Smithville is a city in DeKalb County, United States. The population was 4,530 at the 2010 census, up from 3,994 at the 2000 census, it is the county seat of DeKalb County. Smithville is home to the Smithville Fiddler's Jamboree, which it has hosted annually since 1972. Smithville is located in central DeKalb County at 35°57′26″N 85°49′15″W. U. S. Route 70 passes through the town as Broad Street, leading east 21 miles to Sparta and northwest 36 miles to Lebanon. Tennessee State Route 56 crosses US 70 a few blocks southeast of the center of town and leads north 13 miles to Interstate 40 at Silver Point and 19 miles south to McMinnville. Cookeville is 28 miles to the northeast, Nashville is 65 miles to the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.9 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,994 people, 1,675 households, 1,065 families residing in the city; the population density was 679.4 people per square mile. There were 1,837 housing units at an average density of 312.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 94.34% White, 2.73% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 1.65% from other races, 1.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.06% of the population. There were 1,675 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,482, the median income for a family was $30,179.
Males had a median income of $29,231 versus $20,705 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,854. About 15.4% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.3% of those under age 18 and 25.8% of those age 65 or over. Smithville is referred to by a local-boy Marine talking to a girl and pointing to labels on a map during a dance hall scene, 17 minutes into the 1949 World War II John Wayne film, Sands of Iwo Jima, where it is mentioned, apart from everybody in his family being related to much of Tennessee, as being famous for "corn tobacco" and "more fertilizer than any other place in the world". Joe L. Evins helped start the world-famous Smithville Fiddler's Crafts Festival; the first Jamboree was held in July 1972 on a stage built on the steps of the DeKalb County Courthouse, has been held there annually on the weekend nearest to July 4. The first Jamboree attracted 714 musicians from 16 states, was attended by an estimated audience of 8,000.
Present day audiences are estimated to be well over 100,000 from all over the U. S. and many from abroad. Bob Allen, Major League Baseball pitcher John Anderson, country music singer James Edgar Evins, Tennessee state senator, mayor of Smithville for 16 years. Joe L. Evins, U. S. representative Alan Jackson, country music singer.
Tilia americana is a species of tree in the family Malvaceae, native to eastern North America, from southeast Manitoba east to New Brunswick, southwest to northeast Oklahoma, southeast to South Carolina, west along the Niobrara River to Cherry County, Nebraska. Common names include American American linden; the tree has never prospered there, being prone to dieback. The American basswood is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 18 to 37 m exceptionally 39 m with a trunk diameter of 1–1.5 m at maturity. It grows faster than many North American hardwoods twice the annual growth rate of American beech and many birch species. Life expectancy is around 200 years, with flowering and seeding occurring between 15 and 100 years, though seed production may start as early as 8 years; the crown is domed, the branches spreading pendulous. The bark is gray to light brown, with narrow, well defined fissures; the roots are large and spreading. The twigs are smooth, reddish-green, becoming light gray in their second year dark brown or brownish gray, marked with dark wart-like excrescences.
The winter buds are stout, ovate-acute, deep red, with two bud scales visible. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged, ovate to cordate, unequal at the base, 10–15 cm long and broad, with a long, slender petiole, a coarsely serrated margin and an acuminate apex. Bean noted that enormous leaves measuring 38 cm or 15 in long by 25 cm or 10 in wide appear on thick, succulent shoots, they open from the bud conduplicate, pale green, downy. The fall color is yellow-green to yellow. Both the twigs and leaves contain mucilaginous sap; the flowers are small, yellowish-white, 10–14 mm in diameter, arranged in drooping, cymose clusters of 6–20 with a whitish-green leaf-like bract attached for half its length at the base of the cyme. They are perfect, with five sepals and petals, numerous stamens, a five-celled superior ovary. Flowering is in early to mid summer; the fruit is a small, downy and dry cream-colored nutlet with a diameter of 8–10 mm. American basswood is dominant in the sugar maple–basswood forest association, most common in western Wisconsin and central Minnesota, but occurs as far east as New England and southern Quebec in places that have mesic soil with high pH.
It has minor occurrence in many other forest cover types. Its flowers provide abundant nectar for insects; the seeds are eaten by chipmunks and squirrels. Rabbits and voles eat the bark, sometimes girdling young trees; the leaves serve as food for caterpillars of various Lepidoptera. The ribbed cocoon maker species Bucculatrix improvisa has not been found on other plants; this species is susceptible to adult Japanese beetles that feed on its leaves. The American basswood can be propagated by cuttings and grafting as well as by seed. Propagated plants grow in a rich soil, but are susceptible to many pests; the American basswood is known for being one of the most difficult native North American trees to propagate from seed, as they not only have a low viability rate, but develop an hard seed coating that may delay germination for up to two years. If planting them, it is recommended to gather the seeds in early autumn and sow them before they dry out and form a coating; this will allow germination to occur immediately.
Overall, seeds are not a major part of the tree's reproductive strategy and it instead spreads by self-coppicing. All juvenile basswoods coppice readily, old trees will sprout from the stump if cut; the American basswood is recommended as an ornamental tree when the mass of foliage or a deep shade is desired. It is planted on the windward side of an orchard as a protection to young and delicate trees, it is cultivated at least as far north as Alaska. The foliage and flowers are both edible, it is a beneficial species for attracting pollinators as well. Bees produce excellent honey with a mildly spicy flavor from its blossoms. Cultivars include'Nova','Duros', the pyramidal'Frontyard' and the conic-crowned'Redmond'; the wood is sometimes nearly white or faintly tinged with red. It has a poor steam-bending classification, it can take stains and polish without difficulty and it planes, glues and nails well. It is sold under the name basswood, but is sometimes confounded with tulip-wood and called white-wood, is used in the manufacture of wooden-ware, wagon boxes and furniture.
It has a density of 0.4525. The wood is considered odorless; this makes it valuable in the manufacture of wooden-ware, cheap furniture, bodies of carriages. The inner bark is tough and fibrous, used in the past for making ropes, it is a common wood for use in the production of solid-body electric guitars, where it is considered an analogue for aspen and poplar, because it is light and resonant, though it is used for guitars that will be pa
Acer saccharum, the sugar maple or rock maple, is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of eastern Canada, from Nova Scotia west through southern Quebec and southern Ontario to southeastern Manitoba around Lake of the Woods, the northern parts of the Central and Eastern United States, from Minnesota eastward to the highlands of the upper eastern states and the interior Midwest. Sugar maple is best known for its bright fall foliage and for being the primary source of maple syrup. Acer saccharum is a deciduous tree reaching heights of 25–35 m, exceptionally up to 45 m. A 10-year-old tree is about 5 m tall; when healthy, the sugar maple can live for over 400 years. The leaves are deciduous, up to 20 cm long and wide, with five palmate lobes; the basal lobes are small, while the upper lobes are larger and notched. In contrast with the angular notching of the silver maple, the notches tend to be rounded at their interior; the fall color is spectacular, ranging from bright yellow on some trees through orange to fluorescent red-orange on others.
Sugar maples have a tendency to color unevenly in fall. In some trees, all colors above can be seen at the same time, they share a tendency with red maples for certain parts of a mature tree to change color weeks ahead of or behind the remainder of the tree. The leaf buds are brown-colored; the recent year's growth twigs are green, turn dark brown. The flowers are in panicles of five to 10 together, yellow-green and without petals; the sugar maple will begin flowering when it is between 10 and 15 years old. The fruit is a pair of samaras; the seeds are globose, 7 -- 10 mm in the wing 2 -- 3 cm long. The seeds fall from the tree in autumn, where they must be exposed to 45 days of temperatures below 4 °C to break their coating down. Germination of A. saccharum is slow, not taking place until the following spring when the soil has warmed and all frost danger is past. It is related to the black maple, sometimes included in this species, but sometimes separated as Acer nigrum; the western American bigtooth maple is treated as a variety or subspecies of sugar maple by some botanists.
The sugar maple can be confused with the Norway maple, not native to America but is planted in cities and suburbs, they are not related within the genus. The sugar maple is most identified by clear sap in the leaf petiole, sharp-tipped buds, shaggy bark on older trees; the leaf lobes of the sugar maple have a more triangular shape, in contrast to the squarish lobes of the Norway maple. Although many people think a red sugar maple leaf is featured on the flag of Canada, the official maple leaf does not belong to any particular maple species; the sugar maple is an important species to the ecology of many forests in the northern United States and Canada. Pure stands are common, it is a major component of the northern and Midwestern U. S. hardwood forests. Sugar maple is native to areas with cooler climates. In northern parts of its range, January temperatures average about −18 °C and July temperatures about 16 °C. Acer saccharum is among the most shade tolerant of large deciduous trees, its shade tolerance is exceeded only by a smaller tree.
Like other maples, its shade tolerance is manifested in its ability to germinate and persist under a closed canopy as an understory plant, respond with rapid growth to the increased light formed by a gap in the canopy. The sugar maple can grow comfortably in any type of soil except sand. Sugar maples engage in hydraulic lift, drawing water from lower soil layers and exuding that water into upper, drier soil layers; this not only benefits the tree itself, but many other plants growing around it. Human influences have contributed to the decline of the sugar maple in many regions, its role as a species of mature forests has led it to be replaced by more opportunistic species in areas where forests are cut over. Climate change has contributed to the decline of the sugar maple by pushing the suitable habitat range for the trees further north, where temperatures are cooler; this has resulted in a gradual northward migration of the species. The sugar maple exhibits a greater susceptibility to pollution than other species of maple.
Acid rain and soil acidification are some of the primary contributing factors to maple decline. The increased use of salt over the last several decades on streets and roads for deicing purposes has decimated the sugar maple's role as a street tree. In some parts of New England near urbanized areas, the sugar maple is being displaced by the Norway maple; the Norway maple is highly shade tolerant, but is more tolerant of urban conditions, resulting in the sugar maple's replacement in those areas. In addition, Norway maple produces much larger crops of seeds, allowing it to out-compete native species; the sugar maple is one of the most important Canadian trees, with the black maple, the major source of sap for making maple syrup. Ot
Manhattan Project National Historical Park
Manhattan Project National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park commemorating the Manhattan Project, run jointly by the National Park Service and Department of Energy. The park consists of three units: one in Oak Ridge, one in Los Alamos, New Mexico and one in Hanford, Washington, it was established on November 10, 2015 when Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell and Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz signed the memorandum of agreement that defined the roles that the two agencies had when managing the park. The Department of Energy had owned and managed most of the properties located within the three different sites. For over ten years, the DoE worked with the National Park Service and federal and local governments and agencies with the intention of turning places of importance into a National Historical Park. After several years of surveying the three sites and five other possible alternatives, the two agencies recommended a historical park be established in Hanford, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge.
The Department of Energy would continue to manage and own the sites while the National Park Service would provide interpretive services, visitor centers and park rangers. After two unsuccessful attempts at passing a bill in Congress authorizing the park in 2012 and 2013, the House and Senate passed the bill in December 2014, with President Obama signing the National Defense Authorization Act shortly thereafter which authorized the Manhattan Project National Historical Park; the Manhattan Project National Historical Park protects many structures associated with the Manhattan Project, but only some are open for touring. B Reactor National Historic Landmark – bus tours are available by advance reservation the previous Hanford High School in the former Town of Hanford and Hanford Construction Camp Historic District Bruggemann's Agricultural Warehouse Complex White Bluffs Bank and Hanford Irrigation District Pump House The Los Alamos visitor center for the Manhattan Project NHP is located at 475 20th Street in downtown Los Alamos.
This location is open daily 9-4 staffing permitting. It is in the Los Alamos Community Building on the front left as you face the building from the street. At the visitor center, visitors can learn about the Manhattan Project and related sites in the vicinity. There are 3 locations of park; these locations are not open to the public: Gun Site Facilities: three bunkered buildings, a portable guard shack. V-Site Facilities: TA-16-516 and TA-16-517 V-Site Assembly Building Pajarito Site: TA-18-1 Slotin Building, TA-8-2 Battleship Control Building, the TA-18-29 Pond Cabin; the American Museum of Science and Energy provides bus tours of several buildings in the Clinton Engineer Works including the: X-10 Graphite Reactor Buildings 9731 and 9204-3 at the Y-12 complex East Tennessee Technology Park, located on the site of the K-25 Building Official National Park Service website: Manhattan Project National Historical Park Official Department of Energy website: Manhattan Project National Historical Park
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long river drains 18,000 square miles of southern Kentucky and north-central Tennessee; the river flows west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork and Red rivers. Although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the river system has been extensively developed for flood control, with major dams impounding both the main stem and many of its important tributaries, its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in Baxter, KY, located in Harlan County. Martin's Fork starts near Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, flows west in parallel with Kentucky Route 38 until it reaches Harlan.
Clover Fork once flowed through downtown Harlan and merged with Martins Fork at the intersection of Kentucky Route 38 and US Route 421 until a flood control project began in 1992 diverted it through a tunnel under Little Black Mountain from which it emerges in Baxter and converges with Martins Fork. Poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Virginia, it flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the other two forks in Baxter. From there, the wider, now named Cumberland River continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky before turning northward toward Cumberland Falls; the 68-foot falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen. Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and streams, it receives the Laurel and Rockcastle rivers from the northeast and the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south.
From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam. The more than 100-mile reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US. Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River and Caney Fork. Northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake; the river turns northwest toward Clarksville, where it is joined by the Red River, flows back into Kentucky at the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, a section of land nestled between Lake Barkley, fed by the Cumberland River, Kentucky Lake. The river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah; the explorer Thomas Walker of Virginia in 1758 named the river, but whether for the Duke of Cumberland or the English county of Cumberland is not known. The Cumberland River was called Wasioto by the Shawnee Native Americans.
French traders called it the Riviere des Chaouanons, or "River of the Shawnee" for this association. The river was known as the Shawnee River for years after Walker's trip. Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River supported riverboat trade, which traveled to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Villages and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers as the primary transportation routes for trading and travel. In more recent history, a number of severe floods have struck various regions that the river flows through. In April 1977, Harlan and many surrounding communities were inundated with floodwaters, destroying most of the homes and businesses within the floodplain of the river; this event led to the building of the Martins Fork Dam for flood control and the diversion of the Clover Fork around the city of Harlan. In addition, the river was diverted through a mountain cut in Kentucky.
In late April and early May 2010, due to the 2010 Tennessee floods, the river overflowed its banks and flooded Nashville and Clarksville, Tennessee. The downtown area was ordered to evacuate. Quadrula tuberosa — Cumberland River endemic'Rough rockshell' freshwater mussel. List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Kentucky List of rivers of Tennessee Media related to Cumberland River at Wikimedia Commons "Cumberland River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Cumberland River". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Fraxinus americana, the white ash or American ash, is a species of ash tree native to eastern and central North America. It is found in mesophytic hardwood forests from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota, south to northern Florida, southwest to eastern Texas. Isolated populations have been found in western Texas and Colorado, the species is naturalized in Hawaii. There are an estimated 8 billion ash trees – the majority being the white ash trees and the green ash trees; the name white ash derives from the glaucous undersides of the leaves. It is similar in appearance to the green ash; the lower sides of the leaves of white ash are lighter in color than their upper sides, the outer surface of the twigs of white ash may be flaky or peeling. Green ash leaves are similar in color on upper and lower sides, twigs are smoother. Despite some overlap, the two species tend to grow in different locations as well, its compound leaves more than not have 7 leaflets per leaf whereas other ash trees are more diverse.
White ash is one of the most used trees for everyday purposes and, to keep up with high demand, is cultivated everywhere it can be. The wood is white and quite dense and straight-grained, its species produces an Apical dominant Excurrent structured crown. And traditional timber of choice for production of baseball bats and tool handles; the wood is favorable for furniture and flooring. Woodworkers use the timber for interior uses due to high perishability in contact with ground soil, it is used to make lobster traps. Since the 1950s, it has become a popular choice for solid electric guitar bodies, it makes a serviceable longbow if properly worked. The wood was used in ceiling fan blades from the 1970s through the mid-1980s, though cane was sometimes simulated with plastic then, it is no longer used for ceiling fan blades in most countries. White ash is not seen in cultivation as as green ash due to its preference for undisturbed forest sites away from urban pollution and soil compaction, but sometimes has been planted for its reliably autumn colors, which are bright orange and red hues as opposed to other species of ash that produce a uniform yellow color.
Cultivation of White Ash differs across North American continent. For example, within City of Chicago region. 2010 Statistics show most common street tree species is White Ash at 6.2%. Along with third ranked Green type at 4.9%, Ashes combine to make up 11% percent of cities street trees. Along with overall population of 13,648,044 Million standing Ashes within Cook county alone. Autumn Purple, or Junginger. A wild Variety of American White Ash selected for its Purple leaf color. Had been discovered by University of Wisconsin Horticulturist Karl Junginger of McKay nursery, Iowa, and after its introduction in 1956, it became the Most popular and most expensive landscape selection. Surpassing the high priced Ginkgo, London Plane & White/Burr Oak. A related species, Biltmore ash, is sometimes treated as a variety of white ash. However, other taxonomists argue. North American native ash tree species are used by North American frogs as a critical food source, as the leaves that fall from the trees are suitable for tadpoles to feed upon in ponds, large puddles, other water sources.
Species such as red maple, which are taking the place of ash, due to the ash borer, are much less suitable for the frogs as a food source — resulting in poor frog survival rates and small frog sizes. It is the lack of tannins in the American ash variety that makes them good for the frogs as a food source and not resistant to the ash borer. Varieties of ash from outside North America have much higher tannin levels and resist the borer. Maples and various non-native invasive trees, trees that are taking the place of American ash species in the North American ecosystem have much higher leaf tannin levels. Ash species native to North America provide important habit and food for various other creatures that are native to North America; the emerald ash borer commonly known by the acronym EAB, is a green beetle native to Asia. In North America the emerald ash borer is an invasive species destructive to ash trees in its introduced range; the damage of this insect rivals that of Dutch elm disease. To put its damage in perspective, the number of chestnuts killed by the chestnut blight was around 3.5 billion chestnut trees while there are 3.5 billion ash trees in Ohio alone.
Dutch elm disease killed only 200 million elm trees while EAB threatens 7.5 billion ash trees in the United States. The insect threatens the entire North American genus Fraxinus. Since its accidental introduction into the United States and Canada in the 1990s, its subsequent detection in 2002, it has spread to eleven states and adjacent parts of Canada, it has killed at least 50 million ash trees so far and threatens to kill most of the ash trees throughout North America. The green ash and the black ash trees are affected. White ash is killed but only after green and black ash trees are eliminated. Blue ash displays some resistance to the emerald ash borer by forming callus tissue around EAB galleries. Statistically, White ash has been less affected by emerald ash borer. Due to its smaller population within wild forests, where long term field studies in Michigan and Ohio have been underway. Simil