The Eddystone Lighthouse is a lighthouse, located on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, 9 statute miles south of Rame Head in England. While Rame Head is in Cornwall, the rocks are submerged below the surface of the sea and composed of Precambrian gneiss; the current structure is the fourth to be built on the site. The first and second were destroyed by fire respectively; the third known as Smeaton's Tower, is the best known because of its influence on lighthouse design and its importance in the development of concrete for building. Its upper portions have been re-erected in Plymouth as a monument; the first lighthouse, completed in 1699, was the world's first open ocean lighthouse although the Cordouan lighthouse preceded it as the first offshore lighthouse. The Eddystone Rocks are an extensive reef 12 miles SSW off Plymouth Sound, one of the most important naval harbours of England, midway between Lizard Point and Start Point, they are submerged at high spring tides and were so feared by mariners entering the English Channel that they hugged the coast of France to avoid the danger, which thus resulted not only in shipwrecks locally, but on the rocks of the north coast of France and the Channel Islands.
Given the difficulty of gaining a foothold on the rocks in the predominant swell it was a long time before anyone attempted to place any warning on them. The first lighthouse on Eddystone Rocks was an octagonal wooden structure built by Henry Winstanley; the lighthouse was the first recorded instance of an offshore lighthouse. Construction started in 1696 and the light was lit on 14 November 1698. During construction, a French privateer took Winstanley prisoner and destroyed the work done so far on the foundations, causing Louis XIV to order Winstanley's release with the words "France is at war with England, not with humanity"; the lighthouse survived its first winter but was in need of repair, was subsequently changed to a dodecagonal stone clad exterior on a timber framed construction with an octagonal top section as can be seen in the drawings or paintings. The octagonal top section was 15 ft high and 11 ft in diameter, its eight windows each made up of 36 individual glass panes, it was lit by'60 candles at a time, besides a great hanging lamp'.
Winstanley's tower lasted until the Great Storm of 1703 erased all trace on 27 November. Winstanley was on the lighthouse. No trace was found of the other five men in the lighthouse; the cost of construction and five years' maintenance totalled £7,814 7s.6d, during which time dues totalling £4,721 19s.3d had been collected at one penny per ton from passing vessels. Following the destruction of the first lighthouse, Captain John Lovett acquired the lease of the rock, by Act of Parliament was allowed to charge passing ships a toll of one penny per ton, he commissioned John Rudyard to design the new lighthouse, built as a conical wooden structure around a core of brick and concrete. The vertical wooden planks which sheathed the structure were installed by two master-shipwrights and caulked like those of a ship. A light was first shone from the tower on 28 July 1708 and the work was completed in 1709; the light was provided by 24 candles. This proved more durable. On the night of 2 December 1755, the top of the lantern caught fire through a spark from one of the candles used to illuminate the light, or else through a fracture in the chimney which passed through the lantern from the stove in the kitchen below.
The three keepers threw water upwards from a bucket but were driven onto the rock and were rescued by boat as the tower burnt down. Keeper Henry Hall, 94 at the time, died several days from ingesting molten lead from the lantern roof. A report on this case was submitted to the Royal Society by physician Edward Spry, the piece of lead is now in the collections of the National Museums of Scotland; the third lighthouse marked a major step forward in the design of such structures. Recommended by the Royal Society, civil engineer John Smeaton modelled the shape on an oak tree, the foundations and outside structure built of local Cornish granite, lighter Portland limestone masonry used on the inside, he pioneered'hydraulic lime', a concrete that cured under water, developed a technique of securing the blocks using dovetail joints and marble dowels. Construction started in 1756 at Millbay and the light was first lit on 16 October 1759. Smeaton's lighthouse was 59 feet high and had a diameter at the base of 26 feet and at the top of 17 feet.
It was lit by a chandelier of 24 large tallow candles. In 1807 the 100-year lease on the lighthouse expired, whereupon ownership and management devolved to Trinity House. In 1810 they replaced the chandelier and candles with parabolic reflectors. In 1841 major renovations were made, under the direction of engineer Henry Norris of Messrs. Walker & Burges, including complete repointing, replacement water tanks and filling of a large cavity in the rock close to the foundations. In 1845 the lighthouse was equipped with a new second-order fixed catadioptric optic, manufactured by Henry Lepaute of Paris, with a single multi-wick oil lamp, replacing the old lamps and reflectors. Smeaton's lighthouse remained in use until 1877 when erosion to the rocks under the lighthouse caused it to shake from side to side whenever large waves hit. After decommissioning it was rebuilt on P
Notre Dame Law School is the professional graduate law program of its parent institution, the University of Notre Dame. Established in 1869, NDLS is ranked 21st among the nation's "Top 100 Law Schools" by U. S. News & World Report and 20th by Above The Law in their annual Top 50 Law School Rankings It is ranked 8th in graduates attaining federal judicial clerkships and 17th in graduates attaining Supreme Court clerkships. According to Notre Dame's 2018 ABA-required disclosures, 82% of the Class of 2018 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment ten months after graduation. 35.6% of the Class of 2018 accepted positions at Large Firms, while 7.8% accepted Federal Clerkships. 17.1% of the Class of 2018 Graduates accepted public service positions. It offers the only American Bar Association–approved, year-long, study-abroad program, based in London. Notre Dame Law School opened in February 1869. Despite its humble beginning, right from the start, the Law School required law students to have completed previous education in a thorough course in the liberal arts.
This was uncommon at the time when Law School applicants only had to be 18. The first faculty consisted of only four professors, with the most prominent being Lucius Tong and Timothy Howard; the first class consisted of three students. One of the most important names in the history of the school was "Colonel" William J. Hoynes, he emigrated with his parents at age seven. He fought for the Union Army during the American Civil War. After the war, he was a student at Notre Dame from 1867 to 1872, went to Brunswick, New Jersey where he was editor of the Daily Times. Hoynes attended the University of Michigan Law School where he obtained his LL. B. In 1882, Rev. Walsh the president of the University, invited Hoynes to take control of the Law School, in demise. Hoynes accepted Rev. Walsh's offer in 1883, taught classes in the Main Administration Building and in Sorin Hall where a large room permitted him to set up a "Moot Court"; the course of study was extended from two to three years. Hoynes was assisted in various subjects by Lucius Hubbard of South Bend.
Under his tenure, enrollment in the law school began to rise immediately. Hoynes Hall, named in honor of Dean William Hoynes, was built in 1920 for the exclusive use of the law students, using Sorin Hall. In 1925 John Whitman was appointed by Dean Thomas Konop as the first law librarian, the collection grew to 7,000 volumes. On October 7, 1930, the Law School was transferred to the new building located on Notre Dame Avenue; the beautiful Gothic building, which still stands today, has a large reading room. The second librarian, Lora Lashbrook, the third, Marie Lawrence, grew the library's collection to 20,000 volumes by 1952, 55,000 volumes by 1960; the increase of both the library collection and student population reduced the available space. Regardless, this was balanced by the expansion of the law school funded by a donation from S. S. Kresge, the namesake of the Kresge Law Library. In 1986 a further expansion created the reference librarian offices. In 1990 alumnus John F. Sandner donated funding for the acquisition of the entire 120,000 volume collection of the Chicago Bar Association Library.
In 1970, Graciela Olivarez became Latina to graduate from Notre Dame Law School. The next class to graduate women would be 1973. In 2004, the Kresge Law Library became one of the few academic law libraries to own more than 600,000 volumes; this was accomplished under the tenure of the fifth law librarian, Roger Jacobs, who served as head librarian of the Library of the United States Supreme Court. Between 2007 and 2008, a new building, the Eck Hall of Law, was constructed to provide the Law School with an additional 85,000 square feet of classroom and office space. In 2010 Robert Biolchini and entrepreneur from Tulsa, funded the renovation of the Kresge Law Library, located in the renamed Biolchini Hall of Law; the renovated Biolchini Hall is 106,500 square feet, has two 50-seat classrooms, a seminar room, 29 group study rooms, holds 300,000 book volumes and more than 300,000 volumes in microfilm. The total cost of renovations and expansions was 58 million dollars. In recent years, the expanding Notre Dame Law faculty has attracted several accomplished scholars from other top law schools.
In 2009, University of Virginia Law School Professor Stephen Smith left a tenured position to join the Notre Dame Law faculty. In 2012, Professor Barry Cushman, the James Monroe Distinguished Professor of Law and Professor of History at the University of Virginia, joined the NDLS faculty. In 2017, it was announced that private law theorist Paul Miller from McGill University would join the Notre Dame faculty. Samuel Bray, a remedies theorist teaching at UCLA law, joined the faculty in 2018. During the same period, long-time Notre Dame professors have been invited for visiting faculty positions at Harvard, the University of Michigan and the University of Chicago law schools. In 2013, new space was secured for the Notre Dame Law in Chicago program, which allows ND Law students to pursue their studies from an urban campus in downtown Chicago. In 2015, in partnership with Kirkland & Ellis, the law school debuted its Notre Dame Law in DC program, which allows students to spend a semester studying in Washington, DC.
Admission to Notre Dame Law School is selective. For the class entering in the fall of 2018, the median LSAT score was 165 and the median undergraduate GPA was 3.71. Notre Dame Law School is ranked 21st among the nation's "Top 100 Law Schools" by U. S
The 2si 808 is a family of in-line three cylinder, liquid-cooled, two-stroke, dual ignition, aircraft engines that were designed for ultralight aircraft. The basic engine was designed and produced by JLO-Motorenwerke of Germany and was acquired by the AMW Cuyuna Engine Company of Beaufort, South Carolina and marketed under the Cuyuna brand name; the engine was marketed by Cuyuna under the Two Stroke International brand. Cuyuna no longer markets engines for aircraft use and the 808 is out of production; the 808 is a conventional three-cylinder engine that weighs 130 lb in its L95 and L100 aircraft versions. The engine features dual capacitor discharge ignition, liquid cooling, fuel pump, a cast iron cylinder liner, ball and roller bearings throughout; the aircraft version was offered with an optional gearbox reduction system. Starting is electric starter only. 808 L95 Gasoline aircraft engine with three carburetors, 95 hp at 7000 rpm, weight 130 lb, out of production. 808 L100 Gasoline aircraft engine with three carburetors, 100 hp at 7000 rpm, weight 130 lb, out of production.
Bede BD-5 Reflex Lightning Bug Rowley P-40F Data from Aerocrafter Type: Three cylinder, two-stroke aircraft engine Dry weight: 130 lb Fuel type: Minimum 92 octane Oil system: premixed oil and fuel Cooling system: liquid cooled Reduction gear: gearbox Power output: 100 hp at 7000 rpm List of aircraft engines Hirth F-30 Rotax 618