacted.

The consequences on salaries and purchasing power were dramatic. This crisis affected the educated elite, most of whom were employed in civil service or state-owned enterprises. During the 5 years of civil war that culminated in the 1994 genocide, GDP declined in 3 out of 5 years, posting a rapid decline at more than 40% in 1994, the year of the genocide; the 9% increase in real GDP for 1995, the first postwar year, signalled the resurgence of economic activity. The 1994 genocide destroyed Rwanda's fragile economic base impoverished the population women, eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made significant progress in rehabilitating its economy. In June 1998, Rwanda signed an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility with the International Monetary Fund. Rwanda has embarked upon an ambitious privatization program with the World Bank. In the immediate postwar period—mid-1994 through 1995—emergency humanitarian assistance of more than $307.4 million was directed to relief efforts in Rwanda and in the refugee camps in neighboring countries where Rwandans fled during the war.

In 1996, humanitarian relief aid began to shift to development assistance. The United States, Germany, the Netherlands, the People's Republic of China, the World Bank, the UN Development Programme and the European Development Fund will continue to account for the substantial aid. Rehabilitation of government infrastructure, in particular the justice system, was an international priority, as well as the continued repair and expansion of infrastructure, health facilities, schools. After the Rwandan Genocide, the Tutsi-led government began a major program to improve the country's economy and reduce its dependence on subsistence farming; the failing economy had been a major factor behind the genocide, as was overpopulation and the resulting competition for scarce farmland and other resources. The government focused on building up its manufacturing and service industries and eliminating barriers to trade and development; the Government of Rwanda posted a 13% GDP growth rate in 1996 through improved collection of tax revenues, accelerated privatization of state enterprises to stop the drain on government resources, continued improvement in export crop and food production.

Tea plantations and factories continue to be rehabilitated, coffee, always a smallholder's crop, is being more rehabilitated and tended as the farmers' sense of security returns. However, the road to recovery will be slow. Coffee production of 14,578,560 tons in 2000 compares to a pre-civil war variation between 35,000 and 40,000 tons. By 2002 tea became Rwanda’s largest export, with export earnings from tea reaching US$18 million equating to 15,000 tons of dried tea. Rwanda's natural resources are limited. A small mineral industry provides about 5% of foreign exchange earnings. Concentrates exist of the heavy minerals cassiterite, coltan. By mid-1997, up to 75% of the factories functioning before the war had returned to production, at an average of 75% of their capacity. Investments in the industrial sector continue to be limited to the repair of existing industrial plants. Retail trade, devastated by the war, has revived with many new small businesses established by Rwandan returnees from Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Industry received little external assistance from the end of the war through 1995. Beginning in 1996-97, the government has become active in helping the industrial sector to restore production through technical and financial assistance, including loan guarantees, economic liberalization, the privatization of state-owned enterprises. In early 1998, the government set up a one-stop investment promotion center and implemented a new investment code that created an enabling environment for foreign and local investors. An autonomous revenue authority has begun operation, improving collections and accountability. Cassiterite production peaked at 1,000 tonnes in 1990, but was under 700 tonnes in 2000. Recorded coltan production has soared from 147 tonnes in 1999 to 1,300 tonnes in 2001, coltan was the country's biggest single export earner in 2001. At least part of the increase in production is because of new mines opening up in Rwanda; however it is true, as has been observed, that the increase is because of the fraudulent re-export of Congolese coltan.

In addition to the well-

Kim Hye-soo

Kim Hye-soo is a South Korean actress. She is best known for her roles in the films Tazza: The High Rollers, The Thieves, Coin Locker Girl, Familyhood, as well as the television series Signal. Kim Hye-soo debuted in the 1986 film Ggambo. Over two decades she amassed a sizeable filmography of leading and supporting roles, notably in the TV dramas Did We Really Love? with Bae Yong-joon and Revenge and Passion with Ahn Jae-wook, as well as the films First Love and Tie a Yellow Ribbon. In the 2000s, Kim started to appear more on the silver screen, appearing in movies such as Kick the Moon, YMCA Baseball Team and Three, but it was when she reinvented her image as a glamorous and confident femme fatale in films Hypnotized, The Red Shoes and Tazza: The High Rollers that she gained acting recognition and entered the Korean film industry A-list. Various film roles followed, such as a housewife who secretly dates a college student in A Good Day to Have an Affair, she considers her collaboration with Han Suk-kyu in 2010's Villain and Widow as one of the highlights of her acting career.

In 2009, Kim returned to television with Style, set in the fashion industry. She followed that with the mystery melodrama Home Sweet Home in 2010. A frequent host of film awards ceremonies and TV variety shows, Kim was signed on as the host of MBC current affairs show W; the production team said that in a bid to make changes in the program as it marked its fifth anniversary, they found that Kim was interested in environmental and other global issues and an avid watcher of documentaries about them. W with Kim Hye-soo premiered in July 2010, but was cancelled in October 2010, with Kim criticizing the network's decision, she reunited with Tazza director Choi Dong-hoon in The Thieves. Set among the casinos of Macau, the star-studded heist film became the all-time second highest grosser in Korean cinema history; this was followed with a supporting role in Han Jae-rim's historical film The Face Reader. In 2013, she headlined the romantic comedy The Queen of Office, an adaptation of 2007 Japanese drama Haken no Hinkaku.

Kim next starred in Coin Locker Girl in a rare female-driven noir film. She said she didn't mind looking unattractive for her role as a ruthless crime boss, with makeup artists adding age spots to her face, gray to her hair, flab to her stomach and hips with prostheses. Kim said it was "mentally agonizing" deciding whether to accept the role, but once she did, she felt "a surge of excitement" every time she stepped onto the set, considered the film "a new challenge that makes my heart race and scares me at the same time."Kim made her drama comeback in 2016 with tvN's Signal, critically and commercially successful. She won the tvN10 Awards for her performance. Kim returned to the big screen, starring in the family drama Familyhood followed by noir film A Special Lady. In 2018, Kim starred in the IMF crisis drama, alongside actor Yoo Ah-in, she has been cast in the science fiction film Return. In 2020, Kim starred in the legal drama Hyena. Kim can speak five languages: Korean, Spanish and Chinese.

Kim is a budding artist, having displayed her pop art at the Seoul Open Art Fair. One of her collage paintings was sold for ₩5 million, Kim donated the money to charity. Kim and character actor Yoo Hae-jin first met in 2001 after shooting the film Kick the Moon and became close in 2006 after appearing together in Tazza: The High Rollers. Rumors of the two dating surfaced starting 2008 although both continuously denied any romantic involvement until early 2010 when paparazzi photographs of the two were released, the couple confirmed their relationship. Kim and Yoo broke up in 2011. Kim has a Theater and Film degree from Dongguk University and a master's degree in journalism and mass communications from Sungkyunkwan University. In 2013 Kim admitted to having plagiarized her master's thesis "A Study on Actor Communication," with parts copied verbatim from at least four different books, she apologised for her actions, said she was willing to forfeit her master's degree. Kim Hye-soo at HanCinema Kim Hye-soo at the Korean Movie Database Kim Hye-soo on IMDb

Nedim Şener

Nedim Şener is a Turkish writer and journalist who has written for the Milliyet and Posta newspapers. He has received a number of journalism awards, including the Turkish Journalists' Association Press Freedom Award, the International Press Institute's World Press Freedom Heroes award, PEN Freedom of Expression Award, he is known for his 2009 book on the assassination of Hrant Dink, which showed the role of Turkish security. He is under indictment in the Odatv case of the Ergenekon trials because, he believes, his 2009 book alleged that police officers responsible for the Ergenekon investigation were responsible for the Dink murder, he started working as a journalist at the İlkhaber newspaper. He wrote for the Dünya newspaper, he joined Milliyet in 1994. The Turkish Journalists' Association has twice named Şener "journalist of the year." In 1999, he was awarded the Metin Göktepe Journalism Award. Some of his published books are Altın, İstanbul Altın Borsası ve Dünyadaki Örnekleri, Tepeden Tırnağa Yolsuzluk, Naylon Holding.

Other awards he has won include Pen Awards of Netherlands, Abdi İpekçi Award. In June 2010, Şener was named one of the Vienna-based International Press Institute's World Press Freedom Heroes, along with Lydia Cacho Ribeiro, May Chidiac, Akbar Ganji, Yoani Sánchez, Pap Saine, Lasantha Wickrematunge. In January 2009 Şener published a book on the 2007 murder of Hrant Dink, The Dink Murder and Intelligence Lies. In it he alleged that police officers responsible for the Ergenekon investigation were responsible for the murder; the officers in question sued Şener soon after. In May 2009 an email to police claimed. Şener has said he believes the email was forged by the officers in question, pointing out that although ten names were mentioned, his were the only telephones to be tapped. The taps did not reveal any incriminating evidence. In February 2011 a raid on the offices of OdaTV produced documents on the basis of which Şener was arrested and charged with collaboration with Ergenekon. Odatv staff said.

Şener was held in pre-trial detention for over a year. He was released in March 2012 pending trial; the arrest was protested by activists. When the Justice Minister was asked about the arrest, he replied "Whatever I would say would be seen as an intervention in a judicial process."In 2013, Şener was awarded the International Press Freedom Award of the New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists. 1998, 1999, 2000 The Turkish Journalists' Association Economics Reporter of the Year Award 1998 Metin Göktepe Journalism Award 2002 Sedat Simavi Journalism Award 2007 Contemporary Journalists Association Uğur Mumcu Investigative Journalism Award 2009 The Turkish Journalists' Association Press Freedom Award 2010 Abdi İpekçi Journalism of the Year Award 2010 Kemal Sunal Cultural and Arts Awards Best Writer Award 2010 Turkish Publishers Association Freedom of Thought and Expression Prize 2010 International Press Institute World Press Freedom Hero 2010 PEN Freedom of Expression Award 2013 CPJ International Press Freedom Award Baba Seni Neden Oraya Koydular?, Doğan Kitapçılık Kırmızı Cuma, Doğan Kitapçılık İşte Hayatım, Uğur Dündar, Doğan Kitapçılık Dink Cinayeti ve İstihbarat Yalanları, Destek Yayınları Türkiye'de Farklı Olmak, Metis Yayınları Ergenekon Belgelerinde Fethullah Gülen ve Cemaat, Destek Yayınları Hayırsever Terrorist, Güncel Yayıncılık Fırsatlar Ülkesinde Bir Kemal Abi, Güncel Yayıncılık, Kod Adı: Atilla, Güncel Yayıncılık Naylon Holding, Om Yaynevi Tepeden Tırnağa Yolsuzluk, Metis Yayınları Uzanlar Bir Korku İmparatorluğunun Çöküşü, Güncel Yayıncılık Gold: İstanbul’s Gold Exchange and Its Examples in the World Media related to Nedim Şener at Wikimedia Commons Ahmet Şık & Nedim Şener

Hochschule für Musik Carl Maria von Weber

The "Carl Maria von Weber" College of Music is a college of music in Dresden, Germany. The Hochschule is one of the oldest German conservatoires. Francesco Morlacchi, Carl Maria von Weber and Richard Wagner made reference to the necessity of establishing institutional training for musicians in Dresden. On 1 February 1856, a violinist of the Royal Orchestra, Friedrich Tröstler, founded the first music school in Dresden. In 1881 the title "royal" was granted, it changed its name to "Royal Conservatoire", although it was a private institution. From 1881 till 1918 was an institution under royal patronage and from 1937 onwards under the municipal authority; the original building of the hochschule was destroyed during World War II and all teaching activities were moved to Mendelssohnalle 34. At first the university was an educational institution where the future instrumentalists of the town’s orchestra were trained, it became the Hochschule für Musik. All orchestral instruments, piano, composition, music theory and accompaniment, as well as popular music/jazz/rock specialties can be studied at the College.

There are different courses about Instrumental and Voice Pedagogy and Teacher Training in Music. Particular emphasis is placed on the education of orchestral musicians; this is because of the especial relationship of the school and the Semperoper, Staatskapelle Dresden, the Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra. The formation of singers and orchestral musicians was determined by members of the Saxon State Opera, The Staatskapelle and Philharmonic orchestras working as teachers on an honorary basis. There are c. 250 public events organized and realized by students and staff and guests lecturers every year. The Hochschule occupies two buildings in the metropolitan area of Dresden: the main building at 13 Wettiner Platz and the other on Blochmannstraße; the main building has all the facilities of a modern conservatoire, a large recital hall and several smaller ones and practice rooms, teaching studios, a canteen, a library and offices. A new extension to the main building, finished in 2008, houses a new 450-seat concert hall and several rehearsal and teaching rooms.

With more than 300 public concerts and opera performances every year, the Hochschule contributes to the region’s cultural life and offers its students at the same time a practical artistic training. Regular artistic projects are realized by the Opera Class and the bigger ensembles like the hochschule's Symphony Orchestra, the School's Choir and the Bigband; the special image of the Dresden University of Music is fundamentally shaped by the close connection to Dresden’s two big orchestras, the Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden and the Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra. Furthermore the Opera Class has a location at its disposal, which enables performances under professional conditions. Founded in 1965, but working as a different organization since 1945, the High School of Music "Carl Maria Von Weber" is a specialist music school for school-age children, located in Dresden; the school imparts the regular school program but great emphasis is put on individual music training, music theory classes and orchestral playing.

Most instrumental teachers are professors at the Hochschule für Musik "Carl Maria von Weber" or play in one of the professional orchestras of the city. The president of the school is the English conductor Sir Colin Davis. Previous patrons include Sir Yehudi Menuhin. Karl Laux Hans-Georg Uszkoreit Siegfried Köhler Max Gerd Schönfelder Dieter Jahn Monika Raithel Wilfried Krätzschmar Stefan Gies Judith Schinker Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden Semperoper Dresden Philharmonic Orchestra Official website HfM Carl Maria Von Weber - Review and Web Ranking

Gare de Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche–Forêt de Marly

Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche–Forêt de Marly is a railway station in the French commune of L'Étang-la-Ville in the département of Yvelines. Its name derives from the Forêt de Marly, it links to the CSO bus lines 42, 43 and 44. It is one of the termini of the Transilien Paris–Saint-Lazare, made up of one platform between two lines, it is served by the Grande ceinture Ouest line, towards Noisy-le-Roi and Saint-Germain-en-Laye Grande-Ceinture. A new switch has been built along the platforms of this line, handling general information on the line, from here transmitting train information in real time to five stations and travellers. Gare de Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche–Forêt de Marly at Transilien, the official website of SNCF

Monkwearmouth Station Museum

Monkwearmouth Railway Station served Monkwearmouth, England. It was built in 1848 to a design by Thomas Moore. and was once the main railway station in the city. The railway station closed in March 1967 and featured a restored booking office dating from the Edwardian period; the station was opened as a museum in 1973. The Tyne and Wear Metro and mainline trains still pass through the station without stopping, but the Metro calls at St. Peter's station a few hundred yards south of the old station, due to the platforms at Monkwearmouth being too narrow to serve as a Metro station; the museum is a Grade II* listed building. As well as the ticket office visitors can explore the Wagon Shed, Journeys Gallery and Children's Gallery; the museum was temporarily closed from August 2005 until 2007 to allow repairs and refurbishment to take place. The museum was closed on 23 May 2017 because the roof and platforms were in a poor condition; the local council has agreed to get the station back open by 2019, if funding is secured for a £3.4 million refurbishment by 12 June 2018.

The station has since reopened as a museum dedicated to football. Monkwearmouth Station Museum - official site