Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States. As of 2017, Minneapolis is the largest city in the state of Minnesota and 45th-largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 422,331; the Twin Cities metropolitan area consists of Minneapolis, its neighbor Saint Paul, suburbs which altogether contain about 3.6 million people, is the third-largest economic center in the Midwest. Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital; the city is abundantly rich in water, with 13 lakes, the Mississippi River and waterfalls. It was once a hub for timber; the city and surrounding region is the primary business center between Seattle. In 2011, Minneapolis proper was home to the fifth-highest number of Fortune 500 headquarters in the United States; as an integral link to the global economy, Minneapolis is categorized as a global city.
Minneapolis has one of the largest LGBT populations in the U. S. proportional to its overall population. Noted for its strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the award-winning Guthrie Theater and the historic First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as an epicenter of folk and alternative rock music, the city served as the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Minneapolis has become noted for its underground and independent hip-hop and rap scenes, producing artists such as Brother Ali and Dessa; the name Minneapolis is attributed to Charles Hoag, the city's first schoolmaster, who combined mni, a Dakota Sioux word for water, polis, the Greek word for city. Descendants of first peoples, Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents when French explorers arrived in 1680. For a time, amicable relations were based on fur trading. More European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans.
After the Revolutionary War, Great Britain granted the land east of the Mississippi to the United States. In the early 19th century, the United States acquired land to the west from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling, just south of present-day Minneapolis, was built in 1819 by the United States Army, it attracted traders and merchants, spurring growth in the area. The United States government pressed the Mdewakanton band of the Dakota to sell their land, allowing people arriving from the East to settle there. Preoccupied with the Civil War, the United States government reneged on its promises of cash payments to the Dakota, resulting in hunger, the Dakota War of 1862, internment and hardship; the Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank. Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867, the year rail service began between Minneapolis and Chicago, it joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872. Minneapolis developed around Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River and a source of power for its early industry.
Forests in northern Minnesota were a valuable resource for the lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, mills for cotton, paper and planing wood. Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the 1890s; the farmers of the Great Plains grew grain, shipped by rail to the city's 34 flour mills. Millers have used hydropower elsewhere since the 1st century B. C. but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were so remarkable the city has been described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has seen." A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn converted his business from gristmills to revolutionary technology, including "gradual reduction" processing by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour quickly.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre. Charles A. Pillsbury and the C. A. Pillsbury Company across the river were a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to use the new methods; the hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world. Not until did consumers discover the value in the bran that "... Minneapolis flour millers dumped" into the Mississippi. After 1883, a Minneapolis miller started a new industry when he began to sell bran byproduct as animal feed. Millers cultivated relationships with academic scientists at the University of Minnesota; those scientists backed them politically on many issues, such as in the early 20th century when health advocates in the nascent field of nutrition criticized the flour "bleaching" process. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for 12 million loaves of bread each day.
Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four
James Edward Doyle Jr. is an American lawyer and member of the Democratic Party who served as the 44th Governor of Wisconsin, serving from January 6, 2003 to January 3, 2011. He defeated incumbent Governor Scott McCallum by a margin of 45 percent to 41 percent. Although in 2002 Democrats increased their number of governorships, Doyle was the only one of them to unseat a sitting Republican governor, he is an attorney'of counsel' in the Madison, Wisconsin office of the law firm of Foley & Lardner and serves on the corporate board of Epic Systems. Jim Doyle was born on November 23, 1945, in Washington, D. C. the son of Ruth Bachhuber Doyle and James Edward Doyle, who were influential leaders of the post-1946 Democratic Party of Wisconsin. James E. Doyle Sr. ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1954 and was appointed as a federal judge in 1965. Ruth Bachhuber Doyle was the first woman from Dane County to be elected to the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1948. Doyle, who graduated from Madison West High School in 1963, attended Stanford University for three years returned home to Madison to finish his senior year at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
After graduating from college and inspired by John F. Kennedy's call to public service, Doyle worked as a teacher with his wife, Jessica Doyle in Tunisia as part of the Peace Corps from 1967 to 1969. In 1972, Doyle earned his Juris Doctor degree from Harvard Law School, he moved to the Navajo Indian Reservation in Chinle, where he worked as an attorney in a federal legal services office. Doyle is married to Jessica Laird Doyle, niece of former Congressman Melvin R. Laird, great-granddaughter of William D. Connor, Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin from 1907–1909, great-great-granddaughter of Wisconsin State Assemblyman Robert Connor, they have two adopted sons and Gabe, a daughter-in-law Carrie, a grandson Asiah, granddaughters Lily and Lucy. In 1975, Doyle returned to Madison and served three terms as Dane County District Attorney, from 1977 to 1982. After leaving that office, he spent eight years in private practice. Doyle was elected Wisconsin Attorney General in 1990, reelected in 1994 and 1998.
Between 1997 and 1998, he served as the president of the National Association of Attorneys General. During his twelve years as attorney general, Doyle was considered tough on crime, but not unsympathetic to its causes, he gained recognition as a result of several successful lawsuits against tobacco companies in the state. Doyle ran against Republican Scott McCallum, the former lieutenant governor who had assumed the office of governor in 2001 after Tommy Thompson left to become Secretary of Health and Human Services in the Bush administration; the 2002 governor's race is considered by some to have been the most negative campaign in the state's history. In response, Libertarian Ed Thompson, publicly critical of the negative campaigning of both major party candidates, who became a more viable option for some voters, garnered 10% of the vote. On election day, Doyle defeated McCallum by over four percent of the vote, becoming the first Democratic governor in the state since Anthony Earl was defeated in 1986.
Doyle was sworn in on January 2003 at the State Capitol in Madison. Doyle defeated Republican Congressman Mark Green in 2006. Doyle topped Green 53% to 45% in a year in which no incumbent Democratic governor, senator, or congressman lost their reelection bid. During the campaign, Doyle was dogged by charges that Georgia Thompson, a state employee, had steered a travel agency contract to a firm whose principals had donated $20,000 to his campaign. Thompson was sentenced to 18 months in prison; the conviction was reversed by the 7th Circuit Court of Appeals in April 2007, with one judge calling the U. S. Attorney's case "beyond thin". Doyle raised about $500,000 for a campaign fund in the first half of 2007, leading political analysts to think he would have been financially ready to run for a third-term as governor. In a speech to the state Democratic Party convention on July 6, 2007, he said, "And at the end of these four years of working together, who knows, maybe we'll need four more." He had changed his campaign website to JimDoyle2010.com, seen a further indication of a re-election run.
However, on August 17, 2009, Doyle announced. Upon Doyle's taking office, Wisconsin faced a $3.2 billion deficit. The state ended the year 2003 with a deficit of $2.15 billion. Proposals for new programs were constrained by continued budget-cutting and his decision to honor a campaign pledge to not raise taxes. Facing political pressure, he signed a property tax freeze that has resulted in an anticipated decrease in average statewide property taxes in 2003. Doyle's stated priorities were investing in public schools, including the University of Wisconsin system. In February 2007, Doyle proposed taxing oil companies more than $270 million over the next two years to help pay for the state's transportation needs; this tax did not pass in that budget and was re-introduced in the January 2009 proposed budget where it did not pass. On January 2, 2009, Doyle joined the governors of four states in urging the federal government to provide $1 trillion in aid to the country's 50 state governments to help pay for education and infrastructure as states struggled with steep budget deficits amid a deepening recession.
On May 19, 2009, Doyle proposed a 75-cent-per-pack increase in the cigarette tax, an "assessment" against oil companies to help pay for road im
National Labor Relations Board
The National Labor Relations Board is an independent agency of the Federal government of the United States with responsibilities for enforcing U. S. labor law in relation to collective bargaining and unfair labor practices. Under the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 it supervises elections for labor union representation and can investigate and remedy unfair labor practices. Unfair labor practices may involve union-related situations or instances of protected concerted activity; the NLRB is governed by a five-person board and a General Counsel, all of whom are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate. Board members are appointed to five-year terms and the General Counsel is appointed to a four-year term; the General Counsel acts as a prosecutor and the Board acts as an appellate quasi-judicial body from decisions of administrative law judges. The NLRB is headquartered at 1015 Half St. SE, Washington, D. C. with over 30 regional, sub-regional and residential offices throughout the United States.
The history of the National Labor Relations Board can be traced to enactment of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933. Section 7 of the act protected collective bargaining rights for unions, but was difficult to enforce. A massive wave of union organizing was punctuated by employer and union violence, general strikes, recognition strikes; the National Industrial Recovery Act was administered by the National Recovery Administration. At the outset, NRA Administrator Hugh S. Johnson believed that Section 7 would be self-enforcing, but the tremendous labor unrest proved him wrong. On August 5, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the establishment of the National Labor Board, under the auspices of the NRA, to implement the collective bargaining provisions of Section 7; the National Labor Board established a system of 20 regional boards to handle the immense caseload. Each regional board had a representative designated by local labor unions, local employers, a "public" representative.
All were unpaid. The public representative acted as the chair; the regional boards could propose settlements to disputes. They lacked authority to order representation elections, but this changed after Roosevelt issued additional executive orders on February 1 and February 23, 1934; the NLB, proved ineffective. Congress passed Public Resolution No. 44 on June 19, 1934, which empowered the president to appoint a new labor board with authority to issue subpoenas, hold elections, mediate labor disputes. On June 29, President Roosevelt abolished the NLB and in Executive Order 6763 established a new, three-member National Labor Relations Board. Lloyd K. Garrison was the first Chairman of the National Labor Relations Board; the "First NLRB" established organizational structures which continue at the NLRB in the 21st century. This includes the regional structure of the board. Formally, Garrison established the: Executive Office, which handled administrative activities of the national and regionalsit boards, field staff, Legal Division.
It was overseen by an Executive Secretary. Examining Division, national staff which conducted field investigations and assisted the regional boards with adjudications and representative elections. Information Division, which provided the press and public with news. Legal Division, which assisted the Department of Justice in seeking compliance with board decisions in the courts, or in responding to suits brought about by board decisions. Research Division, which studied decisions of the regional boards so that a comprehensive labor law might be developed, studied the economics of each case. Within a year, most of the jurisdiction of the "First NLRB" was stripped away, its decisions in the automobile, newspaper and steel industries proved so volatile that Roosevelt himself removed these cases from the board's jurisdiction. Several federal court decisions further limited the board's power. Senator Robert F. Wagner subsequently pushed legislation through Congress to give a statutory basis to federal labor policy that survived court scrutiny.
On July 5, 1935, a new law—the National Labor Relations Act —superseded the NIRA and established a new, long-lasting federal labor policy. The NLRA designated the National Labor Relations Board as the implementing agency; the first Chairman of the "new" NLRB was J. Warren Madden, professor of the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Madden confirmed the previous structure of the "first NLRB" by formally establishing five divisions within the agency: The Administrative Division, which oversaw all administrative activities of the national and regional boards, as well as their finances, it was led by a Secretary. The Economic Division, which analzyed economic evidence in cases and made studies of the economics of labor relations for use by the board and the courts, it was supervised by a Chief Industrial Economist. The Legal Division, which handled NLRB decisions which were appealed to the courts, or cases where the NLRB sought enforcement of its decisions; the position of General Counsel was created to oversee this division.
There were two subdivisions: The Litigation Section, which advised the national and regional boards, prepared briefs, worked with the Justice Department.
The United Steel and Forestry, Manufacturing, Allied Industrial and Service Workers International Union known as United Steelworkers, is a general trade union with 860,294 members across North America. Headquartered in Pittsburgh, the United Steelworkers represents workers in Canada, the Caribbean and the United States; the United Steelworkers represent workers in a diverse range of industries, including primary and fabricated metals, glass, heavy-duty conveyor belting, transportation, container industries, call centers and health care. The United Steelworkers is affiliated with the AFL–CIO in the United States and the Canadian Labour Congress in Canada as well as several international union federations. On July 2, 2008, the United Steelworkers signed an agreement to merge with the United Kingdom and Ireland based union, Unite, to form a new global union entity called Workers Uniting; the current International President of the United Steelworkers is Leo Gerard, who has served as president since 2001.
Rank-and-file members, as well as representatives, of the United Steelworkers refer to themselves, are most referred to, as Steelworkers. The use of the capitalized single word "Steelworker" or "Steelworkers", as opposed to the lower-case two worded "steel worker" or "steel workers", is an identifier of those who are part of, or affiliated with, the United Steelworkers International Union rather than being general non-union workers within the steel industry; this distinction is important in North America wherein a vast majority of the steel industry is unionized. For example, some of the most recognizable and largest companies in the business such as United States Steel and the largest steel company in the world, ArcelorMittal, with their combined hourly workforces at facilities in North America being Steelworkers and represented by the USW, including the largest facilities on the continent, like U. S. Steel's Gary Works in Gary, ArcelorMittal's Burns Harbor in Burns Harbor, Indiana Harbor East and West in Northwest Indiana, Cleveland Plant in Cleveland, all of which are situated on the Great Lakes freshwater system.
On the other hand, only a handful of smaller companies at facilities known as "mini-mills", like Nucor Steel and its facility in Crawfordsville, are non-union shops not represented by the United Steelworkers. The USW was established May 22, 1942, in Cleveland, through the Congress of Industrial Organizations by a convention of representatives from the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Tin Workers and the Steel Workers Organizing Committee, after six years of divisive struggles to create a new union of steelworkers; the drive to create this union included such violent incidents as the infamous Memorial Day, 1937, when Chicago policemen supporting the rival American Federation of Labor fired on workers outside a Republic Steel mill and killed 10 men. The founder and first president of the USW, Philip Murray, led the union through its first organizing drives and dangerous first decade, when the workers of USW went on strike several times to win the right to bargain collectively with steel companies.
Through collective bargaining they paid vacations. The 46,000 members of the Aluminum Workers of America voted to merge with the budding steelworker union, the USW in June 1944. Eight more unions joined the USW as well: the International Union of Mine and Smelter Workers. In June 2004, the USW announced a merger with the 57,000 member Industrial and Allied Workers of Canada, a major Canadian forestry workers union. In 2005, it announced an larger merger with the Paper, Allied-Industrial and Energy Workers International Union; the resulting new union adopted its current name after the PACE merger. In September 2006, the Independent Oil Workers Union of Aruba, which represents refinery workers on the Caribbean island of Aruba, affiliated with the United Steelworkers, becoming the first USW union local outside of the US and Canada. In April 2007, the USW merged with the Independent Steelworkers Union, adding 1,150 members at Arcelor-Mittal's Weirton, West Virginia steel mill. In addition to mergers, the USW has formed strategic alliances with several other unions as well as other groups.
In April 2005, the USW and the Alliance of Canadian Cinema and Radio Artists announced that they had formed a strategic alliance to take on the globalization of the culture industry and to address a range of common issues. In July 2006, the USW announced a similar arrangement with the United Transportation Union, to address common issues in the transportation industry, including the globalization of the industry. In July 2007, the USW inked yet another strategic alliance with the Canadian Region of the Communications Workers of America. Beyond its affiliations with other unions, in June 2006, the USW announced the formation of a'Blue-Green Alliance' with the Sierra Club, the largest grassroots environmental organization in the United States; the goal of this new partnership is to pursue a joint public policy agenda reconci
Verona is a city in Dane County, Wisconsin, in the United States and is a suburb of Madison. The population was 10,619 at the 2010 census; the city is located ten miles southwest of downtown Madison within the Town of Verona. It is part of the Madison Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town was named for New York. It was incorporated as a village in 1921 and as a city in 1978. Verona is located at 42°59′23″N 89°32′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.36 square miles, of which, 6.30 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Notable geographical features include the Verona Sugar River Valley, the Badger Mill Creek, the Sugar River State Trail. A portion of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail runs through Verona. On July 22, 2010, a tornado rated. On June 9, 2011, an EF1 tornado struck Verona, with winds peaking around 90 mph. On the night of June 16, 2014 an EF3 tornado tore through Country View Elementary School and surrounding neighborhoods. No one was hurt by the tornado and the school was rebuilt before school started in the fall.
As of the census of 2010, there were 10,619 people, 4,223 households, 2,845 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,685.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,461 housing units at an average density of 708.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.3% White, 1.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.7% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were 4,223 households of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.6% were non-families. 27.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age in the city was 37.4 years. 29% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.6 % female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,052 people, 2,591 households, 1,873 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,156.3 people per square mile. There were 2,664 housing units at an average density of 814.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.46% White, 0.62% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 0.85% from two or more races. 0.71 % of the population were Latino of any race. Jewish population reaches 3 percent of total city population. There were 2,591 households out of which 45.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families. 21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.16. In the city, the population was spread out with 31.4% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $65,367, the median income for a family was $71,098. Males had a median income of $46,919 versus $32,296 for females; the per capita income for the city was $26,433. About 2.0% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. In 2006, Verona opened a new public library; the Prairie School-style facility has views of Badger Prairie Park. The land for the new building was negotiated as a trade with Dane County for the installation of water pipes in the park; the area is served by the Verona Area School District which includes the following schools: Verona Area High School Badger Ridge Middle School Savanna Oaks Middle School Verona Area Core Knowledge Charter School Country View Elementary School Glacier Edge Elementary School New Century Charter School Stoner Prairie Elementary School Sugar Creek Elementary School Verona Area International School Epic Systems, a medical information systems company, is headquartered in Verona.
City of Verona
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Governor of Wisconsin
The Governor of Wisconsin is the highest executive authority in the government of the U. S. state of Wisconsin. The position was first filled by Nelson Dewey on June 1848, the year Wisconsin became a state. Prior to statehood, there were four Governors of Wisconsin Territory; the current governor is Tony Evers, a Democrat who took office on January 7, 2019. The governor of Wisconsin is responsible for ensuring that the laws of Wisconsin are carried out, is required to "communicate to the legislature, at every session, the condition of the state, recommend such matters to them for their consideration as he may deem expedient."Any bill passed by the Wisconsin State Legislature must be presented to the governor, who either signs it into law, or vetoes it. In the event of a veto, the bill is returned the legislature, who may vote to override the veto. In 1930, the Wisconsin Constitution was amended to give the governor line-item veto power, which allows portions of appropriations bills to be struck out without rejecting the entire bill.
The partial veto may still be overridden by the legislature. In 1990 a further amendment specified that the line-item veto does not give the governor power to veto individual letters of appropriations bills, thereby forming new words; the governor is the commander-in-chief of the militia of the state. If it is deemed necessary, the governor may convene extraordinary sessions of the state legislature; the governor has the power to pardon or commute sentences or grant reprieves thereto, except in cases of treason or impeachment. In cases of treason, the governor may suspend the carrying out of the sentence until the next session of the legislature, who vote to grant a pardon, commutation or reprieve, or to carry out the sentence; the governor of Wisconsin is elected in a direct election—the candidate with the most votes becomes governor. In the event that two candidates receive an equal number of votes, higher than that received by any other candidate, the members of the state legislature vote between the two at their next session.
In order to be eligible for the office of governor of Wisconsin, a candidate must be a citizen of the United States and a qualified voter in the state of Wisconsin. Under the original Wisconsin Constitution, governors were elected for a term of two years. There is no limit to the number of terms; the governor may be removed from office through a recall election. An impeachment trial is carried out by the Wisconsin State Assembly, if a majority of its members agree to the impeachment. A governor may choose to resign from office. Four governors have resigned for various reasons, none have been removed from office through impeachment, although Arthur MacArthur, Sr. who, as lieutenant governor, became acting governor upon the resignation of William Barstow in 1856, was removed after the Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that Barstow's opponent in the previous election, Coles Bashford, was the election's legitimate winner. In 2012, Scott Walker became the only governor in Wisconsin history to face a recall election.
He retained his seat, defeating Milwaukee mayor Tom Barrett by seven percentage points, a margin one point greater than that of the 2010 election, becoming the first governor in American history to survive a recall attempt. The state constitution specified that the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin were voted upon separately, but in 1967, the constitution was amended to state that they were elected together. Prior to this amendment, there were nine incidents in which the elected governor and lieutenant governor were not of the same political party; the state constitution only said that in the event of the impeachment, removal from office, resignation or absence of the governor, or in the event of the governor being unfit to serve due to illness, "the powers and duties of the office shall devolve upon the lieutenant governor" for the remainder of the term or until the governor is able to return to office. In 1979, the constitution was amended to specify that in the event of the governor's death, resignation or removal from office, the lieutenant governor becomes governor for the remainder of the term, but in the event of impeachment, incapacitation or absence, the lieutenant governor becomes "acting governor" until the governor can return to his duties.
The original constitution specified that in any of the aforementioned events the Secretary of State would become governor if the lieutenant governorship was vacant, but after 1979 this provision, was amended to distinguish between "governor" and "acting governor." There have been 44 Governors of 45 individual governorships. One governor, Philip La Follette, served non-consecutive terms. Four parties have had their candidates elected governor: the Democratic, the Whig, the Republican and the Progressive; the longest-serving governor was Tommy Thompson, from January 5, 1987 until February 1, 2001, a total of 14 years and 28 days. Four governors have resigned: William Barstow due to fraud allegations, Robert La Follette, Sr. to take his seat in the United States Senate, Patrick Joseph Lucey to become Ambassador to Mexico, Tommy Thompson to become United States Secret